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Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
 JoVE Chemistry

Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?

1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center


JoVE 50668

An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Accuracy in Dental Medicine, A New Way to Measure Trueness and Precision

1Division of Computer-assisted Restorative Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich


JoVE 51374

Accuracy is a major demand in dental medicine. To verify accuracy, reference scanners are needed. This article presents a new reference scanner with an adjusted scanning method to acquire a broad variety of dental morphologies with high trueness and precision.

 JoVE Editorial

The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Werner Arber, Physiology or Medicine 1978


JoVE 1571

Swiss microbial geneticist, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for their discovery of restriction endonucleases. Arber found that viral DNA introduced into a non-specific bacterial host was changed, while host DNA was protected by methylation. He theorized that a microbial enzyme cut the DNA into smaller pieces, while at the same time, the methylated host DNA was protected from its own enzymes. Later work done by Nathans and Smith validated his theory, which laid the foundation for recombinant DNA technology.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses

1Emory Vaccine Center at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University


JoVE 51506

HIV-1 pathogenesis is defined by both viral characteristics and host genetic factors. Here we describe a robust method that allows for reproducible measurements to assess the impact of the gag gene sequence variation on the in vitro replication capacity of the virus.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine


JoVE 51763

Phenotypically wild-type astrocytes and neural stem cells harvested from mice engineered with floxed, conditional oncogenic alleles and transformed via viral Cre-mediated recombination can be used to model astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo by orthotopic injection of transformed cells into brains of syngeneic, immune-competent littermates.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Multi-Modal Approach to Assessing Recovery in Youth Athletes Following Concussion

1Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 2Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 51892

This article provides an overview of a multi-modal approach to assessing recovery following concussion in youth athletes. The described protocol uses pre- and post-concussion assessment of performance across a wide variety of domains and can inform the development of improved concussion rehabilitation protocols specific to the youth sport community.

 JoVE Behavior

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with Auditory Stimulation in Songbirds

1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp


JoVE 4369

This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). It describes the preparation of the sound stimuli, the positioning of the subject and the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the fMRI data.

 JoVE Behavior

Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, 2Psychiatry, Yale University, 3Yale PET Center, Yale University, 4Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 5Nuclear Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 6Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine


JoVE 50358

We present a novel PET imaging approach for capturing dopamine fluctuations induced by cigarette smoking. Subjects smoke in the PET scanner. Dynamic PET images are modeled voxel-by-voxel in time by lp-ntPET, which includes a time-varying dopamine term. The results are 'movies' of dopamine fluctuations in the striatum during smoking.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), with its 4x1-ring montage, is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that combines both the neuromodulatory effects of conventional tDCS with increased focality. This article provides a systematic demonstration of the use of 4x1 HD-tDCS, and the considerations needed for safe and effective stimulation.

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