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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by James M. Flynn in JoVE
Single Cell Transcriptional Profiling of Adult Mouse Cardiomyocytes
James M. Flynn1, Luis F. Santana2, Simon Melov1
1Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 2Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Washington
Single cell expression profiling allows the detailed gene expression analysis of individual cells. We describe methods for the isolation of cardiomyocytes, and preparing the resulting lysates for either whole transcriptome microarray or qPCR of specific targets.
Other articles by James M. Flynn on PubMed
17beta-estradiol Stimulates MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Lens Epithelial Cell Cultures Preventing Collapse of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential During Acute Oxidative Stress
Mitochondrion. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16050986
17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2) protects against H2O2-mediated depletion of intracellular ATP and lessens the degree of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in cultured lens epithelial cells consequential to oxidative insult. We now report that 17beta-E2 acts as a positive regulator of the survival signal transduction pathway, MAPK which, in turn, acts to stabilize DeltaPsi(m) in effect, attenuating the extent of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in the face of acute oxidative stress. The SV-40 viral transformed human cell line, HLE-B3 was treated with 17beta-E2 over a time course of 60 min and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was analyzed by Western blot. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated within 5-15 min in the presence of 17beta-E2. Cell cultures were exposed to the MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126, subsequent to H2O2+/-17beta-E2 treatment and the DeltaPsi(m) examined using JC-1, a potentiometric dye which serves as an indicator for the state of mitochondrial membrane potential. UO126 treatment attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation irrespective of whether estradiol was administered. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization resulting from H2O2 stress was substantially greater in the presence of UO126. The greater the extent of depolarization, the less effective 17beta-E2 treatment was in checking mitochondrial membrane depolarization, indicating that the relative degree of ERK phosphorylation influences mitochondrial stability with oxidative insult. The data support a positive correlation between 17beta-E2 stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and mitochondrial stabilization that would otherwise cause a complete collapse of DeltaPsi(m).
Molecular Vision. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16617294
This study examined the state of mitochondrial physiology subsequent to exposing lens epithelium to high ambient galactose (Gal), which upon conversion to galactitol (GalOH) and resultant intracellular accumulation thereof, leads to profound destabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). Further, we determined whether the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, Sorbinil, or estrogen (17beta-E2, and its isomer, 17alpha-E2, which exhibits marginal binding affinity for estrogen receptor), administered prior to and concomitant with Gal exposure might prevent or delay mitochondrial membrane depolarization.
RNA Suppression of ERK2 Leads to Collapse of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential with Acute Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18171912
17beta-Estradiol (E(2)) reduces oxidative stress-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3). The mechanism by which the nongenomic effects of E(2) contributed to the protection against mitochondrial membrane depolarization was investigated. Mitochondrial membrane integrity is regulated by phosphorylation of BAD, and it is known that phosphorylation of Ser(112) inactivates BAD and prevents its participation in the mitochondrial death pathway. We found that E(2) rapidly increased both the phosphorylation of ERK2 and Ser(112) in BAD. Ser(112) is phosphorylated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a Ser/Thr kinase, which is a downstream effector of ERK1/2. Inhibition of RSK by the RSK-specific inhibitor SL0101 did not reduce the level of E(2)-induced phosphorylation of Ser(112). Silencing BAD using small interfering RNA did not alter mitochondrial membrane depolarization elicited by peroxide insult. However, under the same conditions, silencing ERK2 dramatically increased membrane depolarization compared with the control small interfering RNA. Therefore, ERK2, functioning through a BAD-independent mechanism regulates MMP in humans lens epithelial cells. We propose that estrogen-induced activation of ERK2 acts to protect cells from acute oxidative stress. Moreover, despite the fact that ERK2 plays a regulatory role in mitochondrial membrane potential, estrogen was found to block mitochondrial membrane depolarization via an ERK-independent mechanism.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21215798
Presynaptic nerve terminals require high levels of ATP for the maintenance of synaptic function. Failure of synaptic mitochondria to generate adequate ATP has been implicated as a causative event preceding the loss of synaptic networks in neurodegenerative disease. Endogenous oxidative stress has often been postulated as an etiological basis for this pathology, but has been difficult to test in vivo. Inactivation of the superoxide dismutase gene (Sod2) encoding the chief defense enzyme against mitochondrial superoxide radicals results in neonatal lethality. However, intervention with an SOD mimetic extends the life span of this model and uncovers a neurodegenerative phenotype providing a unique model for the examination of in vivo oxidative stress. We present here studies on synaptic termini isolated from the frontal cortex of Sod2 null mice demonstrating impaired bioenergetic function as a result of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cortical synaptosomes from Sod2 null mice demonstrate a severe decline in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in response to physiological demand induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain uncoupling with FCCP or by plasma membrane depolarization induced by 4-aminopyridine treatment. However, Sod2 null animals compensate for impaired oxidative metabolism in part by the Pasteur effect allowing for normal neurotransmitter release at the synapse, setting up a potentially detrimental energetic paradigm. The results of this study demonstrate that high-throughput respirometry is a facile method for analyzing specific regions of the brain in transgenic models and can uncover bioenergetic deficits in subcellular regions due to endogenous oxidative stress.
Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Caused by Sod2 Deficiency Promotes Cellular Senescence and Aging Phenotypes in the Skin
Aging. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22278880
Cellular senescence arrests the proliferation of mammalian cells at risk for neoplastic transformation, and is also associated with aging. However, the factors that cause cellular senescence during aging are unclear. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause cellular senescence in culture, and accumulated molecular damage due to mitochondrial ROS has long been thought to drive aging phenotypesin vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative stress can promote cellular senescence in vivo and contribute to aging phenotypes in vivo, specifically in the skin. We show that the number of senescent cells, as well as impaired mitochondrial (complex II) activity increase in naturally aged mouse skin. Using a mouse model of genetic Sod2 deficiency, we show that failure to express this important mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme also impairs mitochondrial complex II activity, causes nuclear DNA damage, and induces cellular senescence but not apoptosis in the epidermis. Sod2 deficiency also reduced the number of cells and thickness of the epidermis, while increasing terminal differentiation. Our results support the idea that mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular senescence contribute to aging skin phenotypes in vivo.