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In JoVE (1)
- A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Other Publications (8)
- Endothelium : Journal of Endothelial Cell Research
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Circulation Research
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Articles by Amir Rezvan in JoVE
A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Douglas Nam1, Chih-Wen Ni2, Amir Rezvan1, Jin Suo2, Klaudia Budzyn1, Alexander Llanos1, David G. Harrison1, Don P. Giddens2, Hanjoong Jo1,2,3
1Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech and Emory University, 3Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University
This describes a partial carotid ligation surgery, which causes disturbed flow conditions and subsequent atherosclerosis development (in two weeks) with intraplaque neo-vascularization (in four weeks) in the mouse common carotid artery. We also describe a novel method of RNA isolation from the carotid intima, providing high purity endothelial RNA.
Other articles by Amir Rezvan on PubMed
Steady Unidirectional Laminar Flow Inhibits Monolayer Formation by Human and Rat Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Endothelium : Journal of Endothelial Cell Research. Jan-Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15203875
Endothelialization of artificial vascular grafts is rapid and complete in numerous animal models, including dogs and rats, but not in human patients. One possible explanation for this well-known, yet puzzling observation might be that monolayer formation of human endothelial cells (ECs), and of canine or rodent ECs, is affected differently by flow-induced shear stress. To begin testing this hypothesis, the authors wounded confluent monolayers of cultured rat and human ECs and exposed these cultures for 20 h to unidirectional steady laminar shear stress of 10 dyn/cm(2) induced by fluid flow perpendicular to the wound boundaries. In comparison to experimental control cultures simultaneously maintained under static (no-flow) conditions, flow-induced shear stress attenuated the monolayer formation (sheet migration) in both human and rat ECs. In brief, compared to control, the average human EC monolayer formation under shear was reduced by 33% whereas the average rat EC monolayer formation was reduced by 34%. Furthermore, the cell responses showed a dependence on fluid flow direction that differed per species. When exposed to shear stress, human EC monolayer formation was reduced by 16% in the upstream direction (opposing the direction of flow) and reduced by 50% in the downstream direction (with the direction of flow), whereas rat EC monolayer formation was reduced by 64% upstream and showed no change downstream. These findings suggest that although overall monolayer formation is inhibited by fluid-induced shear stress to the same extent in both species, there are cell type- and/or species-dependent migration responses to fluid-induced shear stress, and that different flow conditions possibly contribute to species-specific patterns of endothelialization.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16123305
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a well known neurotropic and neurotrophic agonist in the nervous system, which recently was shown to also induce angiogenic effects in endothelial cells (ECs). To measure NGF effects on the migration of cultured ECs, an important step in neoangiogenesis, we optimized an omnidirectional migration assay using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and validated the assay with human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) and human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF). The potencies of nerve growth factor purified from various species (viper, mouse, and recombinant human) to stimulate HAEC migration was similar to that of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (EC50 of approximately 0.5 ng/ml). Recombinant human bFGF was significantly more efficacious than either viper NGF or rhVEGF, both of which stimulated HAEC migration by approximately 30% over basal spontaneous migration. NGF-mediated stimulation of HAEC migration was completely blocked by the NGF/TrkA receptor antagonist K252a [(8R*,9S*,11S*)-(/)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,-8H,11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo(a,g)cycloocta(c,d,e)trindene-1-one] (30 nM) but not by the VEGF/Flk receptor antagonist SU-5416 [3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl) methylidenyl]-indolin-2-one] (250 nM), indicating a direct effect of NGF via TrkA receptor activation on HAEC migration. Viper NGF stimulation of HAEC migration was additively increased by either rhVEGF or rhbFGF, suggesting a potentiating interaction between their tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways. Viper NGF represents a novel pharmacological tool to investigate possible TrkA receptor subtypes in endothelial cells. The ability of NGF to stimulate migration of HAEC cells in vitro implies that this factor may play an important role in the cardiovascular system besides its well known effects in the nervous system.
Partial Carotid Ligation is a Model of Acutely Induced Disturbed Flow, Leading to Rapid Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19684185
Atherosclerosis is closely associated with disturbed flow characterized by low and oscillatory shear stress, but studies directly linking disturbed flow to atherogenesis is lacking. The major reason for this has been a lack of an animal model in which disturbed flow can be acutely induced and cause atherosclerosis. Here, we characterize partial carotid ligation as a model of disturbed flow with characteristics of low and oscillatory wall shear stress. We also describe a method of isolating intimal RNA in sufficient quantity from mouse carotid arteries. Using this model and method, we found that partial ligation causes upregulation of proatherogenic genes, downregulation of antiatherogenic genes, endothelial dysfunction, and rapid atherosclerosis in 2 wk in a p47(phox)-dependent manner and advanced lesions by 4 wk. We found that partial ligation results in endothelial dysfunction, rapid atherosclerosis, and advanced lesion development in a physiologically relevant model of disturbed flow. It also allows for easy and rapid intimal RNA isolation. This novel model and method could be used for genome-wide studies to determine molecular mechanisms underlying flow-dependent regulation of vascular biology and diseases.
GTP Cyclohydrolase I Phosphorylation and Interaction with GTP Cyclohydrolase Feedback Regulatory Protein Provide Novel Regulation of Endothelial Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide
Circulation Research. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19926872
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), an essential cofactor for NO synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. GTPCH-1 undergoes negative feedback regulation by its end-product BH(4) via interaction with the GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). Such a negative feedback mechanism should maintain cellular BH(4) levels within a very narrow range; however, we recently identified a phosphorylation site (S81) on human GTPCH-1 that markedly increases BH(4) production in response to laminar shear.
Discovery of Novel Mechanosensitive Genes in Vivo Using Mouse Carotid Artery Endothelium Exposed to Disturbed Flow
Blood. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20551377
Recently, we showed that disturbed flow caused by a partial ligation of mouse carotid artery rapidly induces atherosclerosis. Here, we identified mechanosensitive genes in vivo through a genome-wide microarray study using mouse endothelial RNAs isolated from the flow-disturbed left and the undisturbed right common carotid artery. We found 62 and 523 genes that changed significantly by 12 hours and 48 hours after ligation, respectively. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 44 of 46 tested genes. This array study discovered numerous novel mechanosensitive genes, including Lmo4, klk10, and dhh, while confirming well-known ones, such as Klf2, eNOS, and BMP4. Four genes were further validated for protein, including LMO4, which showed higher expression in mouse aortic arch and in human coronary endothelium in an asymmetric pattern. Comparison of in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro endothelial gene expression profiles indicates that numerous in vivo mechanosensitive genes appear to be lost or dysregulated during culture. Gene ontology analyses show that disturbed flow regulates genes involved in cell proliferation and morphology by 12 hours, followed by inflammatory and immune responses by 48 hours. Determining the functional importance of these novel mechanosensitive genes may provide important insights into understanding vascular biology and atherosclerosis.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20712399
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease preferentially occurring in curved or branched arterial regions, whereas straight parts of the arteries are protected, suggesting a close relationship between flow and atherosclerosis. However, evidence directly linking disturbed flow to atherogenesis is just emerging, thanks to the recent development of suitable animal models. In this article, we review the status of various animal, in vitro, and ex vivo models that have been used to study flow-dependent vascular biology and atherosclerosis. For animal models, naturally flow-disturbed regions such as branched or curved arterial regions as well as surgically created models, including arterio-venous fistulas, vascular grafts, perivascular cuffs, and complete, incomplete, or partial ligation of arteries, are used. Although in vivo models provide the environment needed to mimic the complex pathophysiological processes, in vitro models provide simple conditions that allow the study of isolated factors. Typical in vitro models use cultured endothelial cells exposed to various flow conditions, using devices such as cone-and-plate and parallel-plate chambers. Ex vivo models using isolated vessels have been used to bridge the gap between complex in vivo models and simple in vitro systems. Here, we review these flow models in the context of the role of oxidative stress in flow-dependent inflammation, a critical proatherogenic step, and atherosclerosis.
Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency and Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling Contribute to Atherosclerosis Induced by Disturbed Flow
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21512164
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is a critical cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by NO synthase (NOS). Recently, we demonstrated that disturbed flow produced by partial carotid ligation decreases BH(4) levels in vivo. We therefore aimed to determine whether atherosclerosis induced by disturbed flow is due to BH(4) deficiency and NOS uncoupling and whether increasing BH(4) would prevent endothelial dysfunction, plaque inflammation, and atherosclerosis.
Dynamic Immune Cell Accumulation During Flow-Induced Atherogenesis in Mouse Carotid Artery: An Expanded Flow Cytometry Method
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22247254
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis. However, the detailed changes in the composition and quantity of leukocytes in the arterial wall during atherogenesis are not fully understood in part because of the lack of suitable methods and animal models. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a 10-fluorochrome, 13-parameter flow cytometry method to quantitate 7 major leukocyte subsets in a single digested arterial wall sample. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice underwent left carotid artery (LCA) partial ligation and were fed a high-fat diet for 4 to 28 days. Monocyte/macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and CD4 T cells significantly infiltrated the LCA as early as 4 days. Monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells decreased between 7 and 14 days, whereas T-cell numbers remained steady. Leukocyte numbers peaked at 7 days, preceding atheroma formation at 14 days. B cells entered LCA by 14 days. Control right carotid and sham-ligated LCAs showed no significant infiltrates. Polymerase chain reaction and ELISA arrays showed that expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines peaked at 7 and 14 days postligation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first quantitative description of leukocyte number and composition over the life span of murine atherosclerosis. These results show that disturbed flow induces rapid and dynamic leukocyte accumulation in the arterial wall during the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.