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Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (Scid) syndrome in human infants. Scid mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing Scid-human (Scid-hu) hematochimeric mice.
 JoVE Cancer Research

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 54532

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Induction of Murine Intestinal Inflammation by Adoptive Transfer of Effector CD4+CD45RBhigh T Cells into Immunodeficient Mice

1Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


JoVE 52533

 JoVE In-Press

In Vivo Study of Human Endothelial-Pericyte Interaction Using the Matrix Gel Plug Assay in Mouse

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 3VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, Stanford University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 54617

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Using the BLT Humanized Mouse as a Stem Cell based Gene Therapy Tumor Model

1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2UCLA AIDS Institute, 3Eli & Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, 4Department of Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA


JoVE 4181

 JoVE Neuroscience

Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286


JoVE 51091

 JoVE Medicine

Generation of Prostate Cancer Patient Derived Xenograft Models from Circulating Tumor Cells

1Department of Pathology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Department of Hematology/Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center


JoVE 53182

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Custom-designed Laser-based Heating Apparatus for Triggered Release of Cisplatin from Thermosensitive Liposomes with Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance

1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 3Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 5Techna Institute and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 6STTARR Innovation Center, University Health Network, 7Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network


JoVE 53055

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Basic Care Procedures

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Mice and rats account for over 90% of the animals used for biomedical research. The proper care of these research animals is critical to the outcome of experiments. There are general procedures that apply to the majority of these mice and rats, but some of the animals, such as the immunocompromised ones, require additional steps to be taken to sustain them for experimentation. Commonly used immunocompromised mice include those that have naturally occurred in inbred mice and those that have been created through genetic engineering. The first immunocompromised mice used in research were "nude" mice. The BALB/c Nude (nu) mouse was discovered in 1966, within a BALB/c colony that was producing mice lacking both hair and a thymus. These athymic mice have an inhibited immune system that is devoid of T cells. The value of this animal was soon discovered for the use in studies of microbial infections, immune deficiencies, and autoimmunity. Although not as commonly used as the nude mouse, there is also a nude rat. The nude rat is T cell deficient and shows depleted cell populations in thymus-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs. Another naturally occurring immune deficient mouse is the severe comb

 JoVE Medicine

Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System

1Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 3Digestive Health Research Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland


JoVE 50843

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Melanoma Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes

1Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biochemistry II, Kanazawa Medical University, 3Center for Immunotherapy, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 4DNAVEC Corporation, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 6Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute


JoVE 54375

 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Integration-free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells using Episomal Vectors

1State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loma Linda University, 4Center for Stem Cell Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 6Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 7Tianjin Key Laboratory of Blood Cell Therapy and Technology

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55091

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required. Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.

 JoVE Medicine

Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

1Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Gruss-Lipper Biophotonics Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4Integrated Imaging Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine


JoVE 54042

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