1Lab of Immune and Neural Networks, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Hofstra North Shore LIJ School of Medicine
The design and assembly of microdrives for in vivo electrophysiological recordings of brain signals from the mouse is described. By attaching microelectrode bundles to sturdy driveable carriers, these techniques allow for long-term and stable neural recordings. The lightweight design allows for unrestricted behavioral performance by the animal following drive implantation.
Published July 5, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Brain, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Electrodes, Implanted, Microelectrodes, Action Potentials, Neurosciences, Neurophysiology, Neuroscience, brain, mouse, in vivo electrophysiology, tetrodes, microdrive, chronic recordings, local field potential, dorsal subiculum, animal model
1Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, 2Program in Neuroscience, Harvard University, 3Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University
The design, fabrication and assembly of an ultra-light motorized microdrive is described. The device provides a cost-effective and easy-to-use solution for chronic recordings of single units in small behaving animals.
Published November 8, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Mechanical Engineering, microdrive, in-vivo chronic recording, electrophysiology, songbirds
1The Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Understanding the neural substrates of behavior requires brain circuit ensemble recording. Because of its genetic tractability, the mouse offers a model for circuit dissection and disease mimicry. Here, a method of designing and fabricating miniaturized probes is described that is suitable for targeting deep brain structure in the mouse.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, multi-electrode, micro-drives, electrophysiology, single units, brain circuit recording, deep brain structure
1Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Neuroscience Program, University of Texas, 2Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas
A fundamental issue in our understanding of cortical circuitry is how networks in different cortical layers encode sensory information. Here we describe electrophysiological techniques utilizing multi-contact laminar electrodes to record single-units and local field potentials and present analyses to identify cortical layers.
Published September 8, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, laminar probes, cortical layers, local-field potentials, population coding
1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum
Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.
Published June 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, pigeon, single unit recording, learning, memory, extinction, spike sorting, operant conditioning, reward, electrophysiology, animal cognition, model species
1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University
Different electrode coatings affect neural recording performance through changes to electrochemical, chemical and mechanical properties. Comparison of electrodes in vitro is relatively simple, however comparison of in vivo response is typically complicated by variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animals. This article provides a robust method to compare neural recording electrodes.
Published March 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Neural Recording, Neural Implant, Electrode Coating, Bionics
1Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of New Jersey, 2Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, Collège de France, 3Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howards Hughes Medical Institute, 4Deptartment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee
We describe methods for large-scale recording of multiple single units and local field potential in behaving rodents with silicon probes. Drive fabrication, probe attachment to the drive and probe implantation processes are illustrated in sufficient details for easy replication.
Published March 4, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuronal networks, hippocampus, neocortex, local field potential, multi-unit activity, freely moving electrophysiology, rodent
1Department of Engineering and Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Transgenic and knockout mouse models of neurological diseases are useful for studying the role of genes in normal and abnormal neurophysiology. This article describes methodologies which can be used to study long-term potentiation, a cellular mechanism which may underlie learning and memory, in transgenic and knockout freely behaving mouse models of neuropathology.
Published November 29, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, freely behaving animal, mouse, dentate gyrus, hippocampus, long term potentiation, electrophysical research technique
1Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Division of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University
Short visual description of the surgical technique and device used for the delivery of (gene and cell) therapies into the spinal cord. The technique is demonstrated in the animal but is entirely translatable and currently being used for human application.
Published December 7, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, accuracy, delivery, safety, spinal cord, CNS, target, therapy, transplantation, swine, animal model
1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard
This protocol describes the design and surgical implantation of a head-restraining mechanism to monitor neuronal activity in sub-cortical brain structures in alert rats. It delineates procedures to isolate single neurons in the juxtacellular configuration and to efficiently identify their anatomical locations.
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, juxtacellular, iontophoresis, stereotaxic surgery, thalamus, vibrissa
1Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis
The mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) has been difficult to study in the context of sensory coding. Here, we demonstrate a dissection that produces an ex vivo preparation in which AOB neurons remain functionally connected to their peripheral inputs, facilitating research into information processing of mouse pheromones and kairomones.
Published August 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, vomeronasal organ, accessory olfactory bulb, ex vivo, mouse, olfaction
1Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In this protocol we demonstrate how to fabricate a micro-drive array for chronic electrophysiological recordings in rats.
Published April 20, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, fabrication, micro-drive array, tetrode, electrophysiology, multiple neuronal recordings, in vivo recording, systems neuroscience, hippocampus, cortex, rat brain
1Neuro-Oncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute of St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, 2Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute of St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center
Intracranial implantation of GL261 cells into C57BL/6 mice produces malignant gliomas that recapitulate many of the hallmarks of human glioblastoma multiforme. We used GL261 cells stably expressing luciferase to allow us to use in vivo imaging to follow tumor progression. The surgery and 3D in vivo imaging are demonstrated.
Published November 6, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, glioma, mouse model, bioluminescence, in vivo imaging, intracranial implantation
1Nayef Al-Rodhan Laboratories for Cellular Neurosurgery and Neurosurgical Technology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurosurgery , Massachusetts General Hospital
Deep brain stimulation surgery offers a unique opportunity to examine information encoding in the awake human brain. This article will describe intra-operative methods used to perform cognitive and behavioral tasks while simultaneously acquiring physiological data such as EMG, single-unit neuronal activity and/or local field potentials.
Published January 6, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Intra-Operative Physiology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Subthalamic Nucleus, Single-Unit Activity, Parkinson Disease, Deep Brain Stimulation
1Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
We present a low-cost method to design and construct a light headstage pre-amplifier system with simultaneous neural recording and stimulation capability. This device can be waterproofed for use in swimming animals.
Published October 13, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, brain, stimulation, recording, water maze, local field potential
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University
Retinal ganglion cells transmit visual information from the eye to the brain with sequences of action potentials. Here, we demonstrate how to record the action potentials of single ganglion cells in vivo from anesthetized rats.
Published April 2, 2010. Keywords: JoVE Neuroscience, retina, optic chiasm, tungsten electrodes, spike trains