An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 4Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine
Here we present a method for training people to control a brain area involved in contamination anxiety and for probing the relationship between contamination anxiety and brain connectivity patterns.
1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego
Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts
1Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
A protocol is described that uses Illumina's Infinium assays to perform large-scale genotyping. These assays can reliably genotype millions of SNPs across hundreds of individual DNA samples in three days. Once generated, these genotypes can be used to check for associations with a variety of different diseases or phenotypes.
1Department of Medicine, University of Dresden, 2Center for Regerative Therapies Dresden
Neural stem cells harvested from the adult brain are increasing utilized in applications ranging from the basic research of nervous system development to exploring potential clinical applications in regenerative medicine. This makes rigorous control in the isolation and culturing conditions used to grow these cells critical to sound experimental outcomes.
1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland
Many therapeutic applications require safe and efficient transport of drug carriers and their cargoes across cellular barriers in the body. This article describes an adaptation of established methods to evaluate the rate and mechanism of transport of drug nanocarriers (NCs) across cellular barriers, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York
We develop and characterize a disordered polymer optical fiber that uses transverse Anderson localization as a novel waveguiding mechanism. This microstructured fiber can transport a small localized beam with a radius that is comparable to the beam radius of conventional optical fibers.
1Department of Neuropathology, Medical School Düsseldorf, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute for Science, 3Center of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf
Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and targeted modifications in neuronal connectivity for later studies of behavior or neuropathology in adult animals. Postnatal in vivo imaging for control of IUE success is performed by bioluminescence of activating co-transfected luciferase.
1Center for Human Disease Modeling, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center
Here, we present a systematic approach for developing physiologically relevant, sensitive and specific in vivo assays for interpreting variation in human pathology. Transient genetic manipulation via microinjection of WT and mutant human mRNA and morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides harness the tractability of the developing zebrafish embryo to rapidly assay pathogenic mutations, especially, but not exclusively, in the context of human developmental disorders.
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College
This article describes how to microinject viral vectors into mouse brain and then test in a conditioned place preference paradigm that includes an acquisition, extinction and reinstatement phase.
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.