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In JoVE (1)
- Fotoblekning tester (FRAP & Flip) för att mäta Chromatin Protein Dynamics i Living embryonala stamceller
Other Publications (30)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- DNA and Cell Biology
- Aging Cell
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Developmental Cell
- Trends in Neurosciences
- Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Cell Stem Cell
- Trends in Neurosciences
- Nature Medicine
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Nature Cell Biology
- Genes & Development
- Current Opinion in Cell Biology
- Cell Stem Cell
- Essays in Biochemistry
- Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
- EMBO Reports
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Nucleus (Austin, Tex.)
- Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Articles by Eran Meshorer in JoVE
Fotoblekning tester (FRAP & Flip) för att mäta Chromatin Protein Dynamics i Living embryonala stamceller
Malka Nissim-Rafinia, Eran Meshorer
Department of Genetics, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Vi beskriver fotoblekning metoder inklusive fluorescens återhämtning efter fotoblekning (FRAP) och fluorescens Förlust i fotoblekning (Flip) för att övervaka kromatin protein dynamik i embryonala stamceller (ES-celler). Kromatin protein dynamik, vilket anses vara ett av sätten att studera kromatin plasticitet, är förstärkt i pluripotenta celler.
Other articles by Eran Meshorer on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11799248
To explore neuronal mechanisms underlying long-term consequences of stress, we studied stress-induced changes in the neuritic translocation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) splice variants. Under normal conditions, we found the synaptic AChE-S mRNA and protein in neurites. Corticosterone, anticholinesterases, and forced swim, each facilitated a rapid (minutes), yet long-lasting (weeks), shift from AChE-S to the normally rare AChE-R mRNA, promoted AChE-R mRNA translocation into neurites, and induced enzyme secretion. Weeks after stress, electrophysiological measurements in hippocampus slices displayed apparently normal evoked synaptic responses but extreme hypersensitivity to both anticholinesterases and atropine. Our findings suggest that neuronal hypersensitivity under stress involves neuritic replacement of AChE-S with AChE-R.
DNA and Cell Biology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12489991
Humans possess a surprisingly low number of genes and intensively use pre-mRNA splicing to achieve the high molecular complexity needed to sustain normal body functions and facilitate responses to altered conditions. Because hundreds of thousands of proteins are generated by 25,000 to 40,000 genes, pre-mRNA processing events are highly important for the regulation of human gene expression. Both inherited and acquired defects in pre-mRNA processing are increasingly recognized as causes of human diseases, and almost all pre-mRNA processing events are controlled by a combination of protein factors. This makes defects in these processes likely candidates for causes of diseases with complicated inheritance patterns that affect seemingly unrelated functions. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms regulating pre-mRNA processing, combined with the development of drugs targeted at consensus RNA sequences and/or corresponding proteins, can lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Aging Cell. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12882348
Aging and associated diseases involve multilevel changes in the complex phenomenon of alternative splicing. Here, we review the potential genomic and environmental origins of such changes and discuss the research implications of these findings.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15123727
To explore the scope and significance of alternate promoter usage and its putative inter-relationship to alternative splicing, we searched expression sequence tags for the 5' region of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) genes. Three and five novel first exons were identified in human and mouse ACHE genes, respectively. Reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization validated most of the predicted transcripts, and sequence analyses of the corresponding genomic DNA regions suggest evolutionarily conserved promoters for each of the novel exons identified. Distinct tissue specificity and stress-related expression patterns of these exons predict combinatorial complexity with known 3' alternative AChE mRNA transcripts. Unexpectedly one of the 5' exons encodes an extended N terminus in-frame with the known AChE sequence, extending the increased complexity to the protein level. The resultant membrane variant(s), designated N-AChE, is developmentally regulated in human brain neurons and blood mononuclear cells. Alternative promoter usage combined with alternative splicing may thus lead to stress-dependent combinatorial complexity of AChE mRNA transcripts and their protein products.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15923401
Cholinergic imbalances occur after traumatic effects and in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases, but their long-lasting effects remained largely unexplained. To address this, we used TgS transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) and presenting a complex phenotype of progressive neurodeterioration. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images appeared similar. However, diffusion-weighted MRI showed decreased baseline water apparent diffusion coefficient in the brains of TgS animals. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced MRI after gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) injection demonstrated slower recovery of normal signals in the TgS brains than with controls. Perfusion MR imaging and difference T1 maps calculated from pre- postcontrast T1-weighted MR images indicated accumulation of more Gd-DTPA molecules in the TgS brains than in the parent strain, reflecting impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) functioning in these transgenic mice. To explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these global phenotypes, we performed microarray analysis in the stress-controlling prefrontal cortex of TgS vs. strain-matched wild-type animals. Profound overexpression of numerous ion channels, transporters, and adhesion genes was confirmed by real time RT-PCR tests. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed corresponding increases in the level and cellular distributions of the chloride channel CLCN3 and the water channel AQP4, both of which contribute to BBB maintenance. Our study attributes to balanced cholinergic neurotransmission, a central role in the brain's maintenance of water diffusion and ion transport, and indicates that chronic impairments in this maintenance facilitate neurodeterioration through interference with BBB function.
Cell. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16096050
Newly synthesized transcripts are usually spliced during transcription or immediately thereafter. So pre-mRNA splicing has been presumed to occur exclusively in the cell nucleus. In this issue of Cell, Denis et al. (2005) now report the presence of functional spliceosomes and signal-dependent pre-mRNA splicing in the cytoplasm of platelets.
Developmental Cell. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16399082
Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from a pluripotent to a committed state involves global changes in genome expression patterns. Gene activity is critically determined by chromatin structure and interactions of chromatin binding proteins. Here, we show that major architectural chromatin proteins are hyperdynamic and bind loosely to chromatin in ES cells. Upon differentiation, the hyperdynamic proteins become immobilized on chromatin. Hyperdynamic binding is a property of pluripotent cells, but not of undifferentiated cells that are already lineage committed. ES cells lacking the nucleosome assembly factor HirA exhibit elevated levels of unbound histones, and formation of embryoid bodies is accelerated. In contrast, ES cells, in which the dynamic exchange of H1 is restricted, display differentiation arrest. We suggest that hyperdynamic binding of structural chromatin proteins is a functionally important hallmark of pluripotent ES cells that contributes to the maintenance of plasticity in undifferentiated ES cells and to establishing higher-order chromatin structure.
Trends in Neurosciences. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16516310
The ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a combinatorial series of proteins with variant N and C termini generated from alternate promoter usage and 3' alternative splicing. Neuronal AChE variants show indistinguishable enzymatic activity yet differ in their expression, multimeric assembly and membrane-association patterns. Differentially induced under stress, they show distinct non-hydrolytic properties and interact with different protein partners. Recent findings suggest that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of AChE pre-mRNA is a neuroprotection strategy but might involve long-term damage. Specifically, variant-specific causal involvement of AChE in the progression of both neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and neuromuscular syndromes (e.g. myasthenia gravis) raises the possibility that future therapeutic drugs might target specific AChE variant(s) or the corresponding RNA transcripts.
Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16723974
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are unique in that they are pluripotent and have the ability to self-renew. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these two fundamental properties are largely unknown. We discuss how unique properties of chromatin in ES cells contribute to the maintenance of pluripotency and the determination of differentiation properties.
Nature. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16988686
The Journal of Cell Biology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18378774
Specific mutations in the human gene encoding lamin A or in the lamin A-processing enzyme, Zmpste24, cause premature aging. New data on mice and humans suggest that these mutations affect adult stem cells by interfering with the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways.
Cell Stem Cell. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18462694
The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and lineage specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are largely unclear. Differentiation pathways may be determined by the targeted activation of lineage-specific genes or by selective silencing of genome regions. Here we show that the ESC genome is transcriptionally globally hyperactive and undergoes large-scale silencing as cells differentiate. Normally silent repeat regions are active in ESCs, and tissue-specific genes are sporadically expressed at low levels. Whole-genome tiling arrays demonstrate widespread transcription in coding and noncoding regions in ESCs, whereas the transcriptional landscape becomes more discrete as differentiation proceeds. The transcriptional hyperactivity in ESCs is accompanied by disproportionate expression of chromatin-remodeling genes and the general transcription machinery. We propose that global transcription is a hallmark of pluripotent ESCs, contributing to their plasticity, and that lineage specification is driven by reduction of the transcribed portion of the genome.
Trends in Neurosciences. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18538423
Neurons are arguably the most varied cell type both morphologically and functionally. Their fate during differentiation and development and the activity of mature neurons are significantly determined and regulated by chromatin. The nucleus is compartmentalized and the arrangement of these compartments, termed the nuclear architecture, distinguishes one cell type from another and dictates many nuclear processes. Nuclear architecture determines the arrangement of chromosomes, the positioning of genes within chromosomes, the distribution of nuclear bodies and the interplay between these different factors. Importantly, chromatin regulation has been shown to be the basis for a variety of central nervous system processes including grooming and nursing, depression and stress, and drug abuse, among others. Here we review the regulation and function of nuclear architecture and chromatin structure in the context of the nervous system and discuss the potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors as chromatin-directed therapy for nervous system disorders.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18725533
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19106602
Embryonic stem cells display wide-spread pervasive transcriptional output. Here, we propose that multiple simultaneous transcriptional states underlay pluripotency.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19210577
The nuclear lamina is a proteinaceous structure located underneath the inner nuclear membrane (INM), where it associates with the peripheral chromatin. It contains lamins and lamin-associated proteins, including many integral proteins of the INM, chromatin modifying proteins, transcriptional repressors and structural proteins. A fraction of lamins is also present in the nucleoplasm, where it forms stable complexes and is associated with specific nucleoplasmic proteins. The lamins and their associated proteins are required for most nuclear activities, mitosis and for linking the nucleoplasm to all major cytoskeletal networks in the cytoplasm. Mutations in nuclear lamins and their associated proteins cause about 20 different diseases that are collectively called laminopathies'. This review concentrates mainly on lamins, their structure and their roles in DNA replication, chromatin organization, adult stem cell differentiation, aging, tumorogenesis and the lamin mutations leading to laminopathic diseases.
Nature. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19587682
An open chromatin largely devoid of heterochromatin is a hallmark of stem cells. It remains unknown whether an open chromatin is necessary for the differentiation potential of stem cells, and which molecules are needed to maintain open chromatin. Here we show that the chromatin remodelling factor Chd1 is required to maintain the open chromatin of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells. Chd1 is a euchromatin protein that associates with the promoters of active genes, and downregulation of Chd1 leads to accumulation of heterochromatin. Chd1-deficient embryonic stem cells are no longer pluripotent, because they are incapable of giving rise to primitive endoderm and have a high propensity for neural differentiation. Furthermore, Chd1 is required for efficient reprogramming of fibroblasts to the pluripotent stem cell state. Our results indicate that Chd1 is essential for open chromatin and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and for somatic cell reprogramming to the pluripotent state.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19684600
An increasing body of evidence indicates that transcription and splicing are coupled, and it is accepted that chromatin organization regulates transcription. Little is known about the cross-talk between chromatin structure and exon-intron architecture. By analysis of genome-wide nucleosome-positioning data sets from humans, flies and worms, we found that exons show increased nucleosome-occupancy levels with respect to introns, a finding that we link to differential GC content and nucleosome-disfavoring elements between exons and introns. Analysis of genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation data in humans and mice revealed four specific post-translational histone modifications enriched in exons. Our findings indicate that previously described enrichment of H3K36me3 modifications in exons reflects a more fundamental phenomenon, namely increased nucleosome occupancy along exons. Our results suggest an RNA polymerase II-mediated cross-talk between chromatin structure and exon-intron architecture, implying that exon selection may be modulated by chromatin structure.
Genes & Development. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20008929
Embryonic stem (ES) cells possess a globally open, decondensed chromatin structure that, together with trans-acting factors, supports transcriptional competence of developmentally regulated genes. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that establish transcriptional competence of specific genes is limited. In this issue of Genes & Development, Xu and colleagues (pp. 2824-2838) show that tissue-specific enhancers are actively marked by an unmethylated window in ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. They propose a model and present supporting evidence to demonstrate the active involvement of pioneer transcription factors in this process. This work marks an important step toward the understanding of the mechanisms that define and maintain pluripotency, and calls for the identification of the factors that participate in the establishment of transcriptional competence in pluripotent cells.
Current Opinion in Cell Biology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20226651
In search of the mechanisms that govern pluripotency and embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal, a growing list of evidence highlights chromatin as a leading factor, controlling ESC maintenance and differentiation. In-depth investigation of chromatin in ESCs revealed distinct features, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin protein composition and nuclear architecture. Here we review recent literature describing different aspects of chromatin and genome organization in ESCs. The emerging theme seems to support a mechanism maintaining chromatin plasticity in ESCs but without any dramatic changes in the organization and nuclear positioning of chromosomes and gene loci themselves. Plasticity thus seems to be supported more by different mechanisms maintaining an open chromatin state and less by regulating the location of genomic regions.
Cell Stem Cell. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20569682
Essays in Biochemistry. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20822497
ESCs (embryonic stem cells), derived from the blastocyst stage embryo, are characterized by an indefinite ability for self-renewal as well as pluripotency, enabling them to differentiate into all cell types of the three germ layers. In the undifferentiated state, ESCs display a global promiscuous transcriptional programme which is restricted gradually upon differentiation. Supporting transcriptional promiscuity, chromatin in pluripotent cells is more 'plastic' or 'open', with decondensed heterochromatin architecture, enrichment of active histone modifications, and a hyperdynamic association of chromatin proteins with chromatin. During ESC differentiation, nuclear architecture and chromatin undergo substantial changes. Heterochromatin foci appear smaller, more numerous and more condensed in the differentiated state, the nuclear lamina becomes more defined and chromatin protein dynamics becomes restricted. In the present chapter we discuss chromatin plasticity and epigenetics and the mechanisms that regulate the various chromatin states, which are currently a central theme in the studies of stem cell maintenance and differentiation, and which will no doubt assist in delineating the secrets of pluripotency and self-renewal.
Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21179060
Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from embryos or induced from adult cells by reprogramming. They are unique among stem cells in that they can give rise to all cell types of the body. Recent findings indicate that a particularly 'open' chromatin state contributes to maintenance of pluripotency. Two principles are emerging: specific factors maintain a globally open chromatin state that is accessible for transcriptional activation; and other chromatin regulators contribute locally to the silencing of lineage-specific genes until differentiation is triggered. These same principles may apply during reacquisition of an open chromatin state upon reprogramming to pluripotency, and during de-differentiation in cancer.
EMBO Reports. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21760615
The EMBO Workshop on 'Chromatin Structure, Organization and Dynamics' took place in April 2011 in Prague, Czech Republic. Scientists from the life sciences, chemistry and biophysics presented their latest data on the generation of three-dimensional and, eventually, four-dimensional models of the genome, working to correlate changes in the organization of chromatin with the functional state of the genome.
Pluripotency-related, Valproic Acid (VPA)-induced Genome-wide Histone H3 Lysine 9 (H3K9) Acetylation Patterns in Embryonic Stem Cells
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21849501
Embryonic stem cell (ESC) chromatin is characterized by a unique set of histone modifications, including enrichment for H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac). Recent studies suggest that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors promote pluripotency. Here, using H3K9ac ChIP followed by high throughput sequencing analyses and gene expression in E14 mouse ESCs before and after treatment with a low level of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid, we show that H3K9ac is enriched at gene promoters and is highly correlated with gene expression and with various genomic features, including different active histone marks and pluripotency-related transcription factors. Curiously, it predicts the cellular location of gene products. Treatment of ESCs with valproic acid leads to a pervasive genome-wide and time-dependent increase in H3K9ac, but this increase is selectively suppressed after 4 h in H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent genes. H3K9ac increase is dependent on the promoter's chromatin state and is affected by the binding of P300, various transcription factors, and active histone marks. This study provides insights into the genomic response of ESCs to a low level of HDAC inhibitor, which leads to increased pluripotency. The results suggest that a mild (averaging less than 40%) but global change in the chromatin state is involved in increased pluripotency and that specific mechanisms operate selectively in bivalent genes to maintain constant H3K9ac levels. Our data support the notion that H3K9ac has an important role in ESC biology.
Nucleus (Austin, Tex.). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21941115
The pluripotent genome is characterized by unique epigenetic features and a decondensed chromatin conformation. However, the relationship between epigenetic regulation and pluripotency is not altogether clear. Here, using an enhanced MEF/ESC fusion protocol, we compared the reprogramming potency and histone modifications of different embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines (R1, J1, E14, C57BL/6) and found that E14 ESCs are significantly less potent, with significantly reduced H3K9ac levels. Treatment of E14 ESCs with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) increased H3K9ac levels and restored their reprogramming capacity. Microarray and H3K9ac ChIP-seq analyses, suggested increased extracellular matrix (ECM) activity following HDACi treatment in E14 ESCs. These data suggest that H3K9ac may predict pluripotency and that increasing pluripotency by HDAC inhibition acts through H3K9ac to enhance the activity of target genes involved in ECM production to support pluripotency.
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22044880
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exhibit unique chromatin features, including a permissive transcriptional program and an open, decondensed chromatin state. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are very similar to ESCs, hold great promise for therapy and basic research. However, the mechanisms by which reprogramming occurs and the chromatin organization that underlies the reprogramming process are largely unknown. Here we characterize and compare the epigenetic landscapes of partially and fully reprogrammed iPSCs to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and ESCs, which serves as a standard for pluripotency. Using immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionations, we analyzed the levels and distribution of a battery of histone modifications (H3ac, H4ac, H4K5ac, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, H3K4me3, H3K36me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and γH2AX), as well as HP1α and lamin A. We find that fully reprogrammed iPSCs are epigenetically identical to ESCs, and that partially reprogrammed iPSCs are closer to MEFs. Intriguingly, combining both time-course reprogramming experiments and data from the partially reprogrammed iPSCs, we find that heterochromatin reorganization precedes Nanog expression and active histone marking. Together, these data delineate the global epigenetic state of iPSCs in conjunction with their pluripotent state, and demonstrate that heterochromatin precedes euchromatin in reorganization during reprogramming.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22113288
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has been developed for studying protein-DNA interactions and has been extensively used for mapping the localization of posttranslationally modified histones, histone variants, transcription factors, or chromatin modifying enzymes at a given locus or on a genome-wide scale. ChIP methods have been modified and improved over the years to fit a variety of different cell types and tissues. Here, we present a detailed protocol for hippocampal ChIP, of both minced tissue and enzyme-separated hippocampal cells. This protocol enables to study chromatin-protein interactions in a specified population of hippocampal cells, allowing to study chromatin regulation in the central nervous system in a variety of conditions and disorders. Our assay has been developed for histone modifications but is suited for any chromatin binding protein for which specific ChIP-grade antibodies are available.