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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Procedure for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Tastants in Laboratory Rats: Operant Intraoral Self-administration

1Department of Psychology, University of Guelph


JoVE 50956

The current study evaluates a novel procedure for assessing the reinforcing effects of palatable solutions in laboratory rats: intraoral self-administration. To this end, operant responding (i.e. lever pressing) for intraoral infusions of sweet solutions at different concentrations was measured on continuous and progressive ratios schedules of reinforcement.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Clinical Examination Protocol to Detect Atypical and Classical Scrapie in Sheep

1Specialist Scientific Support Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge


JoVE 51101

A short clinical examination protocol is presented to aid in the detection of classical and atypical scrapie in sheep and goats.

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 JoVE Behavior

Marble Burying and Nestlet Shredding as Tests of Repetitive, Compulsive-like Behaviors in Mice

1Research and Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine


JoVE 50978

Disease, head injury, genetic modifications, and treatment of mice with drugs can have profound effects on behavior. Utilizing well-characterized and validated approaches such as marble burying and nestlet shredding, compulsive-like behaviors can be documented accurately in mice as models of human obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Habituation and Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle in Rodents

1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 3446

Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.

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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Intra-Operative Behavioral Tasks in Awake Humans Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

1Nayef Al-Rodhan Laboratories for Cellular Neurosurgery and Neurosurgical Technology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurosurgery , Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 2156

Deep brain stimulation surgery offers a unique opportunity to examine information encoding in the awake human brain. This article will describe intra-operative methods used to perform cognitive and behavioral tasks while simultaneously acquiring physiological data such as EMG, single-unit neuronal activity and/or local field potentials.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

1Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Toronto Centre for Phenogenomics, Mount Sinai Hospital, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto


JoVE 2473

Here we describe a detailed protocol for examination of sociability in mice by using Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. We describe the advantages and possible applications for this procedure, including critical details important for correct interpretation of the results.

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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Utility of Dissociated Intrinsic Hand Muscle Atrophy in the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1Department of Neurology, Westmead Hospital, 2Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia


JoVE 51056

Dissociated atrophy of intrinsic hand muscles, termed the split hand, appears to be a specific feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Consequently, a novel neurodiagnostic test, termed the split hand index, was developed to quantify the clinical phenomenon of the split hand, which differentiated ALS from mimic disorders.

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 JoVE Behavior

Handwriting Analysis Indicates Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Neuroleptic Naïve Adolescents at High Risk for Psychosis

1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego


JoVE 50852

Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts

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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Biomarkers in an Animal Model for Revealing Neural, Hematologic, and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD

1Department of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, 2Department of Gene and Protein Biomarkers, GenProMarkers, Inc.


JoVE 3361

We describe a rat model of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that reveals the persistent alterations in neuroendocrine function and the delayed long-term, exaggerated fear response, characteristic of PTSD patients. The animal model and methods described here are useful for correlating biomarkers in brain nuclei, which are mechanistic but cannot be measured in patients, with biomarkers in peripheral white blood cells, which can.

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 JoVE Biology

In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio

1Center for Human Disease Modeling, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center


JoVE 50338

Here, we present a systematic approach for developing physiologically relevant, sensitive and specific in vivo assays for interpreting variation in human pathology. Transient genetic manipulation via microinjection of WT and mutant human mRNA and morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides harness the tractability of the developing zebrafish embryo to rapidly assay pathogenic mutations, especially, but not exclusively, in the context of human developmental disorders.

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