Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (26)
- Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne De Santé Publique
- Surgical Innovation
- The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Genes and Immunity
- Nature Genetics
- Journal of Forensic Sciences
- American Journal of Human Genetics
- PLoS Genetics
- Nature Genetics
- The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
- Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England)
- Nature Genetics
- Journal of the National Cancer Institute
- Journal of Autoimmunity
- Malaria Journal
- The Journal of Organic Chemistry
- American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
- Arthritis Research & Therapy
- Physical Review Letters
This translation into Portuguese was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Emily L. Montgomery in JoVE
Protocolo de Coleta para Pâncreas Humano
Martha L. Campbell-Thompson, Emily L. Montgomery, Robin M. Foss, Kerwin M. Kolheffer, Gerald Phipps, Lynda Schneider, Mark A. Atkinson
Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida
Este vídeo demonstra um processo para o processamento de dissecção pâncreas humano em formatos de armazenamento. Orientação anatómica é mantida ao longo das regiões pancreáticas para permitir a definição da composição de ilhotas regional e densidade.
Other articles by Emily L. Montgomery on PubMed
The Role of Public Health Inspectors in Maintaining Housing in Northern and Rural Communities: Recommendations to Support Public Health Practice
Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne De Santé Publique. | Pubmed ID: 22530527
Although there is much evidence about the effects of particular housing conditions on health, less is known about the practices of public health inspectors (PHIs) in relation to minimizing or eliminating potential housing health risks. The purpose of this qualitative study was to illuminate the practices of PHIs in relation to types of biological and physical housing risks.
Nature. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22139419
Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function.
Surgical Innovation. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22170893
Objectives. This study compared oncologic and health-related quality-of-life outcomes among patients undergoing intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal robotic prostatectomy. Methods. Of 215 patients undergoing robotic prostatectomy, the approach was intraperitoneal in 48 and extraperitoneal in 167. Cancer control was evaluated using margin status. Recovery after surgery and functional health was assessed using the Convalescence and Recovery Evaluation and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires, respectively. Results. Positive surgical margin rates were similar between approaches (14% extraperitoneal, 10% intraperitoneal; P = .63). Functional outcomes were slightly improved for those with the extraperitoneal approach (ie, higher urinary irritation/obstruction scores at 3 months). The extraperitoneal group demonstrated higher activity (91.8 vs 83.3, P = .03) and cognitive scores (94.9 vs 91.7, P = .04) at 6 weeks as well as higher gastrointestinal scores at 2 weeks (94.2 vs 90.8, P = .05). Conclusions. These data support efforts to broaden the adoption of the extraperitoneal approach for robotic prostatectomy.
Acclimatization of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria to High-altitude Hypoxia During an Ascent of Everest
The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22186874
Ascent to high altitude is associated with a fall in the partial pressure of inspired oxygen (hypobaric hypoxia). For oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle, resultant cellular hypoxia necessitates acclimatization to optimize energy metabolism and restrict oxidative stress, with changes in gene and protein expression that alter mitochondrial function. It is known that lowlanders returning from high altitude have decreased muscle mitochondrial densities, yet the underlying transcriptional mechanisms and time course are poorly understood. To explore these, we measured gene and protein expression plus ultrastructure in muscle biopsies of lowlanders at sea level and following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Subacute exposure (19 d after initiating ascent to Everest base camp, 5300 m) was not associated with mitochondrial loss. After 66 d at altitude and ascent beyond 6400 m, mitochondrial densities fell by 21%, with loss of 73% of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Correspondingly, levels of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α fell by 35%, suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Sustained hypoxia also decreased expression of electron transport chain complexes I and IV and UCP3 levels. We suggest that during subacute hypoxia, mitochondria might be protected from oxidative stress. However, following sustained exposure, mitochondrial biogenesis is deactivated and uncoupling down-regulated, perhaps to improve the efficiency of ATP production.-Levett, D. Z., Radford, E. J., Menassa, D. A., Graber, E. F., Morash, A. J., Hoppeler, H., Clarke, K., Martin, D. C., Ferguson-Smith, A. C., Montgomery, H. E., Grocott, M. P. W., Murray, A. J., Caudwell Xtreme Everest Research Group. Acclimatization of skeletal muscle mitochondria to high-altitude hypoxia during an ascent of Everest.
Genes and Immunity. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22189356
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and organ damage. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe manifestations of SLE. Multiple studies reported associations between renal diseases and variants in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and the neighboring apolipoprotein L 1 (APOL1) genes. We evaluated 167 variants spanning MYH9 for association with LN in a multiethnic sample. The two previously identified risk variants in APOL1 were also tested for association with LN in European-Americans (EAs) (N=579) and African-Americans (AAs) (N=407). Multiple peaks of association exceeding a Bonferroni corrected P-value of P<2.03 × 10(-3) were observed between LN and MYH9 in EAs (N=4620), with the most pronounced association at rs2157257 (P=4.7 × 10(-4), odds ratio (OR)=1.205). A modest effect with MYH9 was also detected in Gullah (rs8136069, P=0.0019, OR=2.304). No association between LN and MYH9 was found in AAs, Asians, Amerindians or Hispanics. This study provides the first investigation of MYH9 in LN in non-Africans and of APOL1 in LN in any population, and presents novel insight into the potential role of MYH9 in LN in EAs.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 22 December 2011; doi:10.1038/gene.2011.82.
Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies Identifies Three New Risk Loci for Atopic Dermatitis
Nature Genetics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22197932
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.
Guidelines for the Identification of Unknown Samples for Laboratories Performing Forensic Analyses for Chemical Terrorism*
Journal of Forensic Sciences. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22211294
Since the early 1990s, the FBI Laboratory has sponsored Scientific Working Groups to improve discipline practices and build consensus among the forensic community. The Scientific Working Group on the Forensic Analysis of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism developed guidance, contained in this document, on issues forensic laboratories encounter when accepting and analyzing unknown samples associated with chemical terrorism, including laboratory capabilities and analytical testing plans. In the context of forensic analysis of chemical terrorism, this guidance defines an unknown sample and addresses what constitutes definitive and tentative identification. Laboratory safety, reporting issues, and postreporting considerations are also discussed. Utilization of these guidelines, as part of planning for forensic analysis related to a chemical terrorism incident, may help avoid unfortunate consequences not only to the public but also to the laboratory personnel.
Nature. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22398555
Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.
Identification of IRF8, TMEM39A, and IKZF3-ZPBP2 As Susceptibility Loci for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Large-scale Multiracial Replication Study
American Journal of Human Genetics. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22464253
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic heterogeneous autoimmune disorder characterized by the loss of tolerance to self-antigens and dysregulated interferon responses. The etiology of SLE is complex, involving both heritable and environmental factors. Candidate-gene studies and genome-wide association (GWA) scans have been successful in identifying new loci that contribute to disease susceptibility; however, much of the heritable risk has yet to be identified. In this study, we sought to replicate 1,580 variants showing suggestive association with SLE in a previously published GWA scan of European Americans; we tested a multiethnic population consisting of 7,998 SLE cases and 7,492 controls of European, African American, Asian, Hispanic, Gullah, and Amerindian ancestry to find association with the disease. Several genes relevant to immunological pathways showed association with SLE. Three loci exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8; rs11644034; p(meta-Euro) = 2.08 × 10(-10)), transmembrane protein 39A (TMEM39A; rs1132200; p(meta-all) = 8.62 × 10(-9)), and 17q21 (rs1453560; p(meta-all) = 3.48 × 10(-10)) between IKAROS family of zinc finger 3 (AIOLOS; IKZF3) and zona pellucida binding protein 2 (ZPBP2). Fine mapping, resequencing, imputation, and haplotype analysis of IRF8 indicated that three independent effects tagged by rs8046526, rs450443, and rs4843869, respectively, were required for risk in individuals of European ancestry. Eleven additional replicated effects (5 × 10(-8) < p(meta-Euro) < 9.99 × 10(-5)) were observed with CFHR1, CADM2, LOC730109/IL12A, LPP, LOC63920, SLU7, ADAMTSL1, C10orf64, OR8D4, FAM19A2, and STXBP6. The results of this study increase the number of confirmed SLE risk loci and identify others warranting further investigation.
Novel Loci for Adiponectin Levels and Their Influence on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Traits: a Multi-ethnic Meta-analysis of 45,891 Individuals
PLoS Genetics. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22479202
Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
Nature Genetics. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22504417
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are highly heritable, identifying and replicating genetic influences has been difficult, as small effects and the high costs of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have led to underpowered studies. Here we report genome-wide association meta-analyses and replication for mean bilateral hippocampal, total brain and intracranial volumes from a large multinational consortium. The intergenic variant rs7294919 was associated with hippocampal volume (12q24.22; N = 21,151; P = 6.70 × 10(-16)) and the expression levels of the positional candidate gene TESC in brain tissue. Additionally, rs10784502, located within HMGA2, was associated with intracranial volume (12q14.3; N = 15,782; P = 1.12 × 10(-12)). We also identified a suggestive association with total brain volume at rs10494373 within DDR2 (1q23.3; N = 6,500; P = 5.81 × 10(-7)).
Clinical Presentation, Management, and Short-term Outcome of Patients with Type A Acute Dissection Complicated by Mesenteric Malperfusion: Observations from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22341418
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on clinical/imaging characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with type A acute dissection and mesenteric malperfusion. METHODS: Patients with type A acute dissection enrolled in the International Registry for Acute Dissection (IRAD) were evaluated to assess differences in clinical features, management, and in-hospital outcomes according to the presence/absence of mesenteric malperfusion. A mortality model was used to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with mesenteric malperfusion. RESULTS: Mesenteric malperfusion was detected in 68 (3.7%) of 1809 patients with type A acute dissection. Patients with mesenteric malperfusion were more likely to be older and to have coma, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord ischemia, acute renal failure, limb ischemia, and any pulse deficit. They were less likely to undergo surgical/hybrid treatment (52.9% vs 87.9%) and more likely to receive only medical (30.9% vs 11.6%) or endovascular (16.2% vs 0.5%) management (P < .001). Overall in-hospital mortality was 63.2% and 23.8% in patients with and without mesenteric malperfusion, respectively (P < .001). In-hospital mortality of patients with mesenteric malperfusion receiving medical, endovascular, and surgical/hybrid therapy was 95.2%, 72.7%, and 41.7%, respectively (P < .001). At multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P = .002), age (OR, 1.1/y; P = .002), and renal failure (OR, 5.9; P = .020) were predictors of mortality whereas surgical/hybrid management (OR, 0.1; P = .005) was associated with better outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Type A acute aortic dissection complicated by mesenteric malperfusion is a rare but ominous complication carrying a high risk of hospital mortality. Surgical/hybrid therapy, although associated with 2-fold hospital mortality, appears to be associated with better long-term outcomes in the management of type A acute aortic dissection in this setting.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22344438
Genome-sequencing studies indicate that all humans carry many genetic variants predicted to cause loss of function (LoF) of protein-coding genes, suggesting unexpected redundancy in the human genome. Here we apply stringent filters to 2951 putative LoF variants obtained from 185 human genomes to determine their true prevalence and properties. We estimate that human genomes typically contain ~100 genuine LoF variants with ~20 genes completely inactivated. We identify rare and likely deleterious LoF alleles, including 26 known and 21 predicted severe disease-causing variants, as well as common LoF variants in nonessential genes. We describe functional and evolutionary differences between LoF-tolerant and recessive disease genes and a method for using these differences to prioritize candidate genes found in clinical sequencing studies.
Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22351919
The ability to predict outcomes following a kidney transplant is limited by the complex physiologic decline of kidney failure, a latent factor that is difficult to capture using conventional comorbidity assessment. The frailty phenotype is a recently described inflammatory state of increased vulnerability to stressors resulting from decreased physiologic reserve and dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems. We hypothesized that frailty would be associated with delayed graft function, based on putative associations between inflammatory cytokines and graft dysfunction. We prospectively measured frailty in 183 kidney transplant recipients between December 2008 and April 2010. Independent associations between frailty and delayed graft function were analyzed using modified Poisson regression. Preoperative frailty was independently associated with a 1.94-fold increased risk for delayed graft function (95% CI, 1.13-3.36; P = .02). The assessment of frailty may provide further insights into the pathophysiology of allograft dysfunction and may improve our ability to preoperatively risk-stratify kidney transplant recipients.
Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22159624
Nickel-catalyzed couplings of enals and alkynes utilizing triethylborane as the reducing agent illustrate a significant dependence on ligand structure. Simple variation of monodentate phosphines allows selective access to alkylative couplings or reductive cycloadditions, while further variation of reaction conditions provides clean access to reductive couplings and redox-neutral couplings.
Meta-analyses Identify 13 Loci Associated with Age at Menopause and Highlight DNA Repair and Immune Pathways
Nature Genetics. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22267201
To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at these newly associated loci include genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG and PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11 and PRRC2A (also known as BAT2)). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-κB signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause.
Genome-wide Association Study of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Epstein-barr Virus Status-defined Subgroups
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22286212
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study of 1200 cHL patients and 6417 control subjects, with validation in an independent replication series, to identify common genetic variants associated with total cHL and subtypes defined by tumor EBV status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assuming a log-additive genetic model for the variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Two novel loci associated with total cHL irrespective of EBV status were identified in the major histocompatibility complex region; one resides adjacent to MICB (rs2248462: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.69, P = 1.3 × 10(-13)) and the other at HLA-DRA (rs2395185: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.62, P = 8.3 × 10(-25)) with both results confirmed in an independent replication series. Consistent with previous reports, associations were found between EBV-positive cHL and genetic variants within the class I region (rs2734986, HLA-A: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 to 3.00, P = 1.2 × 10(-15); rs6904029, HCG9: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.59, P = 5.5 × 10(-10)) and between EBV-negative cHL and rs6903608 within the class II region (rs6903608, HLA-DRA: OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.35, P = 6.1 × 10(-31)). The association between rs6903608 and EBV-negative cHL was confined to the nodular sclerosis histological subtype. Evidence for an association between EBV-negative cHL and rs20541 (5q31, IL13: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.76, P = 5.4 x 10(-9)), a variant previously linked to psoriasis and asthma, was observed; however, the evidence for replication was less clear. Notably, one additional psoriasis-associated variant, rs27524 (5q15, ERAP1), showed evidence of an association with cHL in the genome-wide association study (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-4)) and replication series (P = .03). Conclusion Overall, these results provide strong evidence that EBV status is an etiologically important classification of cHL and also suggest that some components of the pathological process are common to both EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients.
Journal of Autoimmunity. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22289719
While Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is more common than related autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scientific and medical research in SS has lagged behind significantly. This is especially true in the field of SS genetics, where efforts to date have relied heavily on candidate gene approaches. Within the last decade, the advent of the genome-wide association (GWA) scan has altered our understanding of disease pathogenesis in hundreds of disorders through the successful identification of novel risk loci. With strong evidence for a genetic component in SS as evidenced by familial aggregation of SS as well as similarities between SS and SLE and RA, the application of GWA approaches would likely yield numerous novel risk loci in SS. Here we review the fundamental scientific principles employed in GWA scans as well as the limitations of this tool, and we discuss the application of GWA scans in determining genetic variants at play in complex disease. We also examine the successful application of GWA scans in SLE, which now has more than 40 confirmed risk loci, and consider the possibility for a similar trajectory of SS genetic discovery in the era of GWA scans. Ultimately, the GWA studies that will be performed in SS have the potential to identify a myriad of novel genetic loci that will allow scientists to begin filling in the gaps in our understanding of the SS pathogenesis.
Transplantation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22290268
BACKGROUND: ABO incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation is an important modality to facilitate living donor transplant for incompatible pairs. To date, reports of the outcomes from this practice in the United States have been limited to single-center studies. METHODS: Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified 738 patients who underwent live-donor ABOi kidney transplantation between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2010. These were compared with matched controls that underwent ABO compatible live-donor kidney transplantation. Subgroup analyses among ABOi recipients were performed according to donor blood type, recipient blood type, and transplant center ABOi volume. RESULTS: When compared with ABO compatible-matched controls, long-term patient survival of ABOi recipients was not significantly different between the cohorts (P=0.2). However, graft loss was significantly higher, particularly in the first 14 days posttransplant (subhazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-3.84; P=0.001), with little to no difference beyond day 14 (subhazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.54; P=0.058). In subgroup analyses among ABOi recipients, no differences in survival were seen by donor blood type, recipient blood type, or transplant center ABOi volume. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use and dissemination of ABOi transplantation when a compatible live donor is not available, but caution that the highest period of risk is immediately posttransplant.
Fetal and Maternal Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associations With Cerebral Palsy: A Case-Control Study
Pediatrics. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22291124
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested associations between certain genetic variants and susceptibility to cerebral palsy (CP). This study was designed to assess established and novel maternal and child genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for CP along with their interactions. METHODS: DNA from 587 case and 1154 control mother-child pairs was analyzed. A panel of 35 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined and included SNPs in genes associated with (1) thrombophilia, (2) inflammation, and (3) risk factors for CP (eg, preterm birth). Comparisons were specified a priori and made by using a χ(2) test. RESULTS: There were 40 fetal and 28 maternal associations with CP when analyzed by CP subtype, gestational age, genotypes of apolipoprotein E, and haplotypes of mannose-binding-lectin. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, no fetal or maternal candidate SNP was associated with CP or its subtypes. Only fetal carriage of prothrombin gene mutation remained marginally associated with hemiplegia in term infants born to mothers with a reported infection during pregnancy. Odds ratio directions of fetal SNP associations were compared with previously reported studies and confirmed no trend toward association. CONCLUSIONS: Except for the prothrombin gene mutation, individual maternal and fetal SNPs in our candidate panel were not found to be associated with CP outcome. Past reported SNP associations with CP were not confirmed, possibly reflecting type I error from small numbers and multiple testing in the original reports.
Urology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22310755
To evaluate patient and tumor characteristics associated with percutaneous renal mass biopsy (RMB) among patients with small renal masses (SRMs) and assessed the impact on clinical decision-making.
Malaria Journal. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22314206
Cerebral malaria, a severe form of Plasmodium falciparum infection, is an important cause of mortality in sub-Saharan African children. A Taqman 24 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) molecular barcode assay was developed for use in laboratory parasites which estimates genotype number and identifies the predominant genotype.
Does Activation of the Anti Proton, Rather Than Concertedness, Determine the Stereochemistry of Base-Catalyzed 1,2-Elimination Reactions? Anti Stereospecificity in E1cB Eliminations of β-3-Trifluoromethylphenoxy Esters, Thioesters, and Ketones
The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22321002
As part of a comprehensive investigation on the stereochemical aspects of base-catalyzed 1,2-elimination reactions, we have studied a set of acyclic carbonyl substrates that react by an irreversible E1cB mechanism with largely anti stereospecificity. (2)H NMR data show that these reactions using KOH in EtOH/H(2)O under non-ion-pairing conditions produce a minimum of 85-89% anti elimination on stereospecifically labeled tert-butyl (2R*,3R*)- and (2R*,3S*)-3-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2,3-(2)H(2)-butanoate, S-tert-butyl (2R*,3R*)- and (2R*,3S*)-3-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2,3-(2)H(2)-butanethioate, and the related ketones, (4R*,5R*)- and (4R*,5S*)-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-4,5-(2)H(2)-3-hexanone. With both diastereomers of each substrate available, the KIEs can be calculated and the innate stereoselectivities determined. The elimination reactions of the β-3-trifluoromethylphenoxy substrates occur by E1cB mechanisms with diffusionally equilibrated enolate-anion intermediates. Thus, it is clear that anti elimination does not depend solely upon concerted E2 mechanisms. Negative hyperconjugation provides a satisfactory explanation for the anti stereospecificity exhibited by our carbonyl substrates, where the leaving group activates the anti proton, leading to the enolate intermediate. The activation of the anti proton by negative hyperconjugation may also play a role in the concerted pathways of E2 mechanisms. We have also measured the rates of the hydroxide-catalyzed elimination reactions of butanoate, thiobutanoate, and ketone substrates in EtOH/H(2)O, with β-tosyloxy, acetoxy, and 3-trifluoromethylphenoxy nucleofuges.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22370021
BACKGROUND: On average, African Americans attain living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) at decreased rates compared with their non-African American counterparts. However, center-level variations in this disparity or the role of center-level factors is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 247,707 adults registered for first-time kidney transplants from 1995-2007 as reported by the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. PREDICTORS: Patient-level factors (age, sex, body mass index, insurance status, education, blood type, and panel-reactive antibody level) were adjusted for in all models. The association of center-level characteristics (number of candidates, transplant volume, LDKT volume, median time to transplant, percentage of African American candidates, percentage of prelisted candidates, and percentage of LDKT) and degree of racial disparity in LDKT was quantified. OUTCOMES: Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive center-specific estimates of LDKT attainment in African American versus non-African American candidates. RESULTS: Racial parity was not seen at any of the 275 transplant centers in the United States. At centers with the least racial disparity, African Americans had 35% lower odds of receiving LDKT; at centers with the most disparity, African Americans had 76% lower odds. Higher percentages of African American candidates (interaction term, 0.86; P = 0.03) and prelisted candidates (interaction term, 0.80; P = 0.001) at a given center were associated with increased racial disparity at that center. Higher rates of LDKT (interaction term, 1.25; P < 0.001) were associated with less racial disparity. LIMITATIONS: Some patient-level factors are not captured, including a given patient's pool of potential donors. Geographic disparities in deceased donor availability might affect LDKT rates. Center-level policies and practices are not captured. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparity in attainment of LDKT exists at every transplant center in the country. Centers with higher rates of LDKT attainment for all races had less disparity; these high-performing centers might provide insights into policies that might help address this disparity.
Arthritis Research & Therapy. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22541845
Two major gout-causing genes have been identified, the urate transport genes SLC2A9 and ABCG2. Variation within the SLC17A1 locus, which encodes sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1, a renal transporter of uric acid, has also been associated with serum urate concentration. However, evidence for association with gout is equivocal. We investigated the association of the SLC17A1 locus with gout in New Zealand sample sets.
Physical Review Letters. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22587244
We present a measurement of the W boson mass using data corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector during Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider. With a sample of 1,677,394 W → eν candidate events, we measure M(W) = 80.367 ± 0.026 GeV. This result is combined with an earlier D0 result determined using an independent Run II data sample, corresponding to 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, to yield M(W) = 80.375 ± 0.023 GeV.