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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

 JoVE Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health


JoVE 53129

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London


JoVE 52773

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Decision-making and the Iowa Gambling Task

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Decision-making is an important component of human executive function, in which a choice about a course of action or cognition is made from many possibilities. Damage to the inferior parts of the frontal lobes can affect a person's ability to make good decisions. However, while decision-making deficits can have a large impact on one's life, these deficits can be difficult to quantify in the laboratory. In the mid-1990s, a task was designed to mimic real life decision-making in the laboratory. This task, known as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a cognitively complex task used widely in research and clinical studies as a highly sensitive measure of decision-making ability.1-3 In the IGT, a participant is shown four decks of cards and chooses to reveal a card from one deck on each turn. When a card is turned over, the participant will receive some money, but sometimes will also be required to pay a penalty. Two of the decks have higher payoffs, but also have high penalties such that choosing from these decks leads to a net loss in the long term. The other two decks have lower payoffs, but also present smaller penalties, so that choosing from these decks leads to a net gain. Thus, to make an a

 JoVE Medicine

Real-time fMRI Biofeedback Targeting the Orbitofrontal Cortex for Contamination Anxiety

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 4Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine


JoVE 3535

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 JoVE Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University


JoVE 52061

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 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Attention, working-memory, planning, impulse control, inhibition, and mental flexibility are important components of human cognition that are often referred to as executive functions. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. It is a disorder that lasts a lifetime, and is thought to affect 0.6% of the population. The symptoms of autism suggest a deficit in executive function, which may be assessed by specialized neuropsychological tests. By employing several tests that each emphasize different aspects of executive function, we can gain a more complete picture of the cognitive profile of the disorder. One such task, known as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), is a cognitively complex task used widely in research and clinical studies as a highly sensitive measure of deficits in executive function. It tests a person's ability to shift attention and tests their flexibility with changing rules and reinforcement.1 In the WCST, a participant is presented with four stimulus cards, incorporating three stimulus parameters: color, shape, and number. The participant is asked to sort

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 JoVE Medicine

Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting

1Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, 4Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 5Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 7Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine


JoVE 52227

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 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

Anxiety Testing

JoVE Science Education

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests combined with other interventions such as surgery or drug-administration may assist researchers in pinpointing the neurobiological basis of anxiety disorders. This video begins by providing common principles behind variety of anxiety tests. Then, two specific protocols, the Successive Alleys Test and the Hyponeophagia Test are discussed in detail.  Lastly, variations of anxiety testing in rodents and humans will be explored.

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 JoVE Behavior

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University


JoVE 53962

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Olfactory Neurons Obtained through Nasal Biopsy Combined with Laser-Capture Microdissection: A Potential Approach to Study Treatment Response in Mental Disorders

1Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, 3Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Hospital, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University


JoVE 51853

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 JoVE In-Press

Behavioral Disturbances: An Innovative Approach to Monitor the Modulatory Effects of a Nutraceutical Diet

1School of Specialization in Clinical Biochemistry, “G. d’Annunzio” University, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Pathology and Veterinary Clinic Section, University of Sassari, 3Research and Development Department, Forza10 USA Corp.

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JoVE 54878

123457
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