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In JoVE (2)
- Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of Ion Channels Heterologously Expressed in Mammalian Cells
- Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures: Apoptotic Challenges and Detection
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Bartosz Balana in JoVE
Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of Ion Channels Heterologously Expressed in Mammalian Cells
Bartosz Balana, Natalie Taylor, Paul A. Slesinger
Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies
We will demonstrate how to study the effect of a single point mutation on the function of an ion channel.
Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures: Apoptotic Challenges and Detection
Tatiana Hurtado de Mendoza1, Bartosz Balana2, Paul A. Slesinger2, Inder M. Verma1
1Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 2Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
This method describes the generation of organotypic cerebellar cultures and the effect of certain apoptotic stimuli on the viability of different cerebellar cell types.
Other articles by Bartosz Balana on PubMed
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14654366
Chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with shortening of action potential duration (APD), which involves modified activity of atrial ion currents. However, little is known about the activity of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (I(K,ATP)) during chronic AF. An AF-related increase in the activity of I(K,ATP) would reduce APD and could contribute to initiation and/or perpetuation of AF. Here, we studied the activity of I(K,ATP) in atrial myocytes from patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and chronic AF. Human atrial myocytes were isolated from atrial tissue obtained from patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Inward rectifier currents were measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique by applying a depolarizing ramp pulse (1245 ms) from -100 to +40 mV (0.5 Hz). I(K,ATP) was activated with the I(K,ATP) channel opener rilmakalim. The inward rectifier I(K1) and I(K,ATP) were identified by their sensitivity to 1 mM Ba(2+). Density of I(K1) did not differ between cells from patients with AF (at -100 mV: -14.8 +/- 1.3 pA/pF, n = 38/10 (cells/patients)) and SR (-13.8 +/- 1.5 pA/pF, n = 33/16). In both types of cells, rilmakalim stimulated I(K,ATP) (defined as rilmakalim-inducible current) in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-10 microM). However, maximum activation of I(K,ATP) with 10 microM rilmakalim was smaller in AF than in SR cells (at -100 mV: -5.3 +/- 0.8 pA/pF, n = 22/7 vs. -11.2 +/- 2.9 pA/pF, n = 19/9; at +40 mV: +9.6 +/- 2.1 pA/pF, n = 22/7 vs. +23.7 +/- 3.4 pA/pF, n = 19/9 for AF and SR, respectively; P < 0.05). Only aortic valve disease and pulmonary hypertension were found to be independent contributors to I(K,ATP) current density. We provide evidence that chronic AF is associated with a downregulation of ATP-sensitive K(+) currents. These changes may provide an additional molecular mechanism for electrical remodeling in chronic AF.
The Effect of Plant Phenolics on the Formation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-DNA Adducts and TPA-stimulated Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Chemiluminescence in Vitro
Toxicology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12832153
Phenolics, common plant constituents, form up an important part of human diet and are considered potential chemopreventive agents. In the present study, structurally diverse phenolics, such as tannic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and resveratrol, were investigated for their inhibitory effects on covalent binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to DNA in vitro and the suppression of oxidative burst in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA incubated with DMBA in the presence of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced microsomes produced three major adducts derived from anti-, syn- and anti-dihydrodiol epoxides through reactions with dGuo and dAdo, respectively. Phenolic compounds at the concentration of 150 microM reduced the levels of all DMBA-DNA adducts by 55-98%. The most dramatic effect was observed in case of tannic acid, which completely inhibited the formation of DMBA-dAdo adducts. Chlorogenic acid was the least effective inhibitor of DMBA-DNA adducts formation particularly syn-DMBADE-dAdo (20%). Human neutrophils showed a significant dose-related decrease of TPA-induced chemiluminescence after pretreatment with phenolic compounds. The most effective inhibitors were tannic acid and resveratrol with IC(50)=5.19 and 5.76 microM, respectively. These results suggest that the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carcinogen-DNA adducts formation may be important for anticarcinogenic activity of the examined phenolics.
The Journal of Physiology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14578475
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have gained considerable interest due to their potential use for cell replacement therapy and tissue engineering. One strategy is to differentiate these bone marrow stem cells in vitro into cardiomyocytes prior to implantation. In this context ion channels can be important functional markers of cardiac differentiation. At present there is little information about the electrophysiological behaviour of the undifferentiated hMSC. We therefore investigated mRNA expression of 26 ion channel subunits using semiquantitative RT-PCR and recorded transmembrane ion currents with the whole-cell voltage clamp technique. Bone marrow hMSC were obtained from healthy donors. The cells revealed a distinct pattern of ion channel mRNA with high expression levels for some channel subunits (e.g. Kv4.2, Kv4.3, MaxiK, HCN2, and alpha1C of the L-type calcium channel). Outward currents were recorded in almost all cells. The most abundant outward current rapidly activated at potentials positive to +20 mV. This current was identified as a large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, conducted by MaxiK channels, due to its high sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (IC(50)= 340 microm) and its inhibition by 100 nm iberiotoxin. A large fraction of cells also demonstrated a more slowly activating current at potentials positive to -30 mV. This current was selectively inhibited by clofilium (IC(50)= 0.8 microm). Ba(2+) inward currents, stimulated by 1 microm BayK 8644 were found in a few cells, indicating the expression of functional L-type Ca(2+) channels. Other inward currents such as sodium currents or inward rectifier currents were absent. We conclude that undifferentiated hMSC express a distinct pattern of ion channel mRNA and functional ion channels that might contribute to physiological cell function.
World Journal of Urology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16783573
Identification of biochemical and mechanical stimuli in order to modulate the function of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) in viable detrusor constructs. Human bladder detrusor cells were seeded on bladder acellular matrix and cultured under different conditions. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed by fluorescent microscopic analyses. Histological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses were performed to compare growth characteristics and differentiation of SMC. The combination of medium conditioned with proliferative urothelium and mechanical stretch resulted in a more densely populated membrane. In this culture system, the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and desmin were clearly induced after serum elimination. SMC-phenotype can be modulated in viable detrusor constructs by applying selected combinations of urothelial-conditioned media and mechanical stimulation under stepwise reduction and elimination of serum.
Cell Research. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17160070
Previously, mouse bone marrow-derived stem cells (MSC) treated with the unspecific DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine were reported to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of a similar differentiation strategy in human mononuclear cells obtained from healthy bone marrow donors. After 1-3 passages, cultures were exposed for 24 h to 5-azacytidine (3 mciroM) followed by 6 weeks of further culture. Drug treatment did not induce expression of myogenic marker MyoD or cardiac markers Nkx2.5 and GATA-4 and did not yield beating cells during follow-up. In patch clamp experiments, approximately 10-15% of treated and untreated cells exhibited L-type Ca(2+) currents. Almost all cells showed outwardly rectifying K(+) currents of rapid or slow activation kinetics. Mean current amplitude at +60 mV doubled after 6 weeks of treatment compared with time-matched controls. Membrane capacitance of treated cells was significantly larger than in controls 2 weeks after treatment and remained high after 6 weeks. Expression levels of mRNAs for the K(+) channels Kv1.1, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, Kv4.3 and KCNMA1 and for the Ca(2+) channel Ca(v)1.2 were not affected by 5-azacytidine. Treatment with potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium and clofilium at concentrations shown previously to inhibit rapid or slowly activating K(+) currents of hMSC inhibited proliferation of these cells. Our results suggest that despite the absence of differentiation of hMSC into cardiomyocytes, treatment with 5-azacytidine caused profound changes in current density.
Neuron. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20670833
Presynaptic GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R) heterodimers are composed of GB(1a)/GB(2) subunits and critically influence synaptic and cognitive functions. Here, we explored local GABA(B)R activation by integrating optical tools for monitoring receptor conformation and synaptic vesicle release at individual presynaptic boutons of hippocampal neurons. Utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy, we detected a wide range of FRET values for CFP/YFP-tagged GB(1a)/GB(2) receptors that negatively correlated with release probabilities at single synapses. High FRET of GABA(B)Rs associated with low release probability. Notably, pharmacological manipulations that either reduced or increased basal receptor activation decreased intersynapse variability of GB(1a)/GB(2) receptor conformation. Despite variability along axons, presynaptic GABA(B)R tone was dendrite specific, having a greater impact on synapses at highly innervated proximal branches. Prolonged neuronal inactivity reduced basal receptor activation, leading to homeostatic augmentation of release probability. Our findings suggest that local variations in basal GABA concentration are a major determinant of GB(1a)/GB(2) conformational variability, which contributes to heterogeneity of neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses.
Mechanism Underlying Selective Regulation of G Protein-gated Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels by the Psychostimulant-sensitive Sorting Nexin 27
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21422294
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important gatekeepers of neuronal excitability. The surface expression of neuronal GIRK channels is regulated by the psychostimulant-sensitive sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) protein through a class I (-X-Ser/Thr-X-Φ, where X is any residue and Φ is a hydrophobic amino acid) PDZ-binding interaction. The G protein-insensitive inward rectifier channel (IRK1) contains the same class I PDZ-binding motif but associates with a different synaptic PDZ protein, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). The mechanism by which SNX27 and PSD95 discriminate these channels was previously unclear. Using high-resolution structures coupled with biochemical and functional analyses, we identified key amino acids upstream of the channel's canonical PDZ-binding motif that associate electrostatically with a unique structural pocket in the SNX27-PDZ domain. Changing specific charged residues in the channel's carboxyl terminus or in the PDZ domain converts the selective association and functional regulation by SNX27. Elucidation of this unique interaction site between ion channels and PDZ-containing proteins could provide a therapeutic target for treating brain diseases.