The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.
Published June 13, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Division of Computer-assisted Restorative Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich
Accuracy is a major demand in dental medicine. To verify accuracy, reference scanners are needed. This article presents a new reference scanner with an adjusted scanning method to acquire a broad variety of dental morphologies with high trueness and precision.
Published April 29, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Laboratories, Dental, Calibration, Technology, Dental impression, Accuracy, Trueness, Precision, Full arch scan, Abrasion
German biophysicist Erwin Neher shared the 1991 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Bert Sakmann for their pioneering work measuring the activity of single ion channels in cells.
Published November 11, 2009. Keywords: Cellular Biology, electrophysiology, Nobel Prize, Nobel Laureate Meeting, Physiology or Medicine, 1991, single ion channels, patch- clamp
Swiss microbial geneticist, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for their discovery of restriction endonucleases. Arber found that viral DNA introduced into a non-specific bacterial host was changed, while host DNA was protected by methylation. He theorized that a microbial enzyme cut the DNA into smaller pieces, while at the same time, the methylated host DNA was protected from its own enzymes. Later work done by Nathans and Smith validated his theory, which laid the foundation for recombinant DNA technology.
Published March 10, 2010. Keywords: Microbiology, DNA methylation, host-restriction, restriction enzymes, endonuclease, epigenetics, R-M systems, lambda, bacteriophage
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Emory Vaccine Center at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University
HIV-1 pathogenesis is defined by both viral characteristics and host genetic factors. Here we describe a robust method that allows for reproducible measurements to assess the impact of the gag gene sequence variation on the in vitro replication capacity of the virus.
Published August 31, 2014. Keywords: Infectious Diseases, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Phenotypically wild-type astrocytes and neural stem cells harvested from mice engineered with floxed, conditional oncogenic alleles and transformed via viral Cre-mediated recombination can be used to model astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo by orthotopic injection of transformed cells into brains of syngeneic, immune-competent littermates.
Published August 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 2Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto
This article provides an overview of a multi-modal approach to assessing recovery following concussion in youth athletes. The described protocol uses pre- and post-concussion assessment of performance across a wide variety of domains and can inform the development of improved concussion rehabilitation protocols specific to the youth sport community.
Published September 25, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, concussion, children, youth, athletes, assessment, management, rehabilitation
1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp
This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). It describes the preparation of the sound stimuli, the positioning of the subject and the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the fMRI data.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biophysics, Physiology, Anatomy, Functional MRI, fMRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI, BOLD fMRI, Brain, Songbird, zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, Auditory Stimulation, stimuli, animal model, imaging
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Immunology and Pathology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 4Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 6Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 7Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, 8Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center
We describe a method to genetically modify primary human T cells with a transgene using the non-viral piggyBac transposon system. T cells modified to using the piggyBac transposon system exhibit stable transgene expression.
Published November 5, 2012. Keywords: Immunology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Virology, Human T cells, Transposons, piggyBac, transgene
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center
This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis