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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Molecular Microbiology
- Molecular Microbiology
- Nature Protocols
- International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
- Current Opinion in Structural Biology
- Molecular Microbiology
- Archives of Microbiology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Microscopy and Microanalysis : the Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The EMBO Journal
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Molecular Microbiology
- Nature Cell Biology
- Methods in Enzymology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- The EMBO Journal
- Molecular Microbiology
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Articles by Ariane Briegel in JoVE
Electron Cryotomography de células bacterianas
Songye Chen1, Alasdair McDowall1,2, Megan J. Dobro1, Ariane Briegel1,2, Mark Ladinsky1,2, Jian Shi2, Elitza I. Tocheva1, Morgan Beeby1,2, Martin Pilhofer1,2, H. Jane Ding1, Zhuo Li1,2, Lu Gan1, Dylan M. Morris1, Grant J. Jensen1,2
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology - Caltech, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology - Caltech
Que vamos mostrar aqui como usar elétron cryotomography (ECT) para estudar a ultra-estrutura das células bacterianas em quase nativo estados, a "macromolecular" (~ 4 nm) resolução.
Other articles by Ariane Briegel on PubMed
Molecular Microbiology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15813730
Proteinaceous, hair-like appendages known as fimbriae or pili commonly extend from the surface of prokaryotic cells and serve important functions such as cell adhesion, biofilm formation, motility and DNA transfer. Here we show that a novel group of archaea from cold, sulphidic springs has developed cell surface appendages of an unexpectedly high complexity with a well-defined base-to-top organization. It represents a new class of filamentous cell appendages, for which the term 'hamus' is proposed. Each archaeal cell is surrounded by a halo of about 100 hami, which mediate strong adhesion of the cells to surfaces of different chemical composition. The hami are mainly composed of 120 kDa subunits and remained stable in a broad temperature and pH range (0-70 degrees C; 0.5-11.5). Electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography revealed that the hamus filament possesses a helical basic structure. At periodic distances, three prickles emanate from the filament, giving it the character of industrially produced barbwire. At its distal end the hami carry a tripartite, barbed grappling hook (60 nm in diameter). The architecture of this molecular hook is reminiscent of man-made fishhooks, grapples and anchors. It appears that nature has developed a perfect mechanical nano-tool in the course of biological evolution, which also might prove useful in the field of nanobiotechnology.
Molecular Microbiology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16987173
While the absence of any cytoskeleton was once recognized as a distinguishing feature of prokaryotes, it is now clear that a number of different bacterial proteins do form filaments in vivo. Despite the critical roles these proteins play in cell shape, genome segregation and cell division, molecular mechanisms have remained obscure in part for lack of electron microscopy-resolution images where these filaments can be seen acting within their cellular context. Here, electron cryotomography was used to image the widely studied model prokaryote Caulobacter crescentus in an intact, near-native state, producing three-dimensional reconstructions of these cells with unprecedented clarity and fidelity. We observed many instances of large filament bundles in various locations throughout the cell and at different stages of the cell cycle. The bundles appear to fall into four major classes based on shape and location, referred to here as 'inner curvature', 'cytoplasmic', 'polar' and 'ring-like'. In an attempt to identify at least some of the filaments, we imaged cells where crescentin and MreB filaments would not be present. The inner curvature and cytoplasmic bundles persisted, which together with their localization patterns, suggest that they are composed of as-yet unidentified cytoskeletal proteins. Thus bacterial filaments are frequently found as bundles, and their variety and abundance is greater than previously suspected.
Nature Protocols. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17406539
Electron cryotomography is the highest-resolution structural technique currently available that can be applied to unique objects such as flexible large protein complexes, irregular viruses, organelles and small cells. Specimens are preserved in a near-native, 'frozen-hydrated' state by vitrification. The thickness of the vitreous ice must be optimized for each specimen, and gold fiducials are typically added to facilitate image alignment. Here, we describe in detail our protocols for electron cryotomography sample preparation including (i) introduction of fiducial markers into the sample and (ii) sample vitrification. Because we almost exclusively use an automated, climate-controlled plunge-freezing device (the FEI Vitrobot) to vitrify our samples, we discuss its operation and parameters in detail. A session in which eight grids are prepared takes 1.5-2 h.
Tetrasphaera Remsis Sp. Nov., Isolated from the Regenerative Enclosed Life Support Module Simulator (REMS) Air System
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18048719
Two Gram-positive, coccoid, non-spore-forming bacteria (strains 3-M5-R-4(T) and 3-M5-R-7), cells of which formed diploid, tetrad and cluster arrangements, were isolated from air of the Regenerative Enclosed Life Support Module Simulator system. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the family Intrasporangiaceae and were related to members of the genus Tetrasphaera, with similarities to the seven known species of the genus Tetrasphaera of 96.71-97.76 %. The fatty acid profile supported affiliation of these novel isolates to the genus Tetrasphaera, although larger amounts of octadecanoic acid (C(18 : 0)) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C(18 : 1)) were observed in the isolates, thus enabling them to be differentiated from other Tetrasphaera species. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that these strains belonged to a novel species that could be readily distinguished from its nearest neighbour, Tetrasphaera japonica DSM 13192(T), which had less than 20 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Physiological and biochemical tests showed few phenotypic differences, but genotypic analysis enabled these gelatin-liquefying strains to be differentiated from the seven Tetrasphaera species. The strains described in this study therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Tetrasphaera remsis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 3-M5-R-4(T) (=ATCC BAA-1496(T) =CIP 109413(T)).
Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17398087
Electron cryotomography is an emerging technology that enables thin samples, including small intact prokaryotic cells, to be imaged in three dimensions in a near-native 'frozen-hydrated' state to a resolution sufficient to recognize very large macromolecular complexes in situ. Following years of visionary technology development by a few key pioneers, several laboratories are now using the technique to produce biological results of major significance in the field of prokaryotic ultrastructure. Recent discoveries have included the surprising generality and complexity of the cytoskeleton, the connectivity of key membrane compartments, the location and architecture of large macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and flagellar motors, and the structure of some extraordinary external appendages. Through further technology development, identification of the most revealing model systems and sustained effort, electron cryotomography is poised to help resolve many fundamentally important questions about prokaryotic ultrastructure.
Molecular Microbiology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18363791
A new method for recording both fluorescence and cryo-EM images of small bacterial cells was developed and used to identify chemoreceptor arrays in cryotomograms of intact Caulobacter crescentus cells. We show that in wild-type cells preserved in a near-native state, the chemoreceptors are hexagonally packed with a lattice spacing of 12 nm, just a few tens of nanometers away from the flagellar motor that they control. The arrays were always found on the convex side of the cell, further demonstrating that Caulobacter cells maintain dorsal/ventral as well as anterior/posterior asymmetry. Placing the known crystal structure of a trimer of receptor dimers at each vertex of the lattice accounts well for the density and agrees with other constraints. Based on this model for the arrangement of receptors, there are between one and two thousand receptors per array.
Ignicoccus Hospitalis and Nanoarchaeum Equitans: Ultrastructure, Cell-cell Interaction, and 3D Reconstruction from Serial Sections of Freeze-substituted Cells and by Electron Cryotomography
Archives of Microbiology. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18622597
Ultrastructure and intercellular interaction of Ignicoccus hospitalis and Nanoarchaeum equitans were investigated using two different electron microscopy approaches, by three-dimensional reconstructions from serial sections, and by electron cryotomography. Serial sections were assembled into 3D reconstructions, for visualizing the unusual complexity of I. hospitalis, its huge periplasmic space, the vesiculating cytoplasmic membrane, and the outer membrane. The cytoplasm contains fibres which are reminiscent to a cytoskeleton. Cell division in I. hospitalis is complex, and different to that in Euryarchaeota or Bacteria. An irregular invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane is followed by separation of the two cytoplasms. Simultaneous constriction of cytoplasmic plus outer membrane is not observed. Cells of N. equitans show a classical mode of cell division, by constriction in the mid-plane. Their cytoplasm exhibits two types of fibres, elongated and ring-shaped. Electron micrographs of contact sites between I. hospitalis and N. equitans exhibit two modes of interaction. One is indirect and mediated by thin fibres; in other cells the two cell surfaces are in direct contact. The two membranes of I. hospitalis cells are frequently seen in direct contact, possibly a prerequisite for transporting metabolites or substrates from the cytoplasm of one cell to the other. Rarely, a transport based on cargo vesicles is observed between I. hospitalis and N. equitans.
Stygiolobus Rod-shaped Virus and the Interplay of Crenarchaeal Rudiviruses with the CRISPR Antiviral System
Journal of Bacteriology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18723627
A newly characterized archaeal rudivirus Stygiolobus rod-shaped virus (SRV), which infects a hyperthermophilic Stygiolobus species, was isolated from a hot spring in the Azores, Portugal. Its virions are rod-shaped, 702 (+/- 50) by 22 (+/- 3) nm in size, and nonenveloped and carry three tail fibers at each terminus. The linear double-stranded DNA genome contains 28,096 bp and an inverted terminal repeat of 1,030 bp. The SRV shows morphological and genomic similarities to the other characterized rudiviruses Sulfolobus rod-shaped virus 1 (SIRV1), SIRV2, and Acidianus rod-shaped virus 1, isolated from hot acidic springs of Iceland and Italy. The single major rudiviral structural protein is shown to generate long tubular structures in vitro of similar dimensions to those of the virion, and we estimate that the virion constitutes a single, superhelical, double-stranded DNA embedded into such a protein structure. Three additional minor conserved structural proteins are also identified. Ubiquitous rudiviral proteins with assigned functions include glycosyl transferases and a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, as well as a Holliday junction resolvase, a transcriptionally coupled helicase and nuclease implicated in DNA replication. Analysis of matches between known crenarchaeal chromosomal CRISPR spacer sequences, implicated in a viral defense system, and rudiviral genomes revealed that about 10% of the 3,042 unique acidothermophile spacers yield significant matches to rudiviral genomes, with a bias to highly conserved protein genes, consistent with the widespread presence of rudiviruses in hot acidophilic environments. We propose that the 12-bp indels which are commonly found in conserved rudiviral protein genes may be generated as a reaction to the presence of the host CRISPR defense system.
Microscopy and Microanalysis : the Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18793481
The use of an alkane mixture that remains liquid at 77 K to freeze specimens has advantages over the use of a pure alkane that is solid at 77 K. It was found that a mixture of methane and ethane did not give a cooling rate adequate to produce vitreous ice, but a mixture of propane and ethane did result in vitreous ice. Furthermore, the latter mixture produced less damage to specimens mounted on a very thin, fragile holey carbon substrate.
A Self-associating Protein Critical for Chromosome Attachment, Division, and Polar Organization in Caulobacter
Cell. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18805089
Cell polarization is an integral part of many unrelated bacterial processes. How intrinsic cell polarization is achieved is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that Caulobacter crescentus uses a multimeric pole-organizing factor (PopZ) that serves as a hub to concurrently achieve several polarizing functions. During chromosome segregation, polar PopZ captures the ParB*ori complex and thereby anchors sister chromosomes at opposite poles. This step is essential for stabilizing bipolar gradients of a cell division inhibitor and setting up division near midcell. PopZ also affects polar stalk morphogenesis and mediates the polar localization of the morphogenetic and cell cycle signaling proteins CckA and DivJ. Polar accumulation of PopZ, which is central to its polarizing activity, can be achieved independently of division and does not appear to be dictated by the pole curvature. Instead, evidence suggests that localization of PopZ largely relies on PopZ multimerization in chromosome-free regions, consistent with a self-organizing mechanism.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19805102
Chemoreceptors are key components of the high-performance signal transduction system that controls bacterial chemotaxis. Chemoreceptors are typically localized in a cluster at the cell pole, where interactions among the receptors in the cluster are thought to contribute to the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and precise adaptation of the signaling system. Previous structural and genomic studies have produced conflicting models, however, for the arrangement of the chemoreceptors in the clusters. Using whole-cell electron cryo-tomography, here we show that chemoreceptors of different classes and in many different species representing several major bacterial phyla are all arranged into a highly conserved, 12-nm hexagonal array consistent with the proposed "trimer of dimers" organization. The various observed lengths of the receptors confirm current models for the methylation, flexible bundle, signaling, and linker sub-domains in vivo. Our results suggest that the basic mechanism and function of receptor clustering is universal among bacterial species and was thus conserved during evolution.
Bactofilins, a Ubiquitous Class of Cytoskeletal Proteins Mediating Polar Localization of a Cell Wall Synthase in Caulobacter Crescentus
The EMBO Journal. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19959992
The cytoskeleton has a key function in the temporal and spatial organization of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of a new class of polymer-forming proteins, termed bactofilins, that are widely conserved among bacteria. In Caulobacter crescentus, two bactofilin paralogues cooperate to form a sheet-like structure lining the cytoplasmic membrane in proximity of the stalked cell pole. These assemblies mediate polar localization of a peptidoglycan synthase involved in stalk morphogenesis, thus complementing the function of the actin-like cytoskeleton and the cell division machinery in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. In other bacteria, bactofilins can establish rod-shaped filaments or associate with the cell division apparatus, indicating considerable structural and functional flexibility. Bactofilins polymerize spontaneously in the absence of additional cofactors in vitro, forming stable ribbon- or rod-like filament bundles. Our results suggest that these structures have evolved as an alternative to intermediate filaments, serving as versatile molecular scaffolds in a variety of cellular pathways.
Mutations in the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway Interfere with Crescentin-mediated Cell Curvature in Caulobacter Crescentus
Journal of Bacteriology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20435724
Bacterial cell morphogenesis requires coordination among multiple cellular systems, including the bacterial cytoskeleton and the cell wall. In the vibrioid bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the intermediate filament-like protein crescentin forms a cell envelope-associated cytoskeletal structure that controls cell wall growth to generate cell curvature. We undertook a genetic screen to find other cellular components important for cell curvature. Here we report that deletion of a gene (wbqL) involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis pathway abolishes cell curvature. Loss of WbqL function leads to the accumulation of an aberrant O-polysaccharide species and to the release of the S layer in the culture medium. Epistasis and microscopy experiments show that neither S-layer nor O-polysaccharide production is required for curved cell morphology per se but that production of the altered O-polysaccharide species abolishes cell curvature by apparently interfering with the ability of the crescentin structure to associate with the cell envelope. Our data suggest that perturbations in a cellular pathway that is itself fully dispensable for cell curvature can cause a disruption of cell morphogenesis, highlighting the delicate harmony among unrelated cellular systems. Using the wbqL mutant, we also show that the normal assembly and growth properties of the crescentin structure are independent of its association with the cell envelope. However, this envelope association is important for facilitating the local disruption of the stable crescentin structure at the division site during cytokinesis.
DipM, a New Factor Required for Peptidoglycan Remodelling During Cell Division in Caulobacter Crescentus
Molecular Microbiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20497502
In bacteria, cytokinesis is dependent on lytic enzymes that facilitate remodelling of the cell wall during constriction. In this work, we identify a thus far uncharacterized periplasmic protein, DipM, that is required for cell division and polarity in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM is composed of four peptidoglycan binding (LysM) domains and a C-terminal lysostaphin-like (LytM) peptidase domain. It binds to isolated murein sacculi in vitro, and is recruited to the site of constriction through interaction with the cell division protein FtsN. Mutational analyses showed that the LysM domains are necessary and sufficient for localization of DipM, while its peptidase domain is essential for function. Consistent with a role in cell wall hydrolysis, DipM was found to interact with purified murein sacculi in vitro and to induce cell lysis upon overproduction. Its inactivation causes severe defects in outer membrane invagination, resulting in a significant delay between cytoplasmic compartmentalization and final separation of the daughter cells. Overall, these findings indicate that DipM is a periplasmic component of the C. crescentus divisome that facilitates remodelling of the peptidoglycan layer and, thus, coordinated constriction of the cell envelope during the division process.
Nature Cell Biology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20639870
Filament-forming cytoskeletal proteins are essential for the structure and organization of all cells. Bacterial homologues of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal families have now been discovered, but studies suggest that yet more remain to be identified. We demonstrate that the metabolic enzyme CTP synthase (CtpS) forms filaments in Caulobacter crescentus. CtpS is bifunctional, as the filaments it forms regulate the curvature of C. crescentus cells independently of its catalytic function. The morphogenic role of CtpS requires its functional interaction with the intermediate filament, crescentin (CreS). Interestingly, the Escherichia coli CtpS homologue also forms filaments both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that CtpS polymerization may be widely conserved. E. coli CtpS can replace the enzymatic and morphogenic functions of C. crescentus CtpS, indicating that C. crescentus has adapted a conserved filament-forming protein for a secondary role. These results implicate CtpS as a novel bifunctional member of the bacterial cytoskeleton and suggest that localization and polymerization may be important properties of metabolic enzymes.
Methods in Enzymology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20887863
Light and electron cryo-microscopy have each proven to be powerful tools to study biological structures in a near-native state. Light microscopy provides important localization information, while electron microscopy provides the resolution necessary to resolve fine structural details. Imaging the same sample by both light and electron cryo-microscopy is a powerful new approach that combines the strengths of both techniques to provide novel insights into cellular ultrastructure. In this chapter, the methods and instrumentation currently used to correlate light and electron cryo-microscopy are described in detail.
Long Helical Filaments Are Not Seen Encircling Cells in Electron Cryotomograms of Rod-shaped Bacteria
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21419100
How rod-shaped bacteria form and maintain their shape is an important question in bacterial cell biology. Results from fluorescent light microscopy have led many to believe that the actin homolog MreB and a number of other proteins form long helical filaments along the inner membrane of the cell. Here we show using electron cryotomography of six different rod-shaped bacterial species, at macromolecular resolution, that no long (> 80 nm) helical filaments exist near or along either surface of the inner membrane. We also use correlated cryo-fluorescent light microscopy (cryo-fLM) and electron cryo-tomography (ECT) to identify cytoplasmic bundles of MreB, showing that MreB filaments are detectable by ECT. In light of these results, the structure and function of MreB must be reconsidered: instead of acting as a large, rigid scaffold that localizes cell-wall synthetic machinery, moving MreB complexes may apply tension to growing peptidoglycan strands to ensure their orderly, linear insertion.
The EMBO Journal. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21673657
The bacterial flagellum is one of nature's most amazing and well-studied nanomachines. Its cell-wall-anchored motor uses chemical energy to rotate a microns-long filament and propel the bacterium towards nutrients and away from toxins. While much is known about flagellar motors from certain model organisms, their diversity across the bacterial kingdom is less well characterized, allowing the occasional misrepresentation of the motor as an invariant, ideal machine. Here, we present an electron cryotomographical survey of flagellar motor architectures throughout the Bacteria. While a conserved structural core was observed in all 11 bacteria imaged, surprisingly novel and divergent structures as well as different symmetries were observed surrounding the core. Correlating the motor structures with the presence and absence of particular motor genes in each organism suggested the locations of five proteins involved in the export apparatus including FliI, whose position below the C-ring was confirmed by imaging a deletion strain. The combination of conserved and specially-adapted structures seen here sheds light on how this complex protein nanomachine has evolved to meet the needs of different species.
Molecular Microbiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21992450
Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes.