Escherichia coli causes sepsis in neonates who ingest the bacteria around the time of birth. The process involved in E. coli’s ability to travel from the enteric tract to the bloodstream is poorly understood. This in vitro model assesses the ability of E. coli strains to travel through the intestinal epithelial cells.
Newborns ingest maternal E. coli strains that colonize their intestinal tract around the time of delivery. E. coli strains with the ability to translocate across the gut invade the newborn's bloodstream, causing life-threatening bacteremia. The methodology presented here utilizes polarized intestinal epithelial cells grown on semipermeable inserts to assess the transcytosis of neonatal E. coli bacteremia isolates in vitro. This method uses the established T84 intestinal cell line that has the ability to grow to confluence and form tight junctions and desmosomes. After reaching confluence, mature T84 monolayers develop transepithelial resistance (TEER), which can be quantified using a voltmeter. The TEER values are inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of extracellular components, including bacteria, across the intestinal monolayer. The transcellular passage of bacteria (transcytosis), on the other hand, does not necessarily alter the TEER measurements. In this model, bacterial passage across the intestinal monolayer is quantified for up to 6 h post-infection, and repeated measurements of TEER are made to monitor the paracellular permeability. In addition, this method facilitates the use of techniques such as immunostaining to study the structural changes in tight junctions and other cell-to-cell adhesion proteins during bacterial transcytosis across the polarized epithelium. The use of this model contributes to the characterization of the mechanisms by which neonatal E. coli transcytose across the intestinal epithelium to produce bacteremia.
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns1,2,3. The mortality rate of neonatal E. coli bacteremia can reach 40%, and meningitis is a possible complication that is associated with severe neurodevelopmental disabilities2. The ingestion of maternal E. coli strains by the newborn can produce neonatal bacteremia; this process has been replicated in animal models2,4. Once ingested, pathogenic bacteria travel from the neonatal gut lumen across the intestinal barrier and enter the bloodstream, causing septicemia. Neonatal invasive E. coli strains that produce bacteremia vary in their ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells1,5. However, their ability to transcytose the intestinal epithelium after invasion has not been completely characterized.
This intestinal transcytosis model is a useful in vitro method to emulate bacterial passage across the intestinal epithelium. The overall goal of the methods presented in this manuscript is to compare the ability of neonatal E. coli isolates to transcytose the intestinal epithelium. The model described here utilizes T84 cells, which are immortalized human intestinal adenocarcinoma cells6,7. T84 cells are grown to confluence on a semipermeable membrane with two separate compartments. The rationale for using this technique is that, as happens in vivo, these intestinal cells polarize and develop mature tight junctions6,8. The side in contact with the membrane becomes the basal side. The opposite side of the cells becomes the apical side, resembling the intestinal lumen where ingested pathogens adhere and invade. The transwell membrane is permeable to bacteria, but the polarized intestinal cells form tight junctions, which impair bacterial paracellular movement9. Thus, this method provides the advantage of a controlled in vitro environment utilizing a human cell line to study the process of bacterial transcytosis, including the transcellular route. While other methods exist to investigate the transcytosis of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium, the transwell method presented here provides greater ease and accessibility. Alternative techniques, such as those utilizing ex vivo samples set up in Ussing chamber systems, are available. However, they utilize tissue specimens that may not be easily accessible, particularly if the research intends to study human physiology10. Intestinal organoids represent another example of an in vitro alternative for studying host-bacteria interactions11. While organoid monolayers can also be used in the transwell system to study bacterial transcytosis, they require the isolation and growth of stem cells and the use of specific growth factors to induce differentiation12. Thus, their use is more time-consuming and associated with greater costs as compared to the transwell method described in this manuscript.
The assessment of bacterial passage across the intestinal epithelium using this in vitro transwell system has been successfully performed for various pathogens. These studies have shown the utility of the transwell system using T84 cells to characterize the transcytosis of bacteria across the polarized intestinal epithelium13,14,15. However, the application of this transwell method to compare the transcytosis ability of bacteremia-producing neonatal E. coli strains has not been described in detail. This manuscript provides other researchers with a standard transwell protocol that is reliable and easy to use and does not require resources that are too expensive.
To compare the ability of neonatal invasive E. coli strains to transcytose the intestinal epithelium, the apical side of the intestinal epithelial monolayer can be infected with a known number of bacterial cells. After incubation, the medium on the basal side of the epithelium can be collected and the bacteria quantified to determine the amount of bacterial transcytosis over time. In this manuscript, the methods presented are utilized to study the transcytosis ability of neonatal E. coli clinical strains recovered from newborns hospitalized with bacteremia. The inclusion criteria for the selection of these neonatal clinical isolates for transcytosis studies have been published previously1,2,16. When this method is performed using different E. coli strains, their transcytosis abilities can be compared. Through this process, the intestinal transcytosis model provides valuable data to characterize the virulence factors of E. coli that contribute to the multistep process that culminates in the development of neonatal bacteremia.
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NOTE: Perform all the manipulations of the T84 cells, bacteria, plates, and reagents in a Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) safety cabinet to avoid contamination. Use separate areas and incubators for all the work involving sterile T84 cells, infected T84 cells, and E. coli. The clinical E. coli isolates tested with the methods described here were obtained following the guidelines of the Institutional Review Board at our institution1,16.
1. Preparing transcytosis inserts with T84 cells (approximately 1-2 weeks before the experiment)
- Grow American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) T84 cells in tissue culture medium (TCM + antibiotics) consisting of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium:Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture (1:1, final concentration: 50% each), 5% fetal bovine serum, and 1% (100 U/mL) penicillin/streptomycin dual antibiotic mixture. Incubate the cells at 37 °C with 5% CO2.
NOTE: A variation of this medium formulation without penicillin/streptomycin (TCM w/o antibiotics) is used for the later steps (section 2 and onward) in the procedure. Ensure that the correct formulation is used for each step.
- Working inside a biosafety cabinet (BSC), seed the T84 cells into polyethylene terephthalate membrane cell culture transwell inserts with 3 µm pores made for 24-well plates. Include transwell insert replicates for each desired experimental condition plus uninfected controls to monitor for possible contamination.
- In a 24-well plate designed to hold transwell inserts, fill the desired number of collecting wells with 1 mL of TCM + antibiotics.
- In each well, place one transwell insert.
- Seed these inserts with 1 x 105 T84 cells suspended in 500 µL of TCM + antibiotics. Quantify the number of cells using a hemocytometer with trypan blue stain or an automated cell counter17.
- Incubate the transwell plates containing seeded inserts in the same conditions that the cells were grown in.
- Verify with light microscopy that the monolayers have started to become confluent after seeding the insert, approximately 48 h after seeding.
- Every 2 days after seeding, measure and record the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) using an epithelial volt/ohm meter (EVOM) to assess the maturity of the monolayer. Once the inserts reach a TEER of at least 1,000 Ω·cm2, they are deemed ready for the assay18.
NOTE: The inserts typically take 7-10 days to reach this TEER after seeding. The T84 cells will show 100% confluence under light microscopy once this resistance is reached.
- Store the EVOM probe with the electrodes submerged in 0.15 M KCl when not in use.
- Prior to measuring the TEER, decontaminate the electrode probe by submerging it in 5 mL of 70% ethanol in a 50 mL conical tube for 10-15 min. Remove the probe, shake off the excess ethanol, and allow it to air-dry inside the BSC for 10 min. Retain the tube of ethanol.
- Test the EVOM and probe by placing the dry decontaminated probe in a sterile well containing 1 mL of TCM + antibiotics with a sterile insert inside containing 500 µL of TCM + antibiotics. Ensure that the EVOM reading is <200 Ω. Record this blank value to use it in the later resistance calculations described in step 1.3.6.
- Remove the probe from the tube of TCM + antibiotics. Retain this tube for the storage of the probe throughout the experiment.
- Gently lower the probe into the first insert with the long electrode in the collecting well and the short electrode inside the insert. Allow the long electrode to touch the bottom of the collecting well, but do not push down as this may disrupt the epithelial monolayer.
- Repeat this process to measure and record the resistance in Ohms (Ω) for every insert. When finished, decontaminate the probe in the ethanol by submerging it for another 10-15 min. Then, move the decontaminated probe back to the KCl solution for storage. Subtract the blank resistance obtained in step 1.3.3 from each value obtained from each insert containing T84 cells. Multiply the resulting resistance (Ω) for each insert by the area of the bottom of each insert (cm2) to obtain the final TEER measurement (Ω·cm2).
- Once the TEER reaches at least 1,000 Ω·cm2, the epithelial monolayer is mature and ready for infection assays.
- As the TEER matures, provide the cells with fresh medium every 1-2 days.
- In a new 24-well plate, add 1 mL of TCM + antibiotics to one well for each seeded insert being prepared.
- Using sterile forceps, carefully transfer the inserts to the newly replenished wells.
- Replace the media in the inserts.
- Remove the old media from the inserts by tilting the plate and using an in-house vacuum aspirator to gently remove the media with a pipette tip along the side of the insert. The aspirator allows the regulation of low-level suction to prevent the disruption of the cells. Do not allow the pipette tip to touch the bottom of the insert, as this will disrupt the developing epithelial monolayer.
- Add 500 µL of TCM + antibiotics to the inserts. Visualize the monolayer with light microscopy to verify that it remains intact.
- Every 1-2 days, measure the TEER across each insert as described above in steps 1.3.2-1.3.6.
2. Preparing the T84 cells 1 day before the experiment using TCM w/o antibiotics
- Measure and record the TEER the day before the experiment.
- Replace the TCM in the same manner as during the prior cell preparation and maintenance. However, TCM w/o antibiotics is used instead in preparation for the infection (1 mL in the plate well and 500 µL in the insert).
3. E. coli cultures (started 1 day before the experiment)
CAUTION: Use Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) precautions when working with pathogenic clinical E. coli strains.
- Take a labeled 15 mL conical tube with 5 mL of sterile lysogeny broth (LB), and use a sterile loop to inoculate the broth with one colony from one bacterial strain (E. coli). Repeat this process, creating one overnight culture tube for each strain to be tested.
- Incubate the overnight culture, with the caps of the tubes loosened, in an incubator shaker (250 rpm, 37 °C).
4. Preparing the E. coli inoculum, epithelial cells, and materials (on the morning of the experiment)
NOTE: Use TCM w/o antibiotics warmed up to 37 °C from this point on.
- Add 250 µL from each overnight LB culture to 25 mL of TCM w/o antibiotics in a 50 mL conical tube (one per individual strain). Keep the caps of the tubes loosened. Place these new culture tubes in the shaker at the same settings (250 rpm, 37 °C) for exactly 2 h. Perform the remaining substeps while waiting.
- Measure the TEER across each insert, as described in steps 1.3.2-1.3.6. Record these as the TEERs at time (t) = 0 h.
- Move the inserts to wells in a new plate, and change the media using the technique described in step 1.4.3. However, this time, fill the new collecting wells with 500 µL of TCM w/o antibiotics, and fill the inserts with 400 µL of TCM w/o antibiotics. Keep the inserts inside the tissue culture incubator until the time of infection.
- Set out a sufficient number of square LB agar plates to warm to room temperature (RT) for later plating and bacterial quantification.
5. Inoculation of the cells (start of the experiment)
- After exactly 2 h, remove the morning bacterial cultures from the shaker, and centrifuge them for 10 min (1,900 x g, 4 °C).
NOTE: For all the following steps, keep all the bacterial suspensions on ice to minimize growth.
- Resuspend the bacteria pellet in TCM w/o antibiotics. Use a spectrophotometer to adjust the optical density (OD) to 0.7-0.9, and further dilute with TCM w/o antibiotics to a concentration of 1 x 106 colony forming units (CFU)/mL (approximately 1:100 dilution). Use this bacterial suspension to infect each insert with 1 x 105 CFU per 100 µL volume.
- Label the transwell plate, and infect each insert with 100 µL of the OD-adjusted inoculum (total of 1 x 105 CFU per insert). The assay has now begun. Note the time, and record it as t = 0 h.
- Plate the inoculum bacterial suspension to quantify the CFU/mL using the track dilution method, plating 10 µL aliquots on square LB agar plates19.
6. Quantifying transcytosis
- Every 30 min following inoculation, fill new wells with 500 µL of TCM w/o antibiotics. Transfer the inserts to these new wells using a different set of sterile forceps for each different bacterial strain.
- Collect the media from the used collecting well for each insert into separate labeled tubes. Place these tubes on ice. Return the transwell plates to the incubator in between time points.
- For each insert, combine the collected media from t = 0.5 h, t = 1 h, t = 1.5 h, and t = 2 h, and vortex briefly. Plate the collected media on LB agar plates using the track dilution method to quantify the amount of bacteria transcytosed in the first 2 h of the experiment.
NOTE: Retrieving the bacteria every 30 min and keeping them on ice ensures the bacterial growth in the collecting wells is minimized and measurements are done on predominantly transcytosed bacteria.
- Place the labeled track dilution LB agar plates in the bacterial incubator at 37 °C without supplemental CO2, and return the T84 transwell plate to the tissue culture incubator.
- At t = 4 h, repeat step 6.3 by combining the collected media from t = 2.5 h, t = 3 h, t = 3.5 h, and t = 4 h.
- At t = 6 h, repeat step 6.3 by combining the collected media from t= 4.5 h, t = 5 h, t = 5.5 h, and t = 6 h. Additionally, at t = 6 h, plate the media from the control wells.
7. End of the experiment
- Measure and record the TEER at the end of the experiment, t = 6 h. Use the procedure described in steps 1.3.2-1.3.6.
- Decontaminate the probe by submerging it in 70% ethanol for 10-15 min. Discard the inserts, or save/process them for additional applications, if desired. Allow the LB agar plates to incubate overnight, and disinfect and/or safely dispose of all the other used materials.
- After overnight incubation, count the bacterial colonies manually on the track dilution LB plates to determine the inoculum amount and the amount of E. coli transcytosis. Ensure that the control plates do not show any bacterial growth.
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Figure 1: T84 TEER over time. As the T84 cell layer matures on the insert, the electrical resistance of the monolayer increases. At a TEER of at least 1,000 Ω·cm2, the cell layer is sufficiently developed to decrease the paracellular bacterial transport and allow the measurement of primarily transcellular bacterial transit. The error bars indicate the standard deviation. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
During the proliferation of the sterile T84 cells described in section 1, the TEERs across the T84 monolayers continuously rise over time, surpassing 1,000 Ω·cm2 approximately after 7 days from seeding (see Figure 1). Although the epithelial cell polarization and the maturation of the TEER are more robust with T84 cells than with other intestinal cells, such as Caco-2, some troubleshooting may still be required6. The TEER of an insert should not dramatically decrease between measurements. Such a decline in the TEER could indicate a mechanical disruption of the epithelial monolayer. One should ensure that during the medium change, the tip of the aspirator never touches the bottom of the cell culture insert. If this type of damage is suspected, it may be visualized by light microscopy as an absence of epithelial cells near the location of aspiration. In addition to damage from handling, a decrease in the TEER could indicate contamination.
Figure 2: Transcytosis of neonatal E. coli isolates over time. After infecting the T84 inserts, neonatal E. coli clinical isolates that successfully reach the collecting well are quantified using the track dilution method. Different E. coli strains can be compared in terms of their ability to transcytose the intestinal epithelium. The nonpathogenic E. coli DH5 alpha was included as a comparator. The plots show the mean CFUs and standard errors at each time point. The comparisons of the mean transcytosis values were done with one-tailed t-tests, which demonstrated significant differences between the neonatal E. coli isolates #1 versus #2 at 2 h (*p < 0.05), 4 h (**p < 0.04), and 6 h (***p < 0.04) post infection. In contrast, the nonpathogenic E. coli strain DH5 alpha underwent minimal transcytosis, as shown in the third plot. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
The quantified transcytosis can be represented as shown in Figure 2. In this example, the experiments were performed using three inserts, each infected with two different neonatal invasive E. coli isolates. A nonpathogenic strain, DH5 alpha, was also tested for comparison. Two sterile control inserts were also included (no plot is shown since no bacteria were isolated). The data from this procedure are useful for describing the ability of a single E. coli strain to transcytose the intestinal epithelium. The data may also allow for a comparison of the transcytosis abilities of different strains (see the discussion section for further applications).
Figure 3: TEER immediately before infection and 6 h after infection. The TEER of the inserts typically increases after infection with neonatal E. coli bacteremia-producing strains2. The infected inserts show a greater increase in TEER than the uninfected control inserts. The TEER was significantly greater in T84 monolayers after 6 h of infection with neonatal E. coli strain #1 (*p < 0.01) and E. coli strain #2 (**p < 0.03), as calculated by t-tests. The TEER in the non-infected control T84 monolayers also increased, but the difference between the pre-infection and post-infection values was not statistically significant. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
Figure 3 demonstrates typical TEER results before and after infection with two neonatal E. coli clinical isolates with different abilities to transcytose intestinal epithelial cells. The rate and the amount of transcytosis vary among strains, as shown in Figure 2, but the TEER significantly increases after infection with both pathogenic strains.
The results may be altered in the presence of contamination in this experiment. The neonatal E. coli strains used did not cause sufficient damage to the epithelial monolayer to produce a decrease in TEER, yet the bacteria were able to transcytose. It is plausible that a contaminant organism, if present, could cause damage to the intestinal cells and a subsequent decrease in the TEER. The sterile control inserts serve to help identify such possible contamination. The tissue culture medium used in this procedure contains the phenol red pH indicator. In general, the medium appears a clear pink when it is sterile or infected with a small inoculum. With significant growth or contamination, the medium may turn turbid, yellow, or malodorous. Prior to infection, the media in all the T84 inserts normally appear clear-pink.
After overnight incubation, the final place to check for contamination is on the LB agar plates. The control plates should not show any growth. The plates made from the collecting wells of E. coli-infected inserts should contain homogenous, round, yellow E. coli colonies. To minimize the risk of contamination, all the work should be performed in biosafety cabinets. Separate cabinets and incubators should be used for sterile tissue culturing, E. coli-infected tissue culturing, and bacterial manipulation. The workspaces should be kept clean, and a sterile technique should be used throughout.
Figure 4: Diagrammatic representation of the transwell system and relevant intestinal cell structures. (A) Section view of the transwell insert (blue); the vertical lines at the bottom of the insert indicate the permeable pores. The polarized intestinal epithelial cells form a monolayer at the bottom of the insert. The tissue culture medium is shown in pink, with a two-prong EVOM probe immersed in it. The probe wires on the opposite side are hooked to the EVOM apparatus (not shown). (B) Simplified diagram of the tight junction components of intestinal epithelial cells. The vertical arrows represent possible routes of bacterial passage from the apical to the basolateral side of the polarized intestinal epithelial monolayer. Abbreviations: ZO = zona occludens proteins; JAM = junctional adhesion molecules. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
Supplementary Figure 1: Apical growth of neonatal E. coli isolates over time. Measurements of E. coli in supernatants overlying T84 cells within transwell inserts can be performed as an optional, additional endpoint. The figure demonstrates that the apical growth of both pathogenic E. coli strains that were tested for transcytosis was not significantly different over time. The error bars indicate standard deviations. Please click here to download this File.
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This method is derived from techniques used in gastroenterology and infectious disease20. In vitro models of the intestinal epithelial barrier have been used to elucidate the mechanisms by which the luminal contents interact with this relevant component of innate immunity6,8. The host-pathogen interactions of invasive neonatal E. coli have also been separately characterized through genetic analysis, studies of antimicrobial resistance, and immunologic techniques1,5,16,21. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ability of E. coli neonatal isolates to enter the bloodstream through the gut3.
The transcytosis technique demonstrated herein allows for a more detailed characterization of the neonatal E. coli invasive strains that produce septicemia after enteral acquisition. Neonatal bacteremia is a multistep process, and transcytosis is one of the relevant steps. Compared to invasion models, this transcytosis method offers additional information about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In some cases, pathogenic E. coli invade the small intestine without reaching the bloodstream, limiting the infection to causing localized disease22. Thus, the bacteria's ability to simply invade the intestinal epithelium may not reflect their ability to completely pass through the epithelial barrier. This model can be utilized to study the process of bacterial passage across the intestinal epithelium through the transcellular or paracellular routes, particularly if additional techniques such as electron microscopy are incorporated20. Compared to in vivo animal models, this in vitro model is more efficient and allows for better control of several potential variables. Moreover, it contributes to animal welfare by providing an alternative to in vivo experimentation.
Despite these advantages, this experiment still has its limitations. For one, this assay does not account for differences in bacterial growth on the apical side of the epithelium during incubation. Such growth differences may affect the amount of transcytosis for each strain. Users can opt to measure apical growth for a more comprehensive characterization of the results obtained with this model. An example of the apical growth of the two E. coli isolates used for the transcytosis experiments in the methods presented in this manuscript is shown in Supplementary Figure 1. Additionally, although this model reasonably recreates the intestinal epithelial monolayer, it does not completely represent all the components of the intestinal barrier that protects the bloodstream from ingested pathogens. Nevertheless, some properties of the intestinal epithelium can be studied with this model. For example, T84 cells secrete chloride and produce mucin23. Invasion by diarrhea-producing E. coli is associated with increased chloride secretion in T84 cells and a significant decrease in TEER beyond 6 h post-infection24. It is possible that invasion by bacteremia-producing E. coli strains also increases chloride secretion in this model and that a decrease in TEER may occur after 6 h of infection. This model can be adapted for studies on the relationship between ion transport and bacterial invasion if so desired by other researchers. Mucin is a physical barrier that protects the epithelium against pathogens. Infection with other E. coli strains decreases mucin expression by T84 cells25. The role of mucin in the pathogenesis of neonatal E. coli transcytosis across the intestinal epithelium can also be studied with this model. Another use of this model could be to study the cytotoxic effects of bacterial cyclomodulines and their possible role in the process of transcytosis of neonatal E. coli strains. For example, cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF-1), which is produced by some pathogenic E. coli strains, targets Rho GTPases, which are crucial in regulating tight junction function and apoptosis of infected eukaryotic cells26. This transwell model can be adapted to better understand the mechanisms by which these cytotoxins affect the intestinal epithelium27. When utilizing this model to study the interaction of neonatal E. coli strains with the intestinal epithelium, it is important to consider that the T84 cells used to model the intestinal epithelium are sourced from a lung metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma in an adult6. While studies in T84 cells have reproduced specific effects on intestinal permeability that have translated to similar effects in human newborn and neonatal animal intestinal cells28,29, the fetal and neonatal intestinal epithelium may behave differently in the presence of invasive E. coli.
Some troubleshooting may be required to optimize this model and the quality of the data it provides. The use of sterile control inserts is discussed in detail in the representative results section. Other noninvasive E. coli strains can also be included as negative/minimal transcyctosis controls. Moreover, a different cell line, such as Caco-2, can be used to assess the ability of the neonatal E. coli strains to transcytose polarized intestinal epithelium. The invasion and transcytosis of E. coli have been found to be greater for T84 cells as compared to Caco-2 cells30. Therefore, these differences need to be considered when this model is utilized to evaluate bacterial transcytosis with these and other epithelial cells that polarize and form tight junctions. Taking TEER measurements of each individual transwell insert requires several seconds, and when multiple strains are tested, the additional operator time needs to be taken into consideration. More efficient methods of monitoring the TEER in transwell systems continue to be developed. These newer devices allow for monitoring the TEER simultaneously in multiple transwell inserts and in real time31. Researchers considering these options would need to decide if the time saved could potentially offset the increased price of these newer devices compared to the single-electrode measurements described herein.
Despite some possible challenges, this assay allows researchers to study specific mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli bacteremia beyond just the amount of transcytosis. When combined with molecular microbiology techniques, this process can be used to pinpoint the effects of individual genes on the ability of E. coli to transcytose the intestinal epithelium, as has been attempted in animal models32. This model can also be modified by immune cell co-culturing or the addition of cytokines, growth factors, and pharmaceutical interventions to simulate more complex immune and pharmacodynamic responses33.
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This work was supported by a Sarah Morrison student grant issued by the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine to A.I.
|10,000 U/ mL Penicillin/Streptomycin Mixture||Fisher Scientific||15-140-122|
|15 mL sterile conical tubes||MidSci||C15B|
|2 mL microcentrifuge tubes||Avant||AVSS2000|
|50 mL sterile polypropylene conical tubes||Falcon||352070|
|Biosafety Cabinets||Labconco||30441010028343||Three of these are used in the method: one for sterile tissue work, one for infected tissue work, and one for bacterial work.|
|Disposable inoculation loops||Fisherbrand||22363605|
|Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM)||Gibco||11965-084|
|Epithelial Volt/Ohm Meter||World Precision Instruments||EVOM2|
|Fetal Bovine Serum||Fisher Scientific||10437028|
|Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture||Gibco||11765-047|
|Hemacytometer||Sigma Aldrich, Bright Line||Z359629|
|Incubator shaker||New Brunswick||Innova 4080|
|Incubators||Thermo Scientific||51030284||Three of these are used in the method: one for sterile tissue culturing, one for infected tissue culturing, and one for bacterial incubation.|
|Lysogeny broth agar||IBI Scientific||IB49101|
|Nikon Eclipse TS2R Microscope||Nikon|
|T84 Intestinal Cells||American Tissue Culture Collection||CCL248|
|Tissue culture inserts, with polyethylene trephthalate membrane, 3 µm pores, 24 well format||Falcon||353096|
|Tissue culture plate, 24 wells||Falcon||353504|
|Trypan blue stain||Fisher Scientific||T10282|
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- Aguilar, C., et al. Organoids as host models for infection biology - A review of methods. Experimental and Molecular Medicine. 53 (10), 1471-1482 (2021).
- Nickerson, K. P., et al. A versatile human intestinal organoid-derived epithelial monolayer model for the study of enteric pathogens. Microbiology Spectrum. 9 (1), 0000321 (2021).
- Gavin, H. E., Beubier, N. T., Satchell, K. J. The effector domain region of the Vibrio vulnificus MARTX toxin confers biphasic epithelial barrier disruption and is essential for systemic spread from the intestine. PLoS Pathogens. 13 (1), 1006119 (2017).
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