1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston
Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.
Published May 20, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, confocal microscopy, particle tracking, colloids, suspensions, confinement, gelation, microfluidics, image correlation, dynamics, suspension flow
1Program in Biophysics, Harvard University, 2Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard-MIT, 3Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
The complete construction of a custom, real-time confocal scanning imaging system is described. This system, which can be readily used for video-rate microscopy and microendoscopy, allows for an array of imaging geometries and applications not accessible using standard commercial confocal systems, at a fraction of the cost.
Published October 20, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microscopy, confocal microscopy, microendoscopy, video-rate, fluorescence, scanning, in vivo imaging
1Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Biomedicine and Institute of Cell Biology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine
This protocol describes a method of live cell imaging using primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes following lentiviral and adenoviral transduction using confocal spinning disk microscopy. This enables detailed observations of cellular processes in living cardiomyocytes.
Published June 24, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, live cell imaging, cardiomyocyte, primary cell culture, adenovirus, lentivirus, confocal spinning disk microscopy
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, 2The Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Tel-Aviv University, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Tel-Aviv University, 4Imaging Unit, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 5Biotechnology and Cell Signaling, Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie Strasbourg, 6Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Tel-Aviv University
The cytotoxic activity of the phenanthridine PJ-34 in cancer cells undergoing mitosis was documented in real time by live confocal imaging. PJ-34 eradicated human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells harboring extra-centrosomes in mitosis. Unlike normal bi-focal mitosis, the extra-centrosomes were not clustered in the two spindle poles in the presence of PJ-34.
Published August 21, 2013. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Genetics, Neoplastic Processes, Pharmacologic Actions, Live confocal imaging, Extra-centrosomes clustering/de-clustering, Mitotic Catastrophe cell death, PJ-34, myocardial infarction, microscopy, imaging
1Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington
Confocal scanning microscopy is applied for imaging single mitochondrial events in perfused heart or skeletal muscles in live animal. Real-time monitoring of single mitochondrial processes such as superoxide flashes and membrane potential fluctuations enables the evaluation of mitochondrial function in a physiologically relevant context and during pathological perturbations.
Published November 5, 2013. Keywords: Physiology, Heart Diseases, Metabolic Diseases, Microscopy, Confocal, Time-Lapse Imaging, Physiological Processes, Confocal imaging, mt-cpYFP transgenic mice, Superoxide flashes, Single mitochondrial measurement, Langendorff perfused heart, Skeletal muscles, in vivo
1Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri
A way to gain new insights into the complexity of the brain inflammatory response is presented. We describe immunofluorescence-based protocols followed by three-dimensional confocal analysis to investigate the pattern of co-expression of microglia/macrophage phenotype markers in a mouse model of focal ischemia.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Central Nervous System Diseases, Neurodegenerative Diseases, biology (general), immunology, life sciences, animal models, Inflammation, stroke, alternative activation, brain injury, brain, imaging, confocal microscopy, three-dimensional imaging, clinical techniques, mouse, animal model
1Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin
Time-lapse confocal imaging is a powerful technique useful for characterizing embryonic development. Here, we describe the methodology and characterize craniofacial morphogenesis in wild-type, as well as pdgfra, smad5, and smo mutant embryos.
Published January 30, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, neural crest, time-lapse, transgenic, morphogenesis, craniofacial, head, development, confocal, Microscopy, In vivo, movie
1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, 2Biophotonics Core Facility, Centre de Recherche Clinique Etienne-Le Bel
Several methods are available for measuring intracellular pH but very few of these allow simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic and organellar pH. Here, we describe in detail a rapid and accurate methodology to simultaneously measure cytoplasmic and vesicular pH by ratiometric imaging of living cells.
Published April 28, 2014. Keywords: Biochemistry, Confocal microscopy, pH measurement, live cell imaging, ratiometric pH probes, fluorescence, intravesicular pH, cytosolic pH, endosomes, lysosomes
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Buffalo
A method to evaluate the ability of isolated mouse alveolar macrophages to control the growth of phagocytosed Aspergillus spores by confocal microscopy.
Published July 9, 2014. Keywords: Immunology, macrophage, bronchoalveolar lavage, Aspergillus, confocal microscopy, phagocytosis, anti-fungal activity, NADPH oxidase
1Department of Biology, University of Victoria
We have developed a novel technique of quantifying nicotinic acetylcholine receptor changes within subcellular regions of specific subtypes of CNS neurons to better understand the mechanisms of nicotine addiction by using a combination of approaches including fluorescent protein tagging of the receptor using the knock-in approach and spectral confocal imaging.
Published February 10, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, nicotine addiction, knock-in mice, spectral confocal imaging, yellow fluorescent protein, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors