JoVE Engineering encompasses a broad range of experimental and instrumental techniques utilized in physics research. Investigations in this area strive to address and answer a broad range of scientific questions, such as device mechanisms and efficiencies, using physical tools. This approach often requires a combination of specialties, and research in this area tends to be interdisciplinary with contributions from mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineers.
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University
Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication procedure of the SnS solar cells employing atomic layer deposition, which yields 4.36% certified power conversion efficiency, and thermal evaporation which yields 3.88%.
Published May 22, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Solar cells, thin films, thermal evaporation, atomic layer deposition, annealing, tin sulfide
1Power Electronics Branch, Naval Research Laboratory, 2Physics of Electronic Materials Branch, Naval Research Laboratory
This report describes the use of a custom-built system to perform aerosol deposition of thick films of yttrium iron garnet onto sapphire substrates at RT. The deposited films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, and ferromagnetic resonance to give a representative overview of the capabilities of the technique.
Published May 15, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, aerosol deposition, yttrium iron garnet, microwave materials, radio frequency materials, thick film, ferromagnetic resonance, cold spray coating, room temperature, ceramics, multifunctional materials, ferrites, oxides
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia
Two experimental devices for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device and a spinning disk device. The apparatuses are used to determine optimal approaches to the application of liquid friction modifier (LFM) onto rail tracks for top-of-rail friction control.
Published April 17, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Liquid jet impingement, high-speed moving surface, spray nozzle, liquid friction modifier (LFM), air cannon, spinning disk, rail track lubrication, fluid mechanics
1Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart
This movie shows how an atmospheric plasma torch can be ignited by microwaves with no additional igniters and provides a stable and continuous plasma operation suitable for plenty of applications.
Published April 16, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, atmospheric pressure plasma, microwave plasma, plasma ignition, resonator structure, coaxial resonator, cylindrical resonator, plasma torch, stable plasma operation, continuous plasma operation, high speed camera
1School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University
A protocol for conducting thermopower wave experiments is presented. The synthesis of hybrid composites of a chemical fuel and micro/nanostructured material, manufacturing of a thermopower wave generator, and methods for measuring the corresponding physical phenomena are described.
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, thermopower wave, combustion, carbon nanotube, chemical fuel, thermal transport, energy conversion, picric acid
1Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Center of Functional Nano-Ceramics, National University of Science and Technology, "MISIS"
This protocol describes the preparation of gasless nanostructured energetic materials (Ni+Al, Ta+C, Ti+C) using the short-term high-energy ball milling (HEBM) technique. It also describes a high-speed thermal imaging method to study the reactivity of mechanically fabricated nanocomposites. These protocols can be extended to other reactive nanostructured energetic materials.
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Reactive composites, Energetic materials, High-Energy Ball Milling, Gasless Combustion, Ignition, Reactivity Enhancement
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada
We describe the fabrication and characterization of nano-biological systems interfacing nanostructured substrates with immobilized proteins and aptamers. The relevant experimental steps involving lithographic fabrication of nanostructured substrates, bio-functionalization, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization, are reported. SERS detection of surface-immobilized proteins, and probing of protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding is demonstrated.
Published March 20, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Bio-functionalized surfaces, proteins, aptamers, molecular recognition, nanostructures, electron beam lithography, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
1Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), Ghent University-imec
We demonstrate the use of the Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique for flip-chip assembly of optoelectronic components. This approach provides a simple, cost-effective, low-temperature, fast and flexible solution for fine-pitch bumping and bonding on chip-scale for achieving high-density circuits for optoelectronic applications.
Published March 20, 2015. Keywords: Physics, LIFT, direct-write, flip-chip, interconnects, indium, micro-bumps, thermo-compression, VCSEL
1Physik-Department E22a, Technische Universität München, 2IMETUM, Technische Universität München
A protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. Procedures and examples to determine the adhesion force and free energy of these molecules on solid supports and bio-interfaces are provided.
Published February 27, 2015. Keywords: Physics, AFM, functionalization, single molecule, polymer, lipid, adhesion, atomic force microscopy, force spectroscopy
1Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London
We present a methodology for the imaging of multiple fluid phases at reservoir conditions by the use of x-ray microtomography. We show some representative results of capillary trapping in a carbonate rock sample.
Published February 25, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Reservoir condition, micro-CT, Multi-phase, Carbon Storage, Capillary Trapping, Pore-scale