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Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
 JoVE Medicine

The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation


JoVE 51318

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

The Simple Experiment: Two-group Design

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A two-group design is the simplest way to establish a cause-effect relationship between two variables. This video demonstrates a simple experiment (two-group design).  In providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a simple experiment (two-group design), this video shows viewers the process of turning ideas into testable ideas and forming hypothesis, the identification and effect of experiment variables, the formation of experimental conditions and controls, the process of conducting the study, the collection of results, and the consideration their implications. This research technique is demonstration in the context of answering the research question: “How does physiological arousal/excitement influence perceived attraction?”

 JoVE Medicine

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52415

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Ethics in Psychology Research

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

When a researcher finds an interesting topic to study such as aggression, the goal is often to study it in a way that is as true to life as possible. However, researchers must act in an ethical manner.  To do this, they must balance their research goals with the best interests of the participants. Ethics often enter into the planning process when researchers identify all of the ways they can manipulate or measure a variable, but then make their final decision based on how they should manipulate or measure a variable. After receiving a poor grade on a test or paper, a college student may appear to take it out on (i.e., act in an aggressive manner toward) their roommates by being mean or nasty, screaming, throwing things, or even becoming physically violent. Aggression is an important human behavior to study and understand due to the implications it has for interpersonal violence. However, for safety reasons, a study cannot expose participants to the risk that serious types of violence presents. As a result, researchers must identify similar but benign behaviors that can help us understand more aggressive behaviors without harming participants.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

The Multi-group Experiment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A multi-group design is an experimental design that has 3 or more conditions/groups of the same independent variable. This video demonstrates a multi-group experiment that examines how different interethnic ideologies (multiculturalism and color-blind) influence feelings about diversity and actions toward and out-group member. In providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a multi-group experiment, this video shows viewers how to distinguish levels in variables, common types of conditions/groups to use (including placebo and empty-control conditions/groups), the process of conducting the study, the collection of results, and the consideration of their implications.   

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Self-report vs. Behavioral Measures of Recycling

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

One of the challenges in measuring an experimental variable is identifying the technique that will produce the more accurate measurement. The most common way to measure a dependent variable is self-report—asking the participant to describe his/her feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Yet, people may not be honest. To truly know something about a participant, it may be necessary to see what they actually do in a situation. This video uses a multi-group experiment to see if feeling close to others results in more favorable attitudes toward environmental consciousness measured both by self-report and behavioral observation. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants helps to better ensure that the population under study is better represented, i.e., the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accounted for. In this video, we demonstrate this experiment using just one participant. However, as represented in the results, we used a total of 186 participants to reach the experiment’s conclusions.

 JoVE Medicine

Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

1iC42 Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Drug Evaluation Research - Office of Generic Drugs, 4Transplant Clinical Research, University of Cincinnati


JoVE 52424

 JoVE Medicine

A Brain Tumor/Organotypic Slice Co-culture System for Studying Tumor Microenvironment and Targeted Drug Therapies

1Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics & Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 4Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, 6Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute


JoVE 53304

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Manipulating an Independent Variable through Embodiment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

In any experiment, the researcher attempts to manipulate participants in one group to have different thoughts, experiences, or feelings than the other groups in the study.  Some manipulations are overt, while others can be quite subtle. Embodiment is a growing research area focused on the theory that subtle physical experiences can unconsciously influence a person’s thoughts. For example if a person physically smiles, it often leads to elevated mood. That is, the physical experience of smiling changes the way a person feels. This video uses a two-group experiment to see if the physical sensation of weight will lead people to be stricter by giving harsher forms of discipline to fellow students who violated campus policies. 

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London


JoVE 52773

 JoVE Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London


JoVE 53336

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood

1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Martin-Luther Hospital, Academic Teaching Institution of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ), Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin


JoVE 53959

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Realism in Experimentation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

In an ideal world researchers would conduct their studies in real world settings where behaviors naturally happen. For example, if you want to see what influences individuals’ voting behavior, it would be best to watch them vote. However, research in these settings is not always ethical or even practical. Further, a researcher may want more control over the setting to better pinpoint the exact variables that are influencing an outcome.  When researchers need to conduct studies in a lab, they try to optimize mundane realism, which means that they do everything they can to make the lab feel like a real-life experience. This video demonstrates a two-group design that examines how researchers use mundane realism in a lab to determine whether positive restaurant reviews are connected to diners’ level of tipping. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants helps to ensure that the population under study is better represented and the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accounted for. In this vid

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Observational Research

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

If you want to know how someone thinks or feels, you can ask that person questions.  Another approach is to observe how the person is acting or look for indicators of how they acted in the past. While observations may seem revealing, it isn’t always easy to know if they are truly accurate. For instance, you may see a person smiling and assume they are happy, when in reality they are annoyed and merely being polite. The purpose of science is to move beyond an individual’s own views of the self because they are inherently skewed by that individual’s expectations, previous experience, personal biases, motivations, emotions, etc. While a person may have unique insight into one’s self, these insight may not accurately represent reality. Put more simply, what a person says, does not always match up well with what they actually do. For this reason, researchers should incorporate a variety of measures (e.g., asking participants to report how they feel, but also observing actual behavior) in order to more accurately capture how the person truly feels. This video demonstrates a correlational des

 JoVE Behavior

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University


JoVE 53962

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Age-related Changes in Cognitive Functions Using EmoCogMeter, a Novel Tablet-computer Based Approach

1Cluster of Excellence "Languages of Emotion", Freie Universität Berlin, 2Department of Psychiatry, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Berlin, 3Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität Berlin, 4Clinic for Affective Disorders and General Psychiatry, Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich


JoVE 50942

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