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In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (15)

Articles by Adriana Garcia in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Induction and Clinical Scoring of Chronic-Relapsing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 224

This video demonstrates the induction and clinical scoring of an animal model of multiple sclerosis: chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats. The disease, induced by immunizing rats with an emulsion containing whole rat spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant, presents clinical signs resembling the human disease.

 JoVE Biology

Drawing Blood from Rats through the Saphenous Vein and by Cardiac Puncture

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 266

Blood draws are necessary in a large number of studies, for example to study the pharmacokinetics profile of a compound. Here, we demonstrate how to draw blood from rats using two techniques: blood draw from the saphenous vein or by cardiac puncture.

Other articles by Adriana Garcia on PubMed

[Present State of Diseases and Other Signs of Reef Deterioration at Seven Coral Reefs at Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela]

This work was aimed to determine the incidence of coral diseases in six different reef sites at the Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques, Venezuela: Arrecife de herradura, Arrecife costanero, both at Dos Mosquises Sur Key, Boca de Cote, Carenero, Crasquí and Pelona de Rabusquí. Each reef was surveyed by using ten 10 m2-band transects (10 x 1 m), placed parallel to the long axis of the reef within a depth gradient ranging from 1 to 9 m depth. All healthy and injured corals, along each band transect, were counted and identified to species level. Additionally, all diseases and recent mortality that were still identifiable on each colony were also recorded. The occurrence of diseased colonies and other signs of reef decline between localities were compared by means of a Chi2 test. The absolute, relative and mean incidence was estimated for each disease and other signs of damage observed for all coral species surveyed at each site. The overall incidence of coral diseases was low for all the localities surveyed, only 6.04% of the 3 344 colonies observed, showed signs of diseases. The most important diseases recorded were the Yellow-Blotch Disease (YBD) and Dark Spots Disease (DSD) with 2.1% +/- 1.52 y 2.1% +/- 2.54, respectively. Significant differences were found in the incidence of coral diseases between reef sites (Chi2 p < 0.05). Finally, the occurrence of colonies injured by parrotfish bites and pomacentrids was higher compared with the incidence of coral diseases for all the reefs surveyed. In conclusion, currently the proportion of healthy colonies at Los Roques coral reefs is higher than the percentage of both diseased and injured colonies.

[Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nodular Liver in an Adolescent]

Epstein-Barr Virus Negative Clonal Plasma Cell Proliferations and Lymphomas in Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas: a Phenomenon with Distinctive Clinicopathologic Features

Clonal B-cell populations have been described in peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) as secondary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) driven B-cell expansions that may evolve to an overt B-cell lymphoma. EBV-negative B-cell proliferations associated with T-cell lymphomas are uncommon and not well characterized. We studied 15 patients who developed an EBV-negative B-cell proliferation or malignant lymphoma associated with PTCL. The T-cell tumors were 8 PTCL, not otherwise specified, 4 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, and 3 cutaneous PTCL. The B-cell component was intermingled with the PTCL in all patients and it was classified as clonal/monotypic plasma cell proliferation in 8 lesions, clonal/monotypic large B-cell proliferation in 4 patients, and B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic/plasmablastic differentiation in 3 patients. Two patients had 2 clonally unrelated plasma cell proliferations associated with the same PTCL. All cases showed cytoplasmic Ig light chain restriction. Clonal IgH and T-cell receptor rearrangements were detected in 11/12 and 11/13 cases examined, respectively. EBV, cytomegalovirus, and HHV-8 were not observed in any of the examined cases. Sequential samples in 7 patients showed persistence of the PTCL and the B-cell component in 4, the PTCL without the B-cell lymphoma in 2, and progression of the B-cell neoplasm in 1. Patients followed an aggressive clinical course similar to conventional PTCL. In conclusion, EBV-negative clonal or mononotypic B-cell proliferations in patients with PTCL present with a spectrum of lesions ranging from plasma cell proliferations to overt lymphomas with plasmacytic/plasmablastic features. The distinctive features of these patients suggest that these lesions represent a specific phenomenon in PTCL.

[Performance of Normal Young Adults in Two Temporal Resolution Tests]

temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes.

Activation of Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR, NR1I2) and Its Orthologs in Laboratory, Toxicologic, and Genome Model Species

Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2), commonly known as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) in humans, is a key ligand-dependent transcription factor responsible for the regulation of xenobiotic, steroid, and bile acid metabolism. The ligand-binding domain is principally responsible for species-specific activation of NR1I2 in response to xenobiotic exposure.

Imaging of Effector Memory T Cells During a Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Suppression by Kv1.3 Channel Block

Effector memory T (Tem) cells are essential mediators of autoimmune disease and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a convenient model for two-photon imaging of Tem cell participation in an inflammatory response. Shortly (3 hr) after entry into antigen-primed ear tissue, Tem cells stably attached to antigen-bearing antigen-presenting cells (APCs). After 24 hr, enlarged Tem cells were highly motile along collagen fibers and continued to migrate rapidly for 18 hr. Tem cells rely on voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels to regulate calcium signaling. ShK-186, a specific Kv1.3 blocker, inhibited DTH and suppressed Tem cell enlargement and motility in inflamed tissue but had no effect on homing to or motility in lymph nodes of naive and central memory T (Tcm) cells. ShK-186 effectively treated disease in a rat model of multiple sclerosis. These results demonstrate a requirement for Kv1.3 channels in Tem cells during an inflammatory immune response in peripheral tissues. Targeting Kv1.3 allows for effector memory responses to be suppressed while central memory responses remain intact.

Chronic Pancreatitis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: an Uncommon Association

The association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) is extremely rare. Up to now, only six cases have been reported. We report the case of a young woman who presented her first episode of abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia at the onset of SLE and developed chronic calcifying pancreatitis after a two year period.

[Thoracoabdominal Periaortic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Aortic Syndrome. Report of One Case]

Systemic lymphoma that involves the aorta is called periaortic lymphoma, and may be misdiagnosed clinically or in CT sean, mimicking a thoracic aortic aneurysm, dissection, penetrating ulcer or an intramural hematoma. We report a 70 year-old woman in whom a systemic non-Hodgkin 's lymphoma ivas diagnosed after she presented with the clinical features of an acute aortic syndrome. A CT sean showed the presence of a large thoracoabdominal periaortic soft tissue mass without aneurism or dissection. Later, a biopsy of the mass ivasperformed which showed a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP-R was effective, with complete initial resolution of the mass, developing in the follow up chylothorax, malnutrition and death.

Unilateral Breast Enlargement Due to a High-flux Ipsilateral Hemodialysis Fistula

Evaluation of Foliar Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Colonization of Medicinal Plant Luehea Divaricata (Martius Et Zuccarini)

Endophyte microorganisms are organisms that live inside plants without causing any apparent damage to their hosts. Since all plants exhibit endophyte microorganisms, it is believed that mutual association is of great importance in nature. Luehea divaricata (Martius & Zuccarini), known popularly in Brazil as agoita-cavalo, is a big-sized tree with a wide distribution in the country that possesses medicinal qualities for: dysentery, leucorrhea, rheumatism, blennorrhoea, tumors, bronchitis, and depuration. This research aims at isolating and molecularly characterizing fungi isolates from L. divaricata by sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Further, the colonization of endophyte in the host plant by Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy will also be investigated. Whereas, genera Alternaria, Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Guignardia, Phoma, and Phomopsis, were identified; rDNA sequence analysis revealed intra-species variability among endophyte isolates of the genus Phomopsis sp. Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques showed the presence of endophyte fungi inside L. divaricata leaves, inhabiting inter- and intra-cellular spaces. These types of extensive colonization and dissemination were reported throughout all the leaf parts in palisade parenchyma, esclerenchyma, spongy parenchyma, adaxial epidermis, and vascular bundle indicating colonization of endophytes in múltiple structural sub-niches in the host plant.

Initial Features and Outcome of Cutaneous and Non-cutaneous Primary Extranodal Follicular Lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma (FL), a typically nodal disease, can arise in extranodal sites in about 10% of cases. The present study aimed to analyse the main differential features of patients with primary extranodal FL. Thirty-nine patients with primary extranodal FL were identified from a series of 354 patients with FL diagnosed at a single institution and their main clinicobiological features were analysed. Twenty patients (5·6%) had a primary extranodal non-cutaneous FL, and 19 (5·4%) a cutaneous FL. BCL2(+) and CD10(+) expression and BCL2/IGHJ@ rearrangement were less frequently observed in cutaneous FL. Absence of 'B'-symptoms, early stage, absence of bone marrow involvement and low-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) were more frequent in extranodal FL. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 100%, 83% and 78% for cutaneous, non-cutaneous and nodal FL, respectively. When stage I patients were analysed separately, no differences were seen in terms of OS. In multivariate analysis, FLIPI was the most important variable to predict outcome. In conclusion, extranodal FLs, particularly cutaneous, have particular clinico-biological features, which differentiate them from nodal cases. Nevertheless, primary site of the disease is not the main issue to predict outcome.

18F-Fallypride PET of Pancreatic Islets: in Vitro and in Vivo Rodent Studies

Islet cell loss in the pancreas results in diabetes. A noninvasive method that measures islet cell loss and also tracks the fate of transplanted islets would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics and improve the management of diabetes. We describe a novel dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor (D(2)/D(3)R)-based PET method to study islet cells in the rat pancreas and in islet cell transplantation.

Functional Characterization of the Sciarid BhC4-1 Core Promoter in Transgenic Drosophila

Core promoters are cis-regulatory modules to which bind the basal transcriptional machinery and which participate in the regulation of transcription initiation. Although core promoters have not been extensively investigated through functional assays in a chromosomal context, the available data suggested that the response of a given core promoter might vary depending on the promoter context. Previous studies suggest that a (-57/+40) fragment constitutes the core promoter of the BhC4-1 gene which is located in DNA puff C4 of the sciarid fly Bradysia hygida. Here we tested this (-57/+40) fragment in distinct regulatory contexts in order to verify if promoter context affects its core promoter activity.

Pigmented Spindle Cell Nevus: Clues for Differentiating It from Spindle Cell Malignant Melanoma. A Comprehensive Survey Including Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and FISH Studies

Pigmented spindle cell nevus (PSCN), also known as Reed nevus, is a distinctive melanocytic tumor that can show worrisome clinical and histologic features mimicking a malignant melanoma. From a series of 46 pigmented spindle cell melanocytic lesions, including 22 PSCN and 24 spindle cell malignant melanomas (SCMMs), we collected clinical and histopathologic characteristics and evaluated cell cycle and apoptosis regulators by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 11q13 (CCND1), 6q23 (MYB), and centromere 6 was performed. PSCN presented in younger people, frequently in women, and were small lesions under 7 mm in diameter affecting the lower limbs, whereas SCMMs arose more frequently in the trunk, upper limbs, and head and neck region. Histologically, symmetry, good lateral demarcation, and uniformity of cellular nests were significantly differential features of PSCN, whereas pagetoid and adnexal spread were frequently seen in both tumors. Immunohistochemical markers that significantly differed from melanomas were Ki-67, cyclin D1, and survivin. FISH was positive in 1 of 15 PSCN and was negative in 4 of 15 SCMMs. These results correlated to a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93%. In conclusion, in the evaluation of pigmented spindle cell melanocytic tumors, the integration of clinical and histologic assessment is essential. However, ancillary techniques such as proliferation antigen Ki-67, cyclin D1, survivin, and FISH can be useful as adjunctive tools.

Estimates of DNA Damage by the Comet Assay in the Direct-developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Johnstonei (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae)

The aim of this study was to use the Comet assay to assess genetic damage in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei. A DNA diffusion assay was used to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline, enzymatic and alkaline/enzymatic treatments for lysing E. johnstonei blood cells and to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis and necrosis. Cell sensitivity to the mutagens bleomycin (BLM) and 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) was also assessed using the Comet assay, as was the assay reproducibility. Alkaline treatment did not lyse the cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of E. johnstonei blood cells, whereas enzymatic digestion with proteinase K (40 μg/mL) yielded naked nuclei. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis (assessed by the DNA diffusion assay) to DNA damage was estimated to range from 0% to 8%. BLM and 4NQO induced DNA damage in E. johnstonei blood cells at different concentrations and exposure times. Dose-effect curves with both mutagens were highly reproducible and showed consistently low coefficients of variation (CV ≤ 10%). The results are discussed with regard to the potential use of the modified Comet assay for assessing the exposure of E. johnstonei to herbicides in ecotoxicological studies.

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