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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Synapse (New York, N.Y.)
- Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
- PLoS Biology
- Brain Research
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
- Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
- Brain Research
- Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
- Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Open Neuroimaging Journal
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Articles by James B. Daunais in JoVE
DiOLISTIC Маркировка нейроны от грызунов и не-человека Предстоятель фрагменты мозга
Gail K. Seabold1, James B. Daunais2, Andrew Rau3, Kathleen A. Grant3, Veronica A. Alvarez1
1Section on Neuronal Structure, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, NIAAA, NIH, 2Department Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 3Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University
Мы демонстрируем использование генной пушки ввести флуоресцентными красителями, например, DII, в нейроны в мозге ломтики от грызунов и не-человеческое приматов разных возрастов. В данном конкретном случае мы используем взрослых мышей (3-6 месяцев) и взрослых cynomologus обезьян (9-15 лет). Этот метод, впервые описана в лаборатории доктора Лихтман (Ган
Other articles by James B. Daunais on PubMed
Effects of Cocaine Self-administration on Striatal Dopamine Systems in Rhesus Monkeys: Initial and Chronic Exposure
Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12062905
The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in dopamine D(1)- and D(2)-like receptor densities in monkeys self-administering cocaine. Experimentally naïve adult male rhesus monkeys (n = 22) were divided into a food reinforcement group (n = 6), in which responding was maintained by food presentation, or into four cocaine self-administration groups (n = 4/group), based on dose (0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg per injection) and duration of exposure (5 or approximately 100 sessions). After the last session, monkeys were euthanized, brains were removed, frozen, and coronal sections through the striatum, rostral to the anterior commissure, were processed for D(1) ([3H]SCH23390) and D(2) ([3H]raclopride) receptor autoradiography. Compared with controls, there was no effect of 5 days of cocaine self-administration on D(1) and D(2) receptors. In monkeys with extensive cocaine histories, D(1) receptor densities were significantly increased relative to controls in some parts of the striatum, while D(2) receptor densities were significantly decreased throughout the striatum. These findings demonstrate that chronic cocaine self-administration produces neuroadaptations in dopamine systems, but that these changes do not occur in a parallel fashion.
Metabolic Mapping of the Effects of Cocaine During the Initial Phases of Self-administration in the Nonhuman Primate
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12196592
Because most human studies of the neurobiological substrates of the effects of cocaine have been performed with drug-dependent subjects, little information is available about the effects of cocaine in the initial phases of drug use before neuroadaptations to chronic exposure have developed. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to define the substrates that mediate the initial effects of cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration using the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method. Rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer 0.03 mg/kg per injection (N = 4) or 0.3 mg/kg per injection (N = 4) cocaine and compared with monkeys trained to respond under an identical schedule of food reinforcement (N = 4). Monkeys received 30 reinforcers per session, and metabolic mapping was conducted at the end of the fifth self-administration session. Cocaine self-administration reduced glucose utilization in the mesolimbic system, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex. In addition, metabolic activity was increased in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, as well as in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. These latter effects are distinctly different from those seen after the noncontingent administration of cocaine, suggesting that self-administration engages circuits beyond those engaged merely by the pharmacological actions of cocaine. The involvement of cortical areas subserving working memory suggests that strong associations between cocaine and the internal and external environment are formed from the very outset of cocaine self-administration. The assessment of the effects of cocaine at a time not readily evaluated in humans provides a baseline from which the effects of chronic cocaine exposure can be investigated.
Chronic Ethanol Exposure Alters Presynaptic Dopamine Function in the Striatum of Monkeys: a Preliminary Study
Synapse (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14515345
The Expanding Effects of Cocaine: Studies in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Cocaine Self-administration
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15019430
Although neuroimaging investigations in human cocaine abusers have provided important insights into the brain changes that accompany drug use, the interpretation of reports in human abusers can be very difficult. Studies in nonhuman primates provide a way to systematically evaluate the structural and functional adaptations engendered by cocaine self-administration without the confounds of human research. Functional activity, measured with metabolic mapping methods, and markers of the dopamine system, assessed autoradiographically, were evaluated over the course of chronic cocaine self-administration (5 days, 3.3 months, and 15-22 months). Within the striatum the topography of these responses shifts dramatically over time. Changes in functional activity and alterations in the dopamine system occupy larger and larger portions of dorsal and ventral striatum with increasing durations of cocaine exposure. The growing impact of cocaine suggests that the elements of the behavioral repertoire outside of the influence of cocaine become smaller and smaller with increasing durations of exposure to drug use resulting in cocaine's dominance over all aspects of the addict's life.
Cocaine Self-administration Produces a Progressive Involvement of Limbic, Association, and Sensorimotor Striatal Domains
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15071103
The primate striatum is composed of limbic, cognitive, and sensorimotor functional domains. Although the effects of cocaine have generally been associated with the ventral striatum, or limbic domain, recent evidence in rodents suggests the involvement of the dorsal striatum (cognitive and sensorimotor domains) in cocaine self-administration. The goals of the present studies were to map the topography of the functional response to cocaine throughout the entire extent of the striatum of monkeys self-administering cocaine and determine whether this response is modified by chronic exposure to cocaine. Rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer 0.3 mg/kg per injection cocaine for 5 d (initial stages; n = 4) or 100 d (chronic stages; n = 4) and compared with monkeys trained to respond under an identical schedule of food reinforcement (n = 6). Monkeys received 30 reinforcers per session, and metabolic mapping was conducted at the end of the 5th or 100th self-administration session. In the initial phases of cocaine exposure, self-administration significantly decreased functional activity in the ventral striatum, but only in very restricted portions of the dorsal striatum. With chronic cocaine self-administration, however, the effects of cocaine intensified and spread dorsally to include most aspects of both caudate and putamen. Early experiences with cocaine, then, involve mainly the limbic domain, an area that mediates motivational and affective functions. In contrast, as exposure to cocaine continues, the impact of cocaine impinges progressively on the processing of sensorimotor and cognitive information, as well as the affective and motivational information processed in the ventral striatum.
Long-term Ethanol Self-administration by Cynomolgus Macaques Alters the Pharmacology and Expression of GABAA Receptors in Basolateral Amygdala
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15280440
We have recently demonstrated that chronic ethanol ingestion alters the functional and pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors measured in acutely isolated rat lateral/basolateral amygdala neurons, a limbic forebrain region involved with fear-learning and innate anxiety. To understand relevance of these results in the context of primates, we have examined the effects of long-term ethanol self-administration on basolateral amygdala GABAA receptor pharmacology and expression in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The impact of this 18-month-long exposure on GABAA receptor function was assessed in acutely isolated neurons from basolateral amygdala with whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Neurons from control animals expressed maximal current densities that were not significantly different from the maximal current densities of neurons from ethanol-treated animals. However, the GABA concentration-response relationships from ethanol-exposed neurons were significantly right-shifted compared with control neurons. These adaptations were associated with significant alterations in some characteristics of macroscopic current desensitization. To understand the mechanism governing these adaptations, we quantified GABAA alpha subunit mRNAs in basolateral amygdala from the same animals. mRNA levels of the alpha2 and alpha3 subunits were significantly decreased, whereas decreases in alpha1 expression only approached statistical significance. There were no changes in alpha4 mRNA levels. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced alterations in GABAA function may be regulated in part by selective changes in the expression of particular alpha subunits. We conclude that adaptations of basolateral amygdala GABAA receptors after long-term ethanol self-administration by the cynomolgus macaque are similar, but not identical, to those described in rodents after a brief forced ethanol exposure.
Neuroimaging of Rodent and Primate Models of Alcoholism: Initial Reports from the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15714052
Neuroimaging of animal models of alcoholism offers a unique path for translational research to the human condition. Animal models permit manipulation of variables that are uncontrollable in clinical, human investigation. This symposium, which took place at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, on June 29th, 2004, presented initial findings based on neuroimaging studies from the two centers of the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Effects of alcohol exposure were assessed with in vitro glucose metabolic imaging of rat brain, in vitro receptor imaging of monkey brain, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of monkey brain, and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic quantification of alcohol metabolism kinetics in rat brain.
Facilitation of Task Performance and Removal of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation by an Ampakine (CX717) in Nonhuman Primates
PLoS Biology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16104830
The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30-36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Brain Research. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16631142
Chronic ethanol use is known to disrupt normal sleep rhythms, but the cellular basis for this disruption is unknown. An important contributor to normal sleep patterns is a low-threshold calcium current mediated by T-type calcium channels. The T-type calcium current underlies burst responses in thalamic nuclei that are important to spindle propagation, and we recently observed that this current is sensitive to acute low doses of ethanol.
Chronic Cocaine Self-administration is Associated with Altered Functional Activity in the Temporal Lobes of Non Human Primates
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16820001
Previous studies utilizing a nonhuman primate model have shown that cocaine self-administration in its initial stages is accompanied by alterations in functional activity largely within the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Continued cocaine exposure may considerably change this response. The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize the effects of reinforcing doses of cocaine on cerebral metabolism in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration, following an extended history of cocaine exposure, using the quantitative 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose (2-DG) method. Rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer 0.03 mg/kg/injection (n = 4) or 0.3 mg/kg/injection (n = 4) cocaine and compared to monkeys trained to respond under an identical schedule of food reinforcement (n = 6). Monkeys received 30 reinforcers per session for a total of 100 sessions. Metabolic mapping was conducted at the end of the final session. After this extended history, cocaine self-administration dose-dependently reduced glucose utilization throughout the striatum and prefrontal cortex similarly to the initial stages of self-administration. However, glucose utilization was also decreased in a dose-independent manner in large portions of the temporal lobe including the amygdala, hippocampus and surrounding neocortex. The recruitment of temporal structures indicates that the pattern of changes in functional activity has undergone significant expansion beyond limbic regions into association areas that mediate higher order cognitive and emotional processing. These data strongly contribute to converging evidence from human studies demonstrating structural and functional abnormalities in temporal and prefrontal areas of cocaine abusers, and suggest that substance abusers may undergo progressive cognitive decline with continued exposure to cocaine.
Long-term Ethanol Self-administration by the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, Decreases the Benzodiazepine Sensitivity of Amygdala GABA(A) Receptors
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17428292
Rodent models of chronic alcohol exposure are typically constrained to relatively short periods of forced ethanol due to the lifespan of these animals. Nonhuman primate models, particularly those employing long-term self-administration, are conceptually more similar to human alcoholic individuals.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18070243
Vasculogenesis is essential to the preservation and repair of damaged or diseased vessels. Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug among young adults, but its effects on vessel growth and repair are unknown. The basis of vascular repair is endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment to assist in the formation of new vascular network (vasculogenesis). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of ethanol consumption on the production, mobilization and vasculogenesis potential EPCs in nonhuman primates.
NeuroImage. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19306931
The use of minimally and non-invasive neuroimaging methods in animal models has sharply increased over the past decade. Such studies have enhanced understanding of the neural basis of the physical signals quantified by these tools, and have addressed an assortment of fundamental and otherwise intractable questions in neurobiology. To date, these studies have almost exclusively utilized positron-emission tomography or variants of magnetic resonance based imaging. These methods provide largely indirect measures of brain activity and are strongly reliant on intact vasculature and normal blood-flow, which is known to be compromised in many clinical conditions. The current study provides the first demonstration of whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive and direct measure of neuronal activity, in a rhesus monkey, and in the process supplies the initial data on systems-level dynamics in somatosensory cortices. An adult rhesus monkey underwent three separate studies of tactile stimulation on the pad of the right second or fifth digit as whole-head MEG data were acquired. The neural generators of the primary neuromagnetic components were localized using an equivalent-current-dipole model. Second digit stimulation produced an initial cortical response peaking approximately 16 ms after stimulus onset in the contralateral somatosensory cortices, with a later response at approximately 96 ms in an overlapping or nearby neural area with a roughly orthogonal orientation. Stimulation of the fifth digit produced similar results, the main exception being a substantially weaker later response. We believe the 16 ms response is likely the monkey homologue of the human M50 response, as both are the earliest cortical response and localize to the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Thus, these data suggest that mechanoreception in nonhuman primates operates substantially faster than that in adult humans. More broadly, these results demonstrate that it is feasible to use current human whole-head MEG instrumentation to record neuromagnetic responses in adult rhesus monkeys. Nonhuman primate models of human disease provide the closest phylogenetic link to humans. The present, non-invasive imaging study could promote exciting translational integration of invasive animal studies and non-invasive human studies, allowing experimentally induced deficits and pharmacological treatments to be interpreted in light of resulting brain network interactions.
Ethanol Self-administration Modulation of NMDA Receptor Subunit and Related Synaptic Protein MRNA Expression in Prefrontal Cortical Fields in Cynomolgus Monkeys
Brain Research. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20043891
Background: Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits constituting ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) complexes. Glutamatergic transmission is integral to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical communication, and alcohol-induced changes in the abundance of the receptor subunits and/or their splice variants may result in critical functional impairments of prefrontal cortex in the alcohol-addicted state. Methods and results: The effects of chronic ethanol self-administration on glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA (GRIN), as well as GRIN1 splice variant mRNA expression was studied in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; Area 13), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Area 46) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; Area 24) of male cynomolgus monkeys. Chronic ethanol self-administration resulted in significant changes in the expression of NMDA subunit mRNA expression in the DLPFC and OFC, but not the ACC. In DLPFC, the overall expression of NMDA subunits was significantly decreased in ethanol treated monkeys. Slight but significant changes were observed for synaptic associated protein 102 kD (SAP102) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNAs. In OFC, the NMDAR1 variant GRIN1-1 was reduced while GRIN1-2 was increased. Furthermore, no significant changes in GFAP protein levels were observed in either the DLPFC or OFC. Conclusion: Results from these studies provide the first demonstration of posttranscriptional regulation of iGluR subunits in the primate brain following long-term ethanol self-administration. Furthermore, changes in these transcripts do not appear to reflect changes in glial activation or loss. Further studies examining the expression and cellular localization of subunit proteins and receptor pharmacology would shed more light on the findings reported here.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20477780
Recent studies link altered cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to the pathology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). However, the alteration and functional effect of beta(3)-AR activation in ACM are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic alcohol intake causes an up-regulation of cardiac beta(3)-AR, which exacerbates myocyte dysfunction and impairs calcium regulation, thereby directly contributing to the progression of ACM.
Menopause (New York, N.Y.). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21242818
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies report hippocampal (HC) volume reductions in depression. Despite observations of functional heterogeneity and ovarian steroid influence in the hippocampus, few studies report regional volume alterations or control for menstrual cycle phase. Using in vitro methods, we recently observed reduced anterior HC volume in antidepressant-naive, ovarian-intact, behaviorally depressed adult female monkeys. The purpose of this study was to confirm these findings in vivo and examine whether lack of ovarian steroids affects the relationship between depression and HC volume.
Bidirectional Plasticity in the Primate Inferior Olive Induced by Chronic Ethanol Intoxication and Sustained Abstinence
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21642533
The brain adapts to chronic ethanol intoxication by altering synaptic and ion-channel function to increase excitability, a homeostatic counterbalance to inhibition by alcohol. Delirium tremens occurs when those adaptations are unmasked during withdrawal, but little is known about whether the primate brain returns to normal with repeated bouts of ethanol abuse and abstinence. Here, we show a form of bidirectional plasticity of pacemaking currents induced by chronic heavy drinking within the inferior olive of cynomolgus monkeys. Intracellular recordings of inferior olive neurons demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the tail current triggered by release from hyperpolarization (I(tail)). Both the slow deactivation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels conducting the hyperpolarization-activated inward current and the activation of Ca(v)3.1 channels conducting the T-type calcium current (I(T)) contributed to I(tail), but ethanol inhibited only the I(T) component of I(tail). Recordings of inferior olive neurons obtained from chronically intoxicated monkeys revealed a significant up-regulation in I(tail) that was induced by 1 y of daily ethanol self-administration. The up-regulation was caused by a specific increase in I(T) which (i) greatly increased neurons' susceptibility for rebound excitation following hyperpolarization and (ii) may have accounted for intention tremors observed during ethanol withdrawal. In another set of monkeys, sustained abstinence produced the opposite effects: (i) a reduction in rebound excitability and (ii) a down-regulation of I(tail) caused by the down-regulation of both the hyperpolarization-activated inward current and I(T). Bidirectional plasticity of two hyperpolarization-sensitive currents following chronic ethanol abuse and abstinence may underlie persistent brain dysfunction in primates and be a target for therapy.
The Open Neuroimaging Journal. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22253661
The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.