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In JoVE (2)
- Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Drive Fabrication
- Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Tetrode Assembly
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Thomas J. Davidson in JoVE
Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Drive Fabrication
Fabian Kloosterman1,2, Thomas J. Davidson1,2, Stephen N. Gomperts1,2, Stuart P. Layton1,2, Gregory Hale1,2, David P. Nguyen1,2, Matthew A. Wilson1,2
1Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In this protocol we demonstrate how to fabricate a micro-drive array for chronic electrophysiological recordings in rats.
Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Tetrode Assembly
David P. Nguyen1,2, Stuart P. Layton1,2, Gregory Hale1,2, Stephen N. Gomperts1,2, Thomas J. Davidson1,2, Fabian Kloosterman1,2, Matthew A. Wilson1,2
1Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In this protocol we demonstrate how to fabricate and condition tetrodes for use with a micro-drive array, which was designed for chronic electrophysiological recordings in rats. In addition, we illustrate the final stages of micro-drive array construction, which includes installing ground wires and a protective cone.
Other articles by Thomas J. Davidson on PubMed
Highly Efficient Small Interfering RNA Delivery to Primary Mammalian Neurons Induces MicroRNA-like Effects Before MRNA Degradation
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15537872
The study of protein function in neurons has been hindered by the lack of highly efficient, nontoxic methods of inducing RNA interference in such cells. Here we show that application of synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) linked to the vector peptide Penetratin1 results in rapid, highly efficient uptake of siRNA by entire populations of cultured primary mammalian hippocampal and sympathetic neurons. This treatment leads to specific knock-down of targeted proteins within hours without the toxicity associated with transfection. In contrast to current methods, our technique permits study of protein function across entire populations with minimal disturbance of complex cellular networks. Using this technique, we found that protein knock-down (evident after 6 hr) precedes any decrease in targeted message (evident after 24 hr), suggesting an early, translational repression by perfectly targeted siRNAs.
Neuron. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19709631
During pauses in exploration, ensembles of place cells in the rat hippocampus re-express firing sequences corresponding to recent spatial experience. Such "replay" co-occurs with ripple events: short-lasting (approximately 50-120 ms), high-frequency (approximately 200 Hz) oscillations that are associated with increased hippocampal-cortical communication. In previous studies, rats exploring small environments showed replay anchored to the rat's current location and compressed in time into a single ripple event. Here, we show, using a neural decoding approach, that firing sequences corresponding to long runs through a large environment are replayed with high fidelity and that such replay can begin at remote locations on the track. Extended replay proceeds at a characteristic virtual speed of approximately 8 m/s and remains coherent across trains of ripple events. These results suggest that extended replay is composed of chains of shorter subsequences, which may reflect a strategy for the storage and flexible expression of memories of prolonged experience.
Neuron. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21745635
Both observational and perturbational technologies are essential for advancing the understanding of brain function and dysfunction. But while observational techniques have greatly advanced in the last century, techniques for perturbation that are matched to the speed and heterogeneity of neural systems have lagged behind. The technology of optogenetics represents a step toward addressing this disparity. Reliable and targetable single-component tools (which encompass both light sensation and effector function within a single protein) have enabled versatile new classes of investigation in the study of neural systems. Here we provide a primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations.
Recombinase-driver Rat Lines: Tools, Techniques, and Optogenetic Application to Dopamine-mediated Reinforcement
Neuron. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22153370
Currently there is no general approach for achieving specific optogenetic control of genetically defined cell types in rats, which provide a powerful experimental system for numerous established neurophysiological and behavioral paradigms. To overcome this challenge we have generated genetically restricted recombinase-driver rat lines suitable for driving gene expression in specific cell types, expressing Cre recombinase under the control of large genomic regulatory regions (200-300 kb). Multiple tyrosine hydroxylase (Th)::Cre and choline acetyltransferase (Chat)::Cre lines were produced that exhibited specific opsin expression in targeted cell types. We additionally developed methods for utilizing optogenetic tools in freely moving rats and leveraged these technologies to clarify the causal relationship between dopamine (DA) neuron firing and positive reinforcement, observing that optical stimulation of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Th::Cre rats is sufficient to support vigorous intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). These studies complement existing targeting approaches by extending the generalizability of optogenetics to traditionally non-genetically-tractable but vital animal models.
Nature. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21796121
Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) within neural microcircuitry. This hypothesis could unify diverse streams of pathophysiological and genetic evidence, but has not been susceptible to direct testing. Here we design and use several novel optogenetic tools to causally investigate the cellular E/I balance hypothesis in freely moving mammals, and explore the associated circuit physiology. Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30-80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans. Consistent with the E/I balance hypothesis, compensatory elevation of inhibitory cell excitability partially rescued social deficits caused by E/I balance elevation. These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms.