JoVE Bioengineering merges both physical and life sciences to understand and predict biological processes. Applying physical science tools to life science questions allow for the discovery of better technologies to measure, diagnose, and clinically treat disease.
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Oncology and Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, 3Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
This manuscript describes the production, characterization and potential uses of a tissue engineered 3D esophageal construct prepared from normal primary human esophageal fibroblast and squamous epithelial cells seeded within a de-cellularized porcine scaffold. The results demonstrate the formation of a mature stratified epithelium similar to the normal human esophagus.
Published May 18, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, esophagus, epithelium, tissue engineering, 3D construct, esophageal cancer, Barrett’s Metaplasia
1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, 2Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University
The current study prescribes a coupled experiment-finite element simulation methodology to obtain the uniaxial dynamic mechanical response of soft biomaterials (brain, liver, tendon, fat, etc.). The multiaxial experimental results that arose because of specimen bulging obtained from Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar testing were rendered to a uniaxial true stress-strain behavior when simulated through iterative optimization of the finite element analysis of the biomaterial.
Published May 18, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar, High Strain Rate, Finite Element Modeling, Soft Biomaterials, Dynamic Experiments, Internal State Variable Modeling, Brain, Liver, Tendon, Fat
1The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 3Department of Radiology, George Washington University, 4Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University
This protocol describes the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles and their use as multimodal, molecular imaging agents. The nanoparticles have a core-shell design where gadolinium or manganese ions within the nanoparticle core generate MRI contrast. The biofunctional shell contains fluorophores for fluorescence imaging and targeting ligands for molecular targeting.
Published April 28, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Prussian blue, nanoparticles, multimodal imaging, molecular imaging, fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, manganese
1Medical Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, 2TissUse GmbH, 3Fraunhofer IWS
Here, we present a protocol to coculture primary cells, tissue models and punch biopsies in a microfluidic multi-organ chip for up to 28 days. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, liver aggregates and skin biopsies were successfully combined in a common media circulation.
Published April 28, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Multi-organ chip, human-on-a-chip, body-on-a-chip, organs-on-a-chip, microphysiological systems, organoids, tissue engineering, in vitro substance testing, toxicity test, liver, skin, vasculature
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron
A protocol for robotic printing of cancer cell spheroids in a high throughput 96-well plate format using an aqueous two-phase system is presented.
Published April 23, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Cancer Cell Spheroid, 3D Culture, Robotic, High Throughput, Co-Culture, Drug Screening
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mary & Dick Holland Regenerative Medicine Program, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University
Here, we present a protocol to fabricate electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with gradated organization of fibers and explore their applications in regulating cell morphology/orientation. Gradients with regard to physical and chemical properties of the nanofiber scaffolds offer a wide variety of applications in the biomedical field.
Published April 19, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrospinning, Nanofiber scaffolds, Gradations, Stem cells, Tissue engineering, Nanoencapsulation
1School of Materials, The University of Manchester
This article describes a range of set-ups for seeding human mesenchymal stem cells onto materials, in this case electrospun yarns, that do not cover the base of standard culture well plates in order to maximize and quantify the number of cells that initially attach compared to the known seeding density.
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Human mesenchymal stem cells, Electrospinning, Cell seeding, Cell attachment, Scaffold, Rotary vessel bioreactor, Cell number, Cell DNA assay, SEM, Low binding well plate, Poly(ε-caprolactone), Electrospun yarn
1Systems Biophysics Department, FOM Institute AMOLF, 2Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore
The mechanical properties and microstructure of the extracellular matrix strongly affect 3D migration of cells. An in vitro method to study the spatiotemporal cell migration behavior in biophysically variable environments, at both population and individual cell levels, is described.
Published April 3, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, cell migration, collagen, biomechanics, 3D cell culture, live-cell imaging, cancer invasion, metastasis, extracellular matrix, pore size, biopolymer, cytoskeleton, confocal microscopy
1Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 2Taichung Veterans General Hospital
This protocol details a method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs), small membranous particles released from cells, from as little as 10 μl serum samples. This approach circumvents the need for ultracentrifugation, requires only a few minutes of assay time, and enables the isolation of EVs from samples of limited volumes.
Published April 3, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, cellulose paper, microfluidics, paper ELISA, aqueous humor, chemical conjugation
1Department of Physiology & Bio-Physics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, State University of New York Buffalo School of Engineering
A step-by-step protocol for the inter-positional placement of Tissue Engineered Vessels (TEVs) into the carotid artery of a sheep using end-to-end anastomosis and real-time digital assessment in vivo until animal sacrifice.
Published April 3, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Vascular surgery, Tissue Engineered Vessel, Surgical Technique, Bio-Engineering, Vascular Grafts, Implantation, Sheep, Large animal model, Carotid Artery, Anastomosis