JoVE Bioengineering merges both physical and life sciences to understand and predict biological processes. Applying physical science tools to life science questions allow for the discovery of better technologies to measure, diagnose, and clinically treat disease.
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 4Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Washington University in St. Louis, 5Cardiovascular Biophysics Lab, Washington University in St. Louis
Accurate, causality-based quantification of global diastolic function has been achieved by kinematic modeling-based analysis of transmitral flow via the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism. PDF generates unique stiffness, relaxation, and load parameters and elucidates 'new' physiology while providing sensitive and specific indexes of dysfunction.
Published September 1, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, cardiovascular physiology, ventricular mechanics, diastolic function, mathematical modeling, Doppler echocardiography, hemodynamics, biomechanics
1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Institute for Signal Processing, University of Lübeck, 3Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zürich, 4FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
Vascularization is key to approaches in successful tissue engineering. Therefore, reliable technologies are required to evaluate the development of vascular networks in tissue-constructs. Here we present a simple and cost-effective method to visualize and quantify vascularization in vivo.
Published August 28, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomaterials, vascularization, tissue engineering, transillumination, digital segmentation, skin defect, scaffold, matrix, in vivo model
1Laboratoire Interfaces et Fluides Complexes, Université de Mons
We present a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, called hydroxy-PAAm, that allows a direct binding of ECM proteins with minimal cost or expertise. The combination of hydroxy-PAAm hydrogels with microcontact printing facilitates independent control of many cues of the natural cell microenvironment for studying cellular mechanostransduction.
Published August 28, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, hydrogels, mechanotransduction, polyacrylamide, microcontact printing, cell shape, stiffness, durotaxis, cell-ligand density
1Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Blood exposure to polymeric blood conduits initiates the foreign body reaction that has been implicated in clinical complications. Here, the Chandler Loop Apparatus, an experimental tool mimicking blood perfusion through these conduits, is described. Appendage of recombinant CD47 results in decreased evidence of the foreign body reaction on these conduits.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chandler loop apparatus, blood perfusion, biocompatibility, CD47, foreign body reaction, polymeric blood conduits
1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta
Protocols for the study of biofilm formation in a microfluidic device that mimics porous media are discussed. The microfluidic device consists of an array of micro-pillars and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens in this device is investigated.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biofilm, streamers, microfluidics, bio-microfluidics, porous media, bacteria, micro-pillars
1Nanoscale Engineering Graduate Program, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 2Nanoscale Science Undergraduate Program, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 3Nanobioscience Constellation, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 4The RNA Institute, University at Albany, State University of New York, 5Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York
Optical tweezers have been used to study RNA folding by stretching individual molecules from their 5’ and 3’ ends. Here common procedures are described to synthesize RNA molecules for tweezing, calibration of the instrument, and methods to manipulate single molecules.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, RNA folding, single-molecule, optical tweezers, nanomanipulation, RNA secondary structure, RNA tertiary structure
1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University
This protocol combines electrospinning and microspheres to develop tissue engineered scaffolds to direct neurons. Nerve growth factor was encapsulated within PLGA microspheres and electrospun into Hyaluronic Acid (HA) fibrous scaffolds. The protein bioactivity was tested by seeding the scaffolds with primary chick Dorsal Root Ganglia and culturing for 4-6 days.
Published August 16, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Bioenergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The bottleneck for cellular 3D electron microscopy is feature extraction (segmentation) in highly complex 3D density maps. We have developed a set of criteria, which provides guidance regarding which segmentation approach (manual, semi-automated, or automated) is best suited for different data types, thus providing a starting point for effective segmentation.
Published August 13, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, 3D electron microscopy, feature extraction, segmentation, image analysis, reconstruction, manual tracing, thresholding
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, 2Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rowan University
Blending is an efficient approach to generate biomaterials with a broad range of properties and combined features. By predicting the molecular interactions between different natural silk proteins, new silk-silk protein alloy platforms with tunable mechanical resiliency, electrical response, optical transparency, chemical processability, biodegradability, or thermal stability can be designed.
Published August 13, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, protein alloys, biomaterials, biomedical, silk blends, computational simulation, implantable electronic devices
1Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, 2Ceres Nanosciences
Several pathological biomarkers cannot be easily detected by current techniques because of their low concentration in biological fluids, the presence of degrading enzymes, and large amounts of high molecular weight proteins. Chemically functionalized hydrogel nanoparticles can harvest, preserve and concentrate low abundance proteins enabling the detection of previously undetectable biomarkers.
Published August 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine