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Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
 JoVE Editorial

The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Werner Arber, Physiology or Medicine 1978


JoVE 1571

Swiss microbial geneticist, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for their discovery of restriction endonucleases. Arber found that viral DNA introduced into a non-specific bacterial host was changed, while host DNA was protected by methylation. He theorized that a microbial enzyme cut the DNA into smaller pieces, while at the same time, the methylated host DNA was protected from its own enzymes. Later work done by Nathans and Smith validated his theory, which laid the foundation for recombinant DNA technology.

 JoVE Behavior

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with Auditory Stimulation in Songbirds

1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp


JoVE 4369

This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). It describes the preparation of the sound stimuli, the positioning of the subject and the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the fMRI data.

 JoVE Behavior

Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, 2Psychiatry, Yale University, 3Yale PET Center, Yale University, 4Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 5Nuclear Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 6Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine


JoVE 50358

We present a novel PET imaging approach for capturing dopamine fluctuations induced by cigarette smoking. Subjects smoke in the PET scanner. Dynamic PET images are modeled voxel-by-voxel in time by lp-ntPET, which includes a time-varying dopamine term. The results are 'movies' of dopamine fluctuations in the striatum during smoking.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), with its 4x1-ring montage, is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that combines both the neuromodulatory effects of conventional tDCS with increased focality. This article provides a systematic demonstration of the use of 4x1 HD-tDCS, and the considerations needed for safe and effective stimulation.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microwave-assisted Functionalization of Poly(ethylene glycol) and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center


JoVE 50890

This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

piggyBac Transposon System Modification of Primary Human T Cells

1Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Immunology and Pathology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 4Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 6Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 7Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, 8Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center


JoVE 4235

We describe a method to genetically modify primary human T cells with a transgene using the non-viral piggyBac transposon system. T cells modified to using the piggyBac transposon system exhibit stable transgene expression.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary


JoVE 50341

We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.

 JoVE General

Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates

1Cytori Therapeutics Inc, 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair Laboratory, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA


JoVE 50585

In 2001, researchers at UCLA described the isolation of a population of adult stem cells, termed Adipose-derived Stem Cells or ASCs, from adipose tissue. This article outlines the isolation of ASCs from lipoaspirates using a manual, enzymatic digestion protocol using collagenase.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Nonhuman Primate Lung Decellularization and Recellularization Using a Specialized Large-organ Bioreactor

1Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, 2Division of Regenerative Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University School of Medicine


JoVE 50825

Whole-organ decellularization produces natural biological scaffolds that may be used for regenerative medicine. The description of a nonhuman primate model of lung regeneration in which whole lungs are decellularized and then seeded with adult stem cells and endothelial cells in a bioreactor that facilitates vascular circulation and liquid media ventilation is presented.

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