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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- Virus Research
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Journal of Virology
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- PloS One
- Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Articles by Antonieta Guerrero-Plata in JoVE
Isolation of Mouse Lung Dendritic Cells
Wallissa Lancelin, Antonieta Guerrero-Plata
Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University
A highly purified preparation of mouse lung dendritic cells is described. Specific emphasis is given to the isolation of conventional dendritic cell subset.
Other articles by Antonieta Guerrero-Plata on PubMed
Antigen Presentation by a Macrophage-like Cell Line Persistently Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Virus Research. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14687952
Severe infection by the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) early in life is associated with subsequent recurrent airway disease presumably mediated by dysregulation of the local immune response. Dysfunction of the immune response may be related to impaired macrophage functions. We have previously reported that RSV persistence in a macrophage culture (MPhiper) alters Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR)-mediated phagocytosis and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we determined whether the ability of macrophages to process and present antigens and to stimulate RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells was altered in MPhiper. We also examined the level of expression of MHC class I molecules in MPhiper and the ability of these cells to present viral antigens to specific T lymphocytes. Our results showed that antigen processing and presentation were not altered by chronic RSV infection, and suggested that MPhiper were able to stimulate RSV-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes.
Activity and Regulation of Alpha Interferon in Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Experimental Infections
Journal of Virology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16051812
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause a similar spectrum of respiratory infections in humans. Classified within the Paramyxoviridae family, Pneumovirinae subfamily, RSV and hMPV present a significant degree of divergence in genome constellation, organization, and protein sequences. RSV has been reported to be a poor inducer of alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) and partially resistant to its antiviral activity. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV is currently unknown. Herein, an experimental mouse model was used to investigate the interplay between RSV and hMPV infections and IFN-alpha in the airways. RSV-infected BALB/c mice treated intranasally with either poly-ICLC, a potent inducer of IFN-alpha, or directly with recombinant IFN-alpha showed significantly reduced lung viral titers, inflammation, and clinical disease than untreated controls. However, RSV was significantly less sensitive to the antiviral activity of IFN-alpha than hMPV. Similarly, when the ability to directly induce IFN-alpha production was assessed, RSV was clearly a weaker inducer of IFN-alpha than hMPV, as shown by both kinetics and the absolute amount of IFN-alpha secreted into the bronchoalveolar lavage. To further investigate the putative inhibitory effect of these viruses on IFN-alpha production, mice were infected for 48 h prior to treatment with poly-ICLC or a specific Toll-like receptor 9 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Strikingly, both poly-ICLC- and CpG-mediated IFN-alpha production was abrogated by either RSV or MPV infection. These results suggest that a complex interplay between virus-specific and host-mediated responses regulates IFN-alpha in the lung during infection by members of the Pneumovirinae family.
Human Metapneumovirus Induces a Profile of Lung Cytokines Distinct from That of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16282501
Lung cytokine and chemokine production by BALB/c mice infected with human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was compared to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected mice. hMPV infection induced lower levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha but was a more potent inducer of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and triggered a more sustained production of the CXC chemokine KC compared to RSV. hMPV was a stronger inducer of both alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma responses than RSV. In regard to immunomodulatory cytokines, hMPV failed to induce detectable IL-10 or IL-12p70 but was a potent inducer of IL-12 p40 subunit. The implications for hMPV pathogenesis are discussed.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16284360
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in shaping antiviral immune responses in the respiratory tract. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified pathogen and like its better known relative, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), has been increasingly recognized as a major cause of respiratory morbidity in infants and in elderly persons. In the present study, we examined susceptibility as well as cellular responses of human DCs to hMPV compared with RSV. Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were susceptible to infection by both viruses, but only RSV was able to induce a productive infection with release of viral progeny. Despite the fact that viral infection resulted in phenotypic maturation of moDCs, as shown by the upregulation of cell surface markers and antigen-presenting molecules (MHC I and II, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD38), RSV-infected moDCs showed a severely impaired capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation. Compared with hMPV, RSV was a more potent inducer of inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-10, and IL-12p70 in both moDCs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). On the other hand, hMPV, but not RSV, was able to trigger production of IFN-alpha by moDCs, while both viruses strongly induced IFN-alpha in pDCs. Finally, both viruses strikingly suppressed IFN-alpha production by moDCs or pDCs stimulated with synthetic dsRNA and CpG-ODN, respectively. The findings provide novel evidence that RSV and hMPV differentially activate human DCs and may use distinct mechanisms to interfere with the host innate and adaptive immune responses.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17008643
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. No treatment has been shown to significantly improve the clinical outcome of patients with this infection. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung inflammatory diseases. We do not known whether RSV induces pulmonary oxidative stress and whether antioxidant treatment can modulate RSV-induced lung disease.
Differential Activation of Human Monocyte-derived and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by West Nile Virus Generated in Different Host Cells
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17913823
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in innate immunity and antiviral responses. In this study, we investigated the production of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and inducible chemokines by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) infected with West Nile virus (WNV), an emergent pathogen whose infection can lead to severe cases of encephalitis in the elderly, children, and immunocompromised individuals. Our experiments demonstrated that WNV grown in mammalian cells (WNV(Vero)) was a potent inducer of IFN-alpha secretion in pDCs and, to a lesser degree, in mDCs. The ability of WNV(Vero) to induce IFN-alpha in pDCs did not require viral replication and was prevented by the treatment of cells with bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, suggesting that it was dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptor recognition. On the other hand, IFN-alpha production in mDCs required viral replication and was associated with the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and viral antigen expression. Strikingly, pDCs failed to produce IFN-alpha when stimulated with WNV grown in mosquito cells (WNV(C7/10)), while mDCs responded similarly to WNV(Vero) or WNV(C7/10). Moreover, the IFN-dependent chemokine IP-10 was produced in substantial amounts by pDCs in response to WNV(Vero) but not WNV(C7/10), while interleukin-8 was produced in greater amounts by mDCs infected with WNV(C7/10) than in those infected with WNV(Vero). These findings suggest that cell-specific mechanisms of WNV recognition leading to the production of type I IFN and inflammatory chemokines by DCs may contribute to both the innate immune response and disease pathogenesis in human infections.
Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections with Morpholino Oligomers in Cell Cultures and in Mice
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18443602
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, young children, and high-risk adults. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent RSV infection, and the available therapeutic agents are of limited utility. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are a class of antisense agents that can enter cells readily and interfere with viral protein expression through steric blocking of complementary RNA. Two antisense PPMOs, designed to target sequence that includes the 5'-terminal region and translation start-site region of RSV L mRNA, were tested for anti-RSV activity in cultures of two human-airway cell lines. Both PPMOs showed minimal cytotoxicity and one of them, (AUG-2), reduced viral titers by >2.0 log(10). Intranasal (i.n.) treatment of BALB/c mice with AUG-2 PPMO before the RSV inoculation produced a reduction in viral titer of 1.2 log(10) in lung tissue at day 5 postinfection (p.i.), and attenuated pulmonary inflammation at day 7 postinfection. These data show that the AUG-2 PPMO possesses potent anti-RSV activity and is worthy of further investigation as a candidate for potential therapeutic application.
T Lymphocytes Contribute to Antiviral Immunity and Pathogenesis in Experimental Human Metapneumovirus Infection
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18562525
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Virus- and host-specific mechanisms of pathogenesis and immune protection are not fully understood. By an intranasal inoculation model, we show that hMPV-infected BALB/c mice developed clinical disease, including airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness (AHR), along with histopathologic evidence of lung inflammation and viral replication. hMPV infection protected mice against subsequent viral challenge, as demonstrated by undetectable viral titers, lack of body weight loss, and a significant reduction in the level of lung inflammation. No cross-protection with other paramyxoviruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus, was observed. T-lymphocyte depletion studies showed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cooperate synergistically in hMPV eradication during primary infection, but CD4(+) more than CD8(+) T cells also enhanced clinical disease and lung pathology. Concurrent depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells completely blocked airway obstruction as well as AHR. Despite impaired generation of neutralizing anti-hMPV antibodies in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, mice had undetectable viral replication after hMPV challenge and were protected from clinical disease, suggesting that protection can be provided by an intact CD8(+) T-cell compartment. Whether these findings have implications for naturally acquired human infections remains to be determined.
Cigarette Smoke Condensate Enhances Respiratory Syncytial Virus-induced Chemokine Release by Modulating NF-kappa B and Interferon Regulatory Factor Activation
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18723827
Exposure to cigarette smoke is a risk factor contributing to the severity of respiratory tract infections associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Stimulation of airway epithelial cells by either RSV or cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has been shown to induce secretion of the proinflammatory chemokines. However, the effect of coexposure of airway epithelial cells to CSC and RSV on inducible chemokine production has not been previously investigated. The results of this study indicate that CSC costimulation significantly increased RSV-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattactant protein-1 gene and protein expression when compared with each stimulus alone. Promoter deletion studies identified the interferon stimulatory response element (ISRE) of the IL-8 promoter as a critical region responsible for the synergistic increase of IL-8 gene transcription during mixed exposure. CSC costimulation enhanced RSV-induced activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-7, which bind to the ISRE site. CSC also furthered RSV-induced activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), as shown by increased NF-kappaB DNA binding to its specific site of the IL-8 promoter and increased NF-kappaB-driven gene transcription. Therefore, our data demonstrate that a combined exposure to CSC and RSV synergistically increases chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells, suggesting that CSC contributes to an exuberant immune response to RSV by stimulating overlapping signal transduction pathways.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19234204
Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are characterized by short-lasting virus-specific immunity and often long-term airway morbidity, both of which may be the result of alterations in the Ag-presenting function of the lung which follow these infections. In this study, we investigated whether hMPV and RSV experimental infections alter the phenotype and function of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that are recruited to the lung. Characterization of lung DC trafficking demonstrated a differential recruitment of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC (cDC), and IFN-producing killer DC to the lung and draining lymph nodes after hMPV and RSV infection. In vitro infection of lung DC indicated that in pDC, production of IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, and CCL5 was induced only by hMPV, whereas CCL3 and CCL4 were induced by both viruses. In cDC, a similar repertoire of cytokines was induced by hMPV and RSV, except for IFN-beta, which was not induced by RSV. The function of lung pDC was altered following hMPV or RSV infection in vivo, as we demonstrated a reduced capacity of lung pDC to produce IFN-alpha as well as other cytokines including IL-6, TNF-alpha, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 in response to TLR9 stimulation. Moreover, we observed an impaired capacity of cDC from infected mice to present Ag to CD4(+) T cells, an effect that lasted beyond the acute phase of infection. Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long-term immune function of pulmonary DC.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20668677
Rapid mobilization of neutrophils from vasculature to the site of bacterial/viral infections and tissue injury is a critical step in successful resolution of inflammation. The chemokine CXCL8 plays a central role in recruiting neutrophils. A characteristic feature of CXCL8 is its ability to reversibly exist as both monomers and dimers, but whether both forms exist in vivo, and if so, the relevance of each form for in vivo function is not known. In this study, using a 'trapped' non-associating monomer and a non-dissociating dimer, we show that (i) wild type (WT) CXCL8 exists as both monomers and dimers, (ii) the in vivo recruitment profiles of the monomer, dimer, and WT are distinctly different, and (iii) the dimer is essential for initial robust recruitment and the WT is most active for sustained recruitment. Using a microfluidic device, we also observe that recruitment is not only dependent on the total amount of CXCL8 but also on the steepness of the gradient, and the gradients created by different CXCL8 variants elicit different neutrophil migratory responses. CXCL8 mediates its function by binding to CXCR2 receptor on neutrophils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on endothelial cells. On the basis of our data, we propose that dynamic equilibrium between CXCL8 monomers and dimers and their differential binding to CXCR2 and GAGs mediates and regulates in vivo neutrophil recruitment. Our finding that both CXCL8 monomer and dimer are functional in vivo is novel, and indicates that the CXCL8 monomer-dimer equilibrium and neutrophil recruitment are intimately linked in health and disease.
Cigarette Smoke Suppresses TLR-7 Stimulation in Response to Virus Infection in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells
Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21435390
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis, a clinical syndrome of infancy caused by viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The mechanisms by which ETS increases the risk of viral respiratory infections are largely unknown. A major effector integrating early antiviral and immunostimulatory activities is interferon-α (IFN-α), which is highly produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). In this work, we determined the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human pDC immunity in response to a respiratory viral infection. We found that CSE inhibited RSV-induced IFN-α in pDC as well as the release of IL-1β, IL-10 and CXCL10. However, the production of additional cytokines and chemokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL8 was not altered. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that CSE decreased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-7 in RSV-infected pDC. Furthermore, determination of IRF-7 phosphorylation by flow cytometry showed that CSE prevented IRF-7 activation. These data provide evidence that cigarette smoke suppresses key pDC functions upon viral infection by a mechanism that involves downregulation of TLR7 expression and decreased activation of IRF-7.
The Monomer-dimer Equilibrium and Glycosaminoglycan Interactions of Chemokine CXCL8 Regulate Tissue-specific Neutrophil Recruitment
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22140266
Chemokines exert their function by binding the GPCR class of receptors on leukocytes and cell surface GAGs in target tissues. Most chemokines reversibly exist as monomers and dimers, but very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the monomer-dimer equilibrium modulates in vivo function. For the chemokine CXCL8, we recently showed in a mouse lung model that monomers and dimers are active and that the monomer-dimer equilibrium of the WT plays a crucial role in regulating neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we show that monomers and dimers are also active in the mouse peritoneum but that the role of monomer-dimer equilibrium is distinctly different between these tissues and that mutations in GAG-binding residues render CXCL8 less active in the peritoneum but more active in the lung. We propose that tissue-specific differences in chemokine gradient formation, resulting from tissue-specific differences in GAG interactions, are responsible for the observed differences in neutrophil recruitment. Our observation of differential roles played by the CXCL8 monomer-dimer equilibrium and GAG interactions in different tissues is novel and reveals an additional level of complexity of how chemokine dimerization regulates in vivo recruitment.