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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by David M. Kwinter in JoVE
Live Imaging of Dense-core Vesicles in Primary Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
David M. Kwinter, Michael A. Silverman
Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University
Live cell imaging is of particular utility when studying the dynamics of organelle trafficking. Here we describe a protocol for live imaging of dense-core vesicles in cultured neurons using wide-field fluorescence microscopy. This protocol is flexible and can be adapted to image other organelles such as mitochondria, endosomes, and peroxisomes.
Other articles by David M. Kwinter on PubMed
Journal of Neurochemistry. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19765191
The p62/sequestosome 1 protein has been identified as a component of pathological protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P62 has also been implicated in autophagy, a process of mass degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles. Autophagy is a critical pathway for degrading misfolded and/or damaged proteins, including the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants linked to familial ALS. We previously reported that p62 interacted with ALS mutants of SOD1 and that the ubiquitin-association domain of p62 was dispensable for the interaction. In this study, we identified two distinct regions of p62 that were essential to its binding to mutant SOD1: the N-terminal Phox and Bem1 (PB1) domain (residues 1-104) and a separate internal region (residues 178-224) termed here as SOD1 mutant interaction region (SMIR). The PB1 domain is required for appropriate oligomeric status of p62 and the SMIR is the actual region interacting with mutant SOD1. Within the SMIR, the conserved W184, H190 and positively charged R183, R186, K187, and K189 residues are critical to the p62-mutant SOD1 interaction as substitution of these residues with alanine resulted in significantly abolished binding. In addition, SMIR and the p62 sequence responsible for the interaction with LC3, a protein essential for autophagy activation, are independent of each other. In cells lacking p62, the existence of mutant SOD1 in acidic autolysosomes decreased, suggesting that p62 can function as an adaptor between mutant SOD1 and the autophagy machinery. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which mutant SOD1 can be recognized by p62 in an ubiquitin-independent fashion and targeted for the autophagy-lysosome degradation pathway.
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19715760
The etiology of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains to be better understood. Based on the studies from ALS patients and transgenic animal models, it is believed that ALS is likely to be a multifactorial and multisystem disease. Many mechanisms have been postulated to be involved in the pathology of ALS, such as oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, defective axonal transport, glia cell pathology and aberrant RNA metabolism. Mitochondria, which play crucial roles in excitotoxicity, apoptosis and cell survival, have shown to be an early target in ALS pathogenesis and contribute to the disease progression. Morphological and functional defects in mitochondria were found in both human patients and ALS mice overexpressing mutant SOD1. Mutant SOD1 was found to be preferentially associated with mitochondria and subsequently impair mitochondrial function. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of mitochondria along microtubules and mitochondrial dynamics may also be disrupted in ALS. These results also illustrate the critical importance of maintaining proper mitochondrial function in axons and neuromuscular junctions, supporting the emerging "dying-back" axonopathy model of ALS. In this review, we will discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the ALS variants of SOD1 and the mechanisms by which mitochondrial damage contributes to the disease etiology.
Neurobiology of Aging. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20674093
Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) have been reported to cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Wild-type FUS is mostly localized in the nuclei of neurons, but the ALS mutants are partly mislocalized in the cytoplasm and can form inclusions. We demonstrate that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of FUS constitute an effective nuclear localization sequence (NLS) as it targeted beta-galactosidase (LacZ, 116 kDa) to the nucleus. Deletion of or the ALS mutations within the NLS caused cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS. Moreover, we identified the poly-A binding protein (PABP1), a stress granule marker, as an interacting partner of FUS. Large PABP1-positive cytoplasmic foci (i.e. stress granules) colocalized with the mutant FUS inclusions but were absent in wild-type FUS-expressing cells. Processing bodies, which are functionally related to stress granules, were adjacent to but not colocalized with the mutant FUS inclusions. Our results suggest that the ALS mutations in FUS NLS can impair FUS nuclear localization, induce cytoplasmic inclusions and stress granules, and potentially perturb RNA metabolism.