JoVE Engineering encompasses a broad range of experimental and instrumental techniques utilized in physics research. Investigations in this area strive to address and answer a broad range of scientific questions, such as device mechanisms and efficiencies, using physical tools. This approach often requires a combination of specialties, and research in this area tends to be interdisciplinary with contributions from mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineers.
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada
We describe the fabrication and characterization of nano-biological systems interfacing nanostructured substrates with immobilized proteins and aptamers. The relevant experimental steps involving lithographic fabrication of nanostructured substrates, bio-functionalization, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization, are reported. SERS detection of surface-immobilized proteins, and probing of protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding is demonstrated.
Published March 20, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Bio-functionalized surfaces, proteins, aptamers, molecular recognition, nanostructures, electron beam lithography, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
1Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), Ghent University-imec
We demonstrate the use of the Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique for flip-chip assembly of optoelectronic components. This approach provides a simple, cost-effective, low-temperature, fast and flexible solution for fine-pitch bumping and bonding on chip-scale for achieving high-density circuits for optoelectronic applications.
Published March 20, 2015. Keywords: Physics, LIFT, direct-write, flip-chip, interconnects, indium, micro-bumps, thermo-compression, VCSEL
1Physik-Department E22a, Technische Universität München, 2IMETUM, Technische Universität München
A protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. Procedures and examples to determine the adhesion force and free energy of these molecules on solid supports and bio-interfaces are provided.
Published February 27, 2015. Keywords: Physics, AFM, functionalization, single molecule, polymer, lipid, adhesion, atomic force microscopy, force spectroscopy
1Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London
We present a methodology for the imaging of multiple fluid phases at reservoir conditions by the use of x-ray microtomography. We show some representative results of capillary trapping in a carbonate rock sample.
Published February 25, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Reservoir condition, micro-CT, Multi-phase, Carbon Storage, Capillary Trapping, Pore-scale
1Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2Materials Science and Technology of Polymer, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universität des Saarlandes
The methodology to perform friction force microscopy experiments for contacting brushes is presented: Two polymer brushes that are grafted from (a) substrates and (b) colloidal probes are slid to show that, by using two contacting immiscible brush systems, friction in sliding contacts is reduced compared to miscible brush systems.
Published December 24, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Atomic force microscopy, polymers, polymer brush, colloid probe, colloid probe chemical modification, surface initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization, friction, molecular dynamics
1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced
A new computational system featuring GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulation and 3D/VR visualization, analysis and manipulation of nanostructures has been implemented, representing a novel approach to advance materials research and promote innovative investigation and alternative methods to learn about material structures with dimensions invisible to the human eye.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Computational systems, visualization and immersive environments, interactive learning, graphical processing unit accelerated simulations, molecular dynamics simulations, nanostructures.
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis
The durability of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites in service is a critical aspect for their designs and condition-based maintenance. We present a novel low-cost laboratory testing platform for the investigation of the influence of concurrent mechanical and environmental loadings, and may help design more efficient yet safer composite structures.
Published December 11, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Fiber-reinforced polymer composites, polymers, hygrothermal, durability, bending, creep
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Utah, 2Department of Chemistry, The University of Wisconsin-Madison
We report that the diffraction limit of conventional optical lithography can be overcome by exploiting the transitions of organic photochromic derivatives induced by their photoisomerization at low light intensities.1-3 This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two locking mechanisms, namely: dissolution of one photoisomer and electrochemical oxidation.
Published December 11, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Optics, nanomaterials, fabrication, nanolithography, optical nanolithography, sub-wavelength diffraction
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield
Replication is one of the processing techniques used for the production of porous metal sponges. In this paper one implementation of the method for the production of open celled porous aluminum is shown in detail.
Published December 11, 2014. Keywords: Physics, Metal foam, NaCl, porosity, aluminum, infiltration, leaching
1Lasers, Optics, & Targets for the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
A novel optical polishing process, called “Convergent Polishing”, which enables faster, lower cost polishing, is described. Unlike conventional polishing processes, Convergent Polishing allows a glass workpiece to be polished in a single iteration and with high surface quality to its final surface figure without requiring changes to polishing parameters.
Published December 1, 2014. Keywords: Physics, optical fabrication, pad polishing, fused silica glass, optical flats, optical spheres, ceria slurry, pitch button blocking, HF etching, scratches