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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Gabrielle Romain in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Quantitative High-throughput Single-cell Cytotoxicity Assay For T Cells

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, 2Division of Pediatrics, Research Unit 907, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 50058

We describe a single-cell high-throughput assay to measure cytotoxicity of T cells when incubated with tumor target cells. This method employs a dense, elastomeric array of sub-nanoliter wells (~100,000 wells/array) to spatially confine the T cells and target cells at defined ratios and is coupled to fluorescence microscopy to monitor effector-target conjugation and subsequent apoptosis.

Other articles by Gabrielle Romain on PubMed

Persistent Immune Responses Induced by a Human Immunodeficiency Virus DNA Vaccine Delivered in Association with Electroporation in the Skin of Nonhuman Primates

Strategies to improve vaccine efficacy are still required, especially in the case of chronic infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines; however, low immunological efficacy has been demonstrated in many experiments involving large animals and in clinical trials. To improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, we have designed a plasmid vector exploiting the binding capacity of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein and we have used electroporation (EP) to increase DNA uptake after intradermal inoculation. We demonstrated, in nonhuman primates (NHPs), efficient induction of anti-HIV immunity with an improved DNA vaccine vector encoding an artificial fusion protein, consisting of several proteins and selected epitopes from HIV-1. We show that a DNA vaccine delivery method combining intradermal injection and noninvasive EP dramatically increased expression of the vaccine antigen selectively in the epidermis, and our observations strongly suggest the involvement of Langerhans cells in the strength and quality of the anti-HIV immune response. Although the humoral responses to the vaccine were transient, the cellular responses were exceptionally robust and persisted, at high levels, more than 2 years after the last vaccine boost. The immune responses were characterized by the induction of significant proportions of T cells producing both interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 cytokines, in both subpopulations, CD4(+) and CD8(+). This strategy is an attractive approach for vaccination in humans because of its high efficacy and the possible use of newly developed devices for EP.

Targeting Self- and Foreign Antigens to Dendritic Cells Via DC-ASGPR Generates IL-10-producing Suppressive CD4+ T Cells

Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate and shape host immune responses toward either immunity or tolerance by their effects on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. DC-asialoglycoprotein receptor (DC-ASGPR), a lectinlike receptor, is a known scavenger receptor. Here, we report that targeting antigens to human DCs via DC-ASGPR, but not lectin-like oxidized-LDL receptor, Dectin-1, or DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin favors the generation of antigen-specific suppressive CD4(+) T cells that produce interleukin 10 (IL-10). These findings apply to both self- and foreign antigens, as well as memory and naive CD4(+) T cells. The generation of such IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells requires p38/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and IL-10 induction in DCs. We further demonstrate that immunization of nonhuman primates with antigens fused to anti-DC-ASGPR monoclonal antibody generates antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that produce IL-10 in vivo. This study provides a new strategy for the establishment of antigen-specific IL-10-producing suppressive T cells in vivo by targeting whole protein antigens to DCs via DC-ASGPR.

CD34-derived Dendritic Cells Transfected Ex Vivo with HIV-Gag MRNA Induce Polyfunctional T-cell Responses in Nonhuman Primates

The pivotal role of DCs in initiating immune responses led to their use as vaccine vectors. However, the relationship between DC subsets involved in antigen presentation and the type of elicited immune responses underlined the need for the characterization of the DCs generated in vitro. The phenotypes of tissue-derived APCs from a cynomolgus macaque model for human vaccine development were compared with ex vivo-derived DCs. Monocyte/macrophages predominated in bone marrow (BM) and blood. Myeloid DCs (mDCs) were present in all tested tissues and were more highly represented than plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). As in human skin, Langerhans cells (LCs) resided exclusively in the macaque epidermis, expressing CD11c, high levels of CD1a and langerin (CD207). Most DC subsets were endowed with tissue-specific combinations of PRRs. DCs generated from CD34(+) BM cells (CD34-DCs) were heterogeneous in phenotype. CD34-DCs shared properties (differentiation and PRR) of dermal and epidermal DCs. After injection into macaques, CD34-DCs expressing HIV-Gag induced Gag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β, or IL-2. In high responding animals, the numbers of polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells increased with the number of booster injections. This DC-based vaccine strategy elicited immune responses relevant to the DC subsets generated in vitro.

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