JoVE Engineering encompasses a broad range of experimental and instrumental techniques utilized in physics research. Investigations in this area strive to address and answer a broad range of scientific questions, such as device mechanisms and efficiencies, using physical tools. This approach often requires a combination of specialties, and research in this area tends to be interdisciplinary with contributions from mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineers.
1Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, 3Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 4National Institute for Materials Science (Japan), 5Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 6Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
This paper details the fabrication process of a gate-tunable graphene device, decorated with Coulomb impurities for scanning tunneling microscopy studies. Mapping the spatially dependent electronic structure of graphene in the presence of charged impurities unveils the unique behavior of its relativistic charge carriers in response to a local Coulomb potential.
Published July 24, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Physics, graphene, electrostatic gating, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Coulomb impurity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transfer, wire bonding
1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sothern California
The fabrication of high contrast gratings as the parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element in a concentrated photovoltaic system is demonstrated. Fabrication processes including nanoimprint lithography, TiO2 sputtering and reactive ion etching are described. Reflectance measurement results are used to characterize the optical performance.
Published July 18, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Parallel spectrum splitting, dispersive element, high contrast grating, concentrated photovoltaic system, nanoimprint lithography, reactive ion etching
1Zyvex Labs, 2Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology
We report a protocol for combining the atomic metrology of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope for surface patterning with selective Atomic Layer Deposition and Reactive Ion Etching. Using a robust process involving numerous atmospheric exposures and transport, 3D nanostructures with atomic metrology are fabricated.
Published July 17, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Nanolithography, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Layer Deposition, Reactive Ion Etching
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 3Institute of Materials Research, The Ohio State University
The use of electron channeling contrast imaging in a scanning electron microscope to characterize defects in III-V/Si heteroexpitaxial thin films is described. This method yields similar results to plan-view transmission electron microscopy, but in significantly less time due to lack of required sample preparation.
Published July 17, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Electron channeling contrast imaging, ECCI, electron microscopy, lattice-mismatch, misfit dislocations, semiconductors, heterostructures, rapid characterization
1Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London
Fracture and fragmentation are late stage phenomena in dynamic loading scenarios and are typically studied using explosives. We present a technique for driving expansion using a gas gun which uniquely enables control of both loading rate and sample temperature.
Published June 28, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Shock Physics, Fracture, Fragmentation, High Strain Rate, Expanding Cylinder, Ti-6Al-4V
1Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, 2Dresden Center for Nanoanalysis, Technische Universität Dresden, 3Globalfoundries Fab 8, 4Globalfoundries Fab 1
The time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in on-chip interconnect stacks is one of the most critical failure mechanisms for microelectronic devices. This paper demonstrates the procedure of an in situ TDDB experiment in the transmission electron microscope, which opens a possibility to study the failure mechanism in microelectronic products.
Published June 26, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Time-dependent dielectric breakdown, reliability, copper interconnect, degradation kinetics, in situ TEM, ultra-low-k (ULK) material
1Bioengineering Department, University of Louisville
Here, we present a protocol to fabricate freely-suspended, micron/sub-micron scale polymer fibers and “web-like” structures generated via automated direct writing procedure by means of a 3-axis dispensing system.
Published June 12, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Direct write, precise control, micro/sub-micron scale fibers, 3-axis robot, dispensing system
1School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, 2QCD Labs, COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University
The fabrication process and experimental characterization techniques relevant to single-electron pumps based on silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots are discussed.
Published June 3, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Physics, Silicon, Quantum Dots, Quantum Metrology, Nanoelectronics, Charge Pumping
1Nanoscale Devices Laboratory, Marquette University
Here, we present three protocols for thermal measurements in microfluidic devices.
Published June 3, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Thermal Particle Detection, Thermal Wave Analysis, Heat Penetration Time, Thermal Time Constant, Enthalpy Assay, Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University
Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication procedure of the SnS solar cells employing atomic layer deposition, which yields 4.36% certified power conversion efficiency, and thermal evaporation which yields 3.88%.
Published May 22, 2015. Keywords: Engineering, Solar cells, thin films, thermal evaporation, atomic layer deposition, annealing, tin sulfide