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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (3)

Articles by Elena Kostromina in JoVE

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Near Infrared Optical Projection Tomography for Assessments of β-cell Mass Distribution in Diabetes Research

1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 2Cell Transplant Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami,, 3EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, 4Dept. of Computing Science, Umeå University


JoVE 50238

We describe the adaptation of optical projection tomography (OPT)1 to imaging in the near infrared spectrum, and the implementation of a number of computational tools. These protocols enable assessments of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) in larger specimens, increase the multichannel capacity of the technique and increase the quality of OPT data.

Other articles by Elena Kostromina on PubMed

Impaired Insulin Secretion and Glucose Intolerance in Synaptotagmin-7 Null Mutant Mice

Vertebrates express at least 15 different synaptotagmins with the same domain structure but diverse localizations and tissue distributions. Synaptotagmin-1,-2, and -9 act as calcium sensors for the fast phrase of neurotransmitter release, and synaptotagmin-12 acts as a calcium-independent modulator of release. The exact functions of the remaining 11 synaptotagmins, however, have not been established. By analogy to the role of synaptotagmin-1, -2, and -9 in neurotransmission, these other synaptotagmins may serve as Ca(2+) transducers regulating other Ca(2+)-dependent membrane processes, such as insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Of these other synaptotagmins, synaptotagmin-7 is one of the most abundant and is present in pancreatic beta-cells. To determine whether synaptotagmin-7 regulates Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretion, we analyzed synaptotagmin-7 null mutant mice for glucose tolerance and insulin release. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-7 is required for the maintenance of systemic glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Mutant mice have normal insulin sensitivity, insulin production, islet architecture and ultrastructural organization, and metabolic and calcium responses but exhibit impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, indicating a calcium-sensing defect during insulin-containing secretory granule exocytosis. Taken together, our findings show that synaptotagmin-7 functions as a positive regulator of insulin secretion and may serve as a calcium sensor controlling insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

Glucose Intolerance and Impaired Insulin Secretion in Pancreas-specific Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 Knockout Mice Are Associated with Microvascular Alterations in the Pancreas

Maintenance of glucose homeostasis depends on adequate amount and precise pattern of insulin secretion, which is determined by both beta-cell secretory processes and well-developed microvascular network within endocrine pancreas. The development of highly organized microvasculature and high degrees of capillary fenestrations in endocrine pancreas is greatly dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from islet cells. However, it is unclear how VEGF-A production is regulated in endocrine pancreas. To understand whether signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is involved in VEGF-A regulation and subsequent islet and microvascular network development, we generated a mouse line carrying pancreas-specific deletion of STAT3 (p-KO) and performed physiological analyses both in vivo and using isolated islets, including glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and insulin secretion measurements. We also studied microvascular network and islet development by using immunohistochemical methods. The p-KO mice exhibited glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in vivo but normal insulin secretion in isolated islets. Microvascular density in the pancreas was reduced in p-KO mice, along with decreased expression of VEGF-A, but not other vasotropic factors in islets in the absence of pancreatic STAT3 signaling. Together, our study suggests that pancreatic STAT3 signaling is required for the normal development and maintenance of endocrine pancreas and islet microvascular network, possibly through its regulation of VEGF-A.

Wip1-dependent Regulation of Autophagy, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis

Obesity and atherosclerosis-related diseases account for over one-third of deaths in the western world. Controlling these conditions remains a major challenge due to an incomplete understanding of the molecular pathways involved. Here, we show that Wip1 phosphatase, a known negative regulator of Atm-dependent signaling, plays a major role in controlling fat accumulation and atherosclerosis in mice; specifically, Wip1 deficiency prevents both conditions. In the course of atherosclerosis, deletion of Wip1 results in suppression of macrophage conversion into foam cells, thus preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This process appears to be independent of p53 but rely on a noncanonical Atm-mTOR signaling pathway and on selective autophagy in regulation of cholesterol efflux. We propose that the Wip1-dependent control of autophagy and cholesterol efflux may provide avenues for treating obesity and atherosclerosis.

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