JoVE Bioengineering merges both physical and life sciences to understand and predict biological processes. Applying physical science tools to life science questions allow for the discovery of better technologies to measure, diagnose, and clinically treat disease.
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Medical Center
We describe a protocol for the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model in mice, an effective tool for osteoarthritis (OA) research. In addition, we have demonstrated that deficiency of progranulincan exaggerate OA development and progression by using this model, indicating that progranulin plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of OA.
Published February 25, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Mouse, Cartilage, Surgery, Osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis, progranulin, destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM)
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Microfluidic jetting against a droplet interface lipid bilayer provides a reliable way to generate vesicles with control over membrane asymmetry, incorporation of transmembrane proteins, and encapsulation of material. This technique can be applied to study a variety of biological systems where compartmentalized biomolecules are desired.
Published February 21, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microfluidic jetting, synthetic biology, vesicle encapsulation, lipid bilayer, biochemical reconstitution, giant unilamellar vesicles
1Immunité et Cancer, Institut Curie, 2Compartimentation et Dynamique Cellulaires, Institut Curie
A quantitative method to study spontaneous migration of cells in a one-dimensional confined microenvironment is described. This method takes advantage of microfabricated channels and can be used to study migration of large number of cells under different conditions in single experiments.
Published February 21, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microchannels, Cell migration, Motility, velocity, confinement, Dendritic cells
1Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3X-BODY Biosciences
Optical biosensor techniques can detect changes in mass near the plasma membrane in living cells and allow one to follow cellular responses in both individual cells and populations of cells. This protocol will describe detection of the modulation of potassium channels by G-protein coupled receptors in intact cells using this approach.
Published February 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Ion channels, potassium channel, Slack, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), label-free screening, high-throughput screening (HTS), channel-protein interactions, optical biosensors
1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto
An improved method to mechanically test bone anchorage to candidate implant surfaces is presented. This method allows for alignment of the disruption force exactly perpendicular, or parallel, to the plane of the implant surface, and provides an accurate means to direct the disruption forces to an exact peri-implant region.
Published February 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Mechanical test, bone anchorage, disruption test, surface topography, peri-implant bone, bone-implant interface, bone-bonding, microtopography, nanotopography
1Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 2Research and Exploratory Development Division, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
The Organic Electrochemical Transistor is integrated with live cells and used to monitor ion flux across the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. In this study, an increase in ion flux, related to disruption of tight junctions, induced by the presence of the calcium chelator EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid), is measured.
Published February 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Organic bioelectronics, tight junctions, paracellular transport, EGTA, barrier tissue, toxicology, biosensing, organic electrochemical transistor
1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan
Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.
Published February 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Drosophila melanogaster, Live Imaging, Microfluidics, axonal injury, axonal degeneration, calcium imaging, photoconversion, laser microsurgery
1Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, 2Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London
A description of how to calibrate Förster Resonance Energy Transfer integrated biological sensors (FIBS) for in situ metabolic profiling is presented. The FIBS can be used to measure intracellular levels of metabolites noninvasively aiding in the development of metabolic models and high throughput screening of bioprocess conditions.
Published February 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, metabolite monitoring, in vivo biosensors, in situ monitoring, mammalian cell culture, bioprocess engineering, medium formulation
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University
Vocal fold polyps can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. Three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted model polyp and its impact on the wall pressure loading are examined using particle image velocimetry, skin friction line visualization, and wall pressure measurements.
Published February 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, oil-flow visualization, vocal fold polyp, three-dimensional flow separation, aerodynamic pressure loadings
1Institute for Molecular Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft
We describe a design of experiments approach that can be used to determine and model the influence of transgene regulatory elements, plant growth and development parameters, and incubation conditions on the transient expression of monoclonal antibodies and reporter proteins in plants.
Published January 31, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody