JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Biology

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Engineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Developmental Biology

|  

In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Amanda R. Duselis in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Harvesting Sperm and Artificial Insemination of Mice

1Dept. of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 184

This protocol demonstrates methods for extracting sperm from the testes of males and then inseminating female mice. This procedure is useful when precise time is needed in developmental studies as well as transgenic work.

 JoVE Biology

Retrieval of Mouse Oocytes

1Dept. of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 185

This protocol illustrates the technique for extracting oocytes or early-stage fertilized embryos from the oviduct of mice. The ability to identify the infindibulum and insert a blunt end needle into it is essential to correctly performing the procedure.

Other articles by Amanda R. Duselis on PubMed

Genetic Evidence for a Maternal Effect Locus Controlling Genomic Imprinting and Growth

Crosses between two species of deer mouse (Peromyscus) yield dramatic parent-of-origin effects. Female P. maniculatus (BW) crossed with male P. polionotus (PO) produce animals smaller than either parent. PO females crossed with BW males yield lethal overgrowth that has been associated with loss-of-imprinting (LOI). Previously, we mapped two loci influencing fetal growth. These two loci, however, do not account for the LOI, nor for the dysmorphic phenotypes. Here we report that maternal genetic background strongly influences the LOI. Analyses of crosses wherein maternal genetic background is varied suggest that this effect is likely due to the action of a small number of loci. We have termed these putative loci Meil. Estimation of Meil loci number was confounded by skewed allelic ratios in the intercross line employed. We show that the Meil loci are not identical to any of the DNA methyltransferases shown to be involved in regulation of genomic imprinting.

Mapping and Identification of Candidate Loci Responsible for Peromyscus Hybrid Overgrowth

Crosses between two recently diverged rodent species of the genus Peromyscus result in dramatic parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. P. maniculatus females crossed with P. polionotus males yield growth-retarded conceptuses, whereas the reciprocal cross results in overgrowth and lethality. These hybrid effects are particularly pronounced in the placenta. We previously detected linkage to two regions of the genome involved in the overgrowth effects. One locus, termed Peal, is a paternally expressed autosomal locus mapping to a domain whose house mouse equivalent contains several clusters of imprinted genes. The other locus, termed Mexl, maps to a gene-poor region of the X chromosome. Here we use an advanced intercross line to verify and narrow the regions of linkage and identify candidate genes for Mexl and Peal. While we have previously shown that Mexl affects both pre-and postnatal growth, we show here that Peal affects only prenatal growth. Utilizing criteria such as mutant phenotypes and allelic expression, we identify the loci encoding the homeobox protein Esx1 and the zinc-finger protein Pw1/Peg3 as candidates. Both loci exhibit expression changes in the hybrids.

Assessment and Disease Comparisons of Hybrid Developmental Defects

Rodents of the genus Peromyscus are among the most common North American mammals. Crosses between natural populations of two of these species, P. maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO), produce parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. BW females mated to PO males produce growth-retarded offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males produce overgrown but dysmorphic conceptuses. Variation in imprinted loci and control of genomic imprinting appear to underlie the hybrid effects. Prior morphological and genetic analyses have focused on placental and post-natal growth. Here, we assess the frequency and scope of embryonic defects. The most frequent outcome of the PO x BW cross is death prior to embryonic day 13. Conceptuses lacking an embryo proper are also observed as in gestational trophoblast disease. Among the common embryonic phenotypes described and tabulated are edema, blood vessel enlargement/hemorrhaging, macroglossia, retention of nucleated erythrocytes, placentomegaly. We investigate expression of loci known to be mis-regulated in human growth/placental disorders and/or mouse knockouts with similar phenotypes. These loci are Igf2, Cdkn1c, Grb10, Gpc3, Phlda2 and Rb1. All exhibited significant differences in either placental or embryonic expression levels at one or more of the three timepoints examined. The data underscore the importance of placental gene expression on embryonic defects. We suggest that the hybrid defects offer a novel system to understand how natural allelic combinations interact to produce disease phenotypes. We propose that such interactions and their resulting epimutations may similarly underlie the phenotypic and causal heterogeneity seen in many human diseases.

Changes in Cell Cycle and Extracellular Matrix Gene Expression During Placental Development in Deer Mouse (Peromyscus) Hybrids

Crosses between two species of the rodent genus Peromyscus produce defects in both growth and development. The defects are pronounced in the hybrid placentas. Peromyscuys maniculatus (strain BW) females mated to P. polionotus (strain PO) males produce placentas half the size of the parental species, as well as growth-retarded embryos. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males result in defective conceptuses that display embryonic and placental overgrowth. These 'parent-of-origin'-dependent phenotypes are consistent with previous studies that demonstrated altered expression of imprinted genes and genetic linkage of the overgrowth phenotypes to imprinted domains. In the present study, we take a broader approach in assessing perturbations in hybrid placental gene expression through the use of Mus musculus cDNA microarrays. In verifying classes of genes identified in microarray screens differentially regulated during hybrid placental development, we focused on those influencing the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM). Our work suggests that cell cycle regulators at the G(1)/S phase check-point are downregulated in the large hybrid placenta, whereas the small hybrid placenta is more variable. The ECM genes are typically downstream targets of cell cycle regulation and their misregulation is consistent with many of the dysmorphic phenotypes. Thus, these data suggest imbalances in proliferation and differentiation in hybrid placentation.

Patterns of Hybrid Loss of Imprinting Reveal Tissue- and Cluster-specific Regulation

Crosses between natural populations of two species of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (BW), and P. polionotus (PO), produce parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. BW females mated to PO males (bwxpo) produce growth-retarded but otherwise healthy offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males (POxBW) produce overgrown and severely defective offspring. The hybrid phenotypes are pronounced in the placenta and include POxBW conceptuses which lack embryonic structures. Evidence to date links variation in control of genomic imprinting with the hybrid defects, particularly in the POxBW offspring. Establishment of genomic imprinting is typically mediated by gametic DNA methylation at sites known as gDMRs. However, imprinted gene clusters vary in their regulation by gDMR sequences.

Aberrant Growth and Pattern Formation in Peromyscus Hybrid Placental Development

Crosses between the North American deer mouse species Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) produce dramatic asymmetric developmental effects. BW females mated to PO males (female bw × male po) produce viable growth-retarded offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males (female PO × male BW) produce overgrown but dysmorphic conceptuses. Most female PO × male BW offspring are dead by midgestation; those surviving to later time points display numerous defects reminiscent of several diseases. The hybrid effects are particularly pronounced in the placenta. Here we examine placental morphological defects via histology and in situ hybridization as well as the relationship between growth and mortality in the female PO × male BW cross. These assays indicate altered hybrid fetal:placental ratios by the equivalent of mouse (Mus) Embryonic Day (E) 13 and disorganization and labyrinth defects in female PO × male BW placentas and confirm earlier suggestions of a severely reduced junctional zone in the female bw × male po hybrids. Further, we show that both cellular proliferation and death are abnormal in the hybrids through BrdU incorporation and TUNEL assays, respectively. Together the data indicate that the origin of the effects is prior to the equivalent of Mus E10. Finally, as the majority of these assays had not previously been performed on Peromyscus, these studies provide comparative data on wild-type placentation.

The Biology and Methodology of Assisted Reproduction in Deer Mice (Peromyscus Maniculatus)

Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus-including deer mice-are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte and/or embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this hormone priming, females mated overnight with a fertile male yielded an average of 9.1 two-cell stage embryos. Although two-cell stage embryos developed to 8-cell stage in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM; Millipore-Chemicon, Billerica, MA, USA) in vitro, but not further, embryos recovered at the 8- to 16-cell stages developed into fully expanded blastocysts when cultured in M16 media in vitro. These blastocysts had full potential to develop into late stage fetuses and possibly into live pups. As a result of the present work, all stages of Peromyscus preimplantation development are now obtainable in numbers sufficient for molecular or other analyses. These advances provide the opportunity for routine studies involving embryo transfer (e.g., chimeras, transgenics), and preservation of genetic lines by cryopreservation.

Peromyscus (deer Mice) As Developmental Models

Deer mice (Peromyscus) are the most common native North American mammals, and exhibit great natural genetic variation. Wild-derived stocks from a number of populations are available from the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (PGSC). The PGSC also houses a number of natural variants and mutants (many of which appear to differ from Mus). These include metabolic, coat-color/pattern, neurological, and other morphological variants/mutants. Nearly all these mutants are on a common genetic background, the Peromyscus maniculatus BW stock. Peromyscus are also superior behavior models in areas such as repetitive behavior and pair-bonding effects, as multiple species are monogamous. While Peromyscus development generally resembles that of Mus and Rattus, prenatal stages have not been as thoroughly studied, and there appear to be intriguing differences (e.g., longer time spent at the two-cell stage). Development is greatly perturbed in crosses between P. maniculatus (BW) and Peromyscus polionotus (PO). BW females crossed to PO males produce growth-restricted, but otherwise healthy, fertile offspring which allows for genetic analyses of the many traits that differ between these two species. PO females crossed to BW males produce overgrown but severely dysmorphic conceptuses that rarely survive to late gestation. There are likely many more uses for these animals as developmental models than we have described here. Peromyscus models can now be more fully exploited due to the emerging genetic (full linkage map), genomic (genomes of four stocks have been sequenced) and reproductive resources.

Waiting
simple hit counter