JoVE Bioengineering merges both physical and life sciences to understand and predict biological processes. Applying physical science tools to life science questions allow for the discovery of better technologies to measure, diagnose, and clinically treat disease.
1Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Blood exposure to polymeric blood conduits initiates the foreign body reaction that has been implicated in clinical complications. Here, the Chandler Loop Apparatus, an experimental tool mimicking blood perfusion through these conduits, is described. Appendage of recombinant CD47 results in decreased evidence of the foreign body reaction on these conduits.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chandler loop apparatus, blood perfusion, biocompatibility, CD47, foreign body reaction, polymeric blood conduits
1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta
Protocols for the study of biofilm formation in a microfluidic device that mimics porous media are discussed. The microfluidic device consists of an array of micro-pillars and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens in this device is investigated.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biofilm, streamers, microfluidics, bio-microfluidics, porous media, bacteria, micro-pillars
1Nanoscale Engineering Graduate Program, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 2Nanoscale Science Undergraduate Program, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 3Nanobioscience Constellation, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 4The RNA Institute, University at Albany, State University of New York, 5Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York
Optical tweezers have been used to study RNA folding by stretching individual molecules from their 5’ and 3’ ends. Here common procedures are described to synthesize RNA molecules for tweezing, calibration of the instrument, and methods to manipulate single molecules.
Published August 20, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, RNA folding, single-molecule, optical tweezers, nanomanipulation, RNA secondary structure, RNA tertiary structure
1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University
This protocol combines electrospinning and microspheres to develop tissue engineered scaffolds to direct neurons. Nerve growth factor was encapsulated within PLGA microspheres and electrospun into Hyaluronic Acid (HA) fibrous scaffolds. The protein bioactivity was tested by seeding the scaffolds with primary chick Dorsal Root Ganglia and culturing for 4-6 days.
Published August 16, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Bioenergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The bottleneck for cellular 3D electron microscopy is feature extraction (segmentation) in highly complex 3D density maps. We have developed a set of criteria, which provides guidance regarding which segmentation approach (manual, semi-automated, or automated) is best suited for different data types, thus providing a starting point for effective segmentation.
Published August 13, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, 3D electron microscopy, feature extraction, segmentation, image analysis, reconstruction, manual tracing, thresholding
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, 2Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rowan University
Blending is an efficient approach to generate biomaterials with a broad range of properties and combined features. By predicting the molecular interactions between different natural silk proteins, new silk-silk protein alloy platforms with tunable mechanical resiliency, electrical response, optical transparency, chemical processability, biodegradability, or thermal stability can be designed.
Published August 13, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, protein alloys, biomaterials, biomedical, silk blends, computational simulation, implantable electronic devices
1Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, 2Ceres Nanosciences
Several pathological biomarkers cannot be easily detected by current techniques because of their low concentration in biological fluids, the presence of degrading enzymes, and large amounts of high molecular weight proteins. Chemically functionalized hydrogel nanoparticles can harvest, preserve and concentrate low abundance proteins enabling the detection of previously undetectable biomarkers.
Published August 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine
1The Rowland Institute, Harvard University
A microfluidic vortex assisted electroporation platform was developed for sequential delivery of multiple molecules into identical cell populations with precise and independent dosage control. The system’s size based target cell purification step preceding electroporation aided to enhance molecular delivery efficiency and processed cell viability.
Published August 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, electroporation, microfluidics, cell isolation, inertial focusing, macromolecule delivery, molecular delivery mechanism
1Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Delaware, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware
A novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of delivering physiologically relevant, vibratory stimulation to cultured cells is constructed and characterized. This dynamic culture device, when combined with a fibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, creates a vocal fold-mimetic environment that modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells.
Published August 1, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, vocal fold; bioreactor; speaker; silicone membrane; fibrous scaffold; mesenchymal stem cells; vibration; extracellular matrix
This article will demonstrate how to monitor glutamine dynamics in live cells using FRET. Genetically encoded sensors allow real-time monitoring of biological molecules at a subcellular resolution. Experimental design, technical details of the experimental settings, and considerations for post-experimental analyses will be discussed for genetically encoded glutamine sensors.
Published July 31, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, glutamine sensors, FRET, metabolites, in vivo imaging, cellular transport, genetically encoded sensors