Colorectal Cancer Cell Surface Protein Profiling Using an Antibody Microarray and Fluorescence Multiplexing
1School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, 2Department of Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 3Department of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Anatomical Pathology, 4Department of Medicine, Concord Repatriation General Hospital
We described a procedure for the disaggregation of colorectal cancer (CRC) to produce viable single cells, which are then captured on customized antibody microarrays recognizing surface antigens (DotScan CRC microarray). Sub-populations of cells bound to the microarray can be profiled by fluorescence multiplexing using monoclonal antibodies tagged with fluorescent dyes.
A simple procedure of performing custom microRNA microarray experiments is described. The steps include isolating RNA, labeling RNA and reference DNA, hybridizing the samples to microarrays, scanning the microarrays, quantifying and analyzing hybridization signals.
Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples
1Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 3Drexel University College of Medicine, 4Van Andel Research Institute, 5Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Serome Biosciences Inc.
In this study, we describe an improved protocol for a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with lectin detection method that can be used in glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. This protocol features new reliable reagents and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements as compared to the previous procedure.
1Australian Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, 2Plant Cell Biology Research Centre, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, 3CSIRO Plant Industry, Black Mountain Laboratories, 4Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen
A technique called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) for the characterisation of plant cell wall glycans is described. This method combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies directed to defined glycan-epitopes with a miniature microarray analytical platform allowing screening of glycan occurrence in a broad range of biological contexts.
The Virochip is a pan-viral microarray designed to simultaneously detect all known viruses as well as novel viruses on the basis of conserved sequence homology. Here we demonstrate how to run a Virochip assay to analyze clinical samples for the presence of both known and unknown viruses.
Microarray analysis was conducted to determine genetic expression profiles in C. elegans, and real-time PCR was used to validate and quantify microarray data.
An Analytical Tool-box for Comprehensive Biochemical, Structural and Transcriptome Evaluation of Oral Biofilms Mediated by Mutans Streptococci
1Center for Oral Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 2State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, 3Department of General Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center
Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are highly complex and exposed to constant innate and exogenous environmental challenges, which modulate their architecture, physiology and transcriptome. We developed a toolbox to examine the composition, structural organization and gene expression of oral biofilms, which can be adapted to other areas of biofilm research.
ampliPHOX colorimetric detection technology is presented as an inexpensive alternative to fluorescence detection for microarrays. Based on photopolymerization, ampliPHOX produces solid polymer spots visible to the naked eye in just a few minutes. Results are then imaged and automatically interpreted with a simple yet powerful software package.
Gene microarrays are powerful tools in gene expression profiling at a genome-wide level. This technology has application in a variety of biological disciplines including developmental biology and toxicology. In this video, we detail a protocol for global gene expression analysis using a comprehensive oligonucleotide microarray platform for the zebrafish.
1Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 2Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 4Genetic Engineering and Functional Genomics Group, Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 5Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
A dissection technique for removal of the dentate gyrus from adult mouse under a stereomicroscope was demonstrated in this video-recorded protocol.
1Department of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, 2Department of Gene and Protein Biomarkers, GenProMarkers, Inc.
We describe a rat model of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that reveals the persistent alterations in neuroendocrine function and the delayed long-term, exaggerated fear response, characteristic of PTSD patients. The animal model and methods described here are useful for correlating biomarkers in brain nuclei, which are mechanistic but cannot be measured in patients, with biomarkers in peripheral white blood cells, which can.
We demonstrate the use of DNA microarrays for expression profiling of the nervous system. We describe RNA quality control, sample labeling, and array hybridization and scanning.
A method for the isolation of single retinal cells and subsequent amplification of their cDNAs is described. Single-cell transcriptomics reveals the degree of cellular heterogeneity present in a tissue and uncovers new marker genes for rare cell populations. The accompanying protocol can be adjusted to suit many different cell types.
Production of Tissue Microarrays, Immunohistochemistry Staining and Digitalization Within the Human Protein Atlas
Tissue microarrays allows for an efficient method to gain concurrent information from a multitude of tissues. Representative parts of tissues are assembled into a single paraffin block. Sections from the block are used for immunohistochemistry and analysis of protein expression patterns. Digital scanning generates corresponding images for distribution of data.
We describe a method for microarray analysis to determine relative aminoacylation levels of all tRNAs from S. cerivisiae.
Host cell factors play a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We outline methods to identify host cell factors altered in KSHV-infected DMVEC cells, and in KS tumor tissue. Cellular genes altered by virus will serve as potential target(s) for novel therapeutics.
1Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, University of Nottingham, 2School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 3David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
A description of the formation of a polymer microarray using an on-chip photopolymerization technique. The high throughput surface characterization using atomic force microscopy, water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and a cell attachment assay is also described.
1Department of Pathology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 3Departments of Pathology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, 4Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University
SELEX protocols comprise multiple rounds of selection, each of which require regeneration of bound ligands, which in turn require fixed primer sequences flanking the random library regions. These fixed primer sequences can interfere with the selection process (false positives and negatives). Here we present a primer-free protocol.
1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto
We have developed comprehensive, unbiased genome-wide screens to understand gene-drug and gene-environment interactions. Methods for screening these mutant collections are presented.
We describe a process using laser-capture microdissection to isolate and extract RNA from a homogeneous cell population, pyramidal neurons, in layer III of the superior temporal gyrus in postmortem human brains. We subsequently linearly amplify (T7-based) mRNA, and hybridize the sample to the Affymetrix human X3P microarray.
The cDNA microarray PtGen2 was developed for gene expression studies in loblolly pine, P. taeda, and other conifer species. Here, we show pre- and post-hybridization handling and washing techniques that can be used with this array to yield better consistency, reduced artifacts, and lower backgrounds.
We present a microfluidic approach for the expression of protein arrays. The device consists of thousands of reaction chambers controlled by micro-mechanical valves. The microfluidic device is mated to a microarray-printed gene library. These genes are then transcribed and translated on-chip, resulting in a protein array ready for experimental use.
Method for the Isolation and Identification of mRNAs, microRNAs and Protein Components of Ribonucleoprotein Complexes from Cell Extracts using RIP-Chip
A step by step protocol to isolating and identifying RNA associated complexes through RIP-Chip.
Many plant tissues, including phloem and xylem from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), contain high levels of phenolics and polysaccharides that interfere with RNA purification. This presentation discusses techniques for the harvest of field-grown tissues and isolation of RNA of sufficient quality for microarrays and other genomic analyses.
Investigating Tissue- and Organ-specific Phytochrome Responses using FACS-assisted Cell-type Specific Expression Profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana
The molecular basis of spatial-specific phytochrome responses is being investigated using transgenic plants that exhibit tissue- and organ-specific phytochrome deficiencies. The isolation of specific cells exhibiting induced phytochrome chromophore depletion by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting followed by microarray analyses is being utilized to identify genes involved in spatial-specific phytochrome responses.
Here we use a human LentiPlex pooled library and traditional sequencing methods to identify gene targets promoting cell survival. We demonstrate how to set up and deconvolute a LentiPlex screen and validate the results.
Single cell expression profiling allows the detailed gene expression analysis of individual cells. We describe methods for the isolation of cardiomyocytes, and preparing the resulting lysates for either whole transcriptome microarray or qPCR of specific targets.
Protocol for Vaccinia infection of HeLa cells and analysis of host and viral gene expression. Part 3 describes the process of fluorescently labeling the amplified RNA from both host and viral samples by amino allyl coupling of dyes. Part 3 of 3.
Laser Capture Microdissection of Enriched Populations of Neurons or Single Neurons for Gene Expression Analysis After Traumatic Brain Injury
We describe how to use laser capture microdissection (LCM) to obtain enriched populations of hippocampal neurons or single neurons from frozen sections of the injured rat brain for subsequent gene expression analysis using quantitative real time PCR and/or whole-genome microarrays.
A combinatorial functional screening method for gaining insights into the impacts of the molecular composition of microenvironments on cellular functions is described. The method takes advantage of existing microarray-based technologies to generate arrays of defined combinatorial microenvironments that support cell adhesion and functional analysis.
High throughput validation of multiple candidate biomarkers can be performed by sequential ELISA in order to minimize freeze/thaw cycles and use of precious plasma samples. Here, we demonstrate how to sequentially perform ELISAs for six different validated plasma biomarkers1-3 of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)4 on the same plasma sample.
The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide collection of cloned cDNA used to identify miRNA targets. Here we demonstrate its use and application.
In this video-article we present a method for the isolation and purification of Drosophila peripheral neurons using a fast magnetic bead assisted cell sorting strategy. RNA obtained from the isolated cells can be readily used for downstream applications including microarray analyses.
Parasitoid (parasitic) wasps constitute a major class of natural enemies of many insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We will introduce the techniques to propagate these parasites in Drosophila spp. and demonstrate how to analyze their effects on immune tissues of Drosophila larvae.
Protocol for Vaccinia infection of HeLa cells and analysis of host and viral gene expression. Part 2 of 3.
Combination of genomics, co-expression gene analysis and the identification of target compounds via metabolism give gene functional annotation.
Protocol for Vaccinia infection of HeLa cells and analysis of host and viral gene expression. Part 1 of 3.
This article describes an approach to microdissect zebrafish retinas with and without retinal pigment epithelium attached, from one to three days postfertilization embryos.
DNA stable-isotope probing is a cultivation-independent method to identify and characterize active communities of microorganisms that are capable of utilizing specific substrates. Assimilation of substrate enriched in heavy isotope leads to incorporation of labelled atoms into microbial biomass. Density gradient ultracentrifugation retrieves labelled DNA for downstream molecular analyses.
We present a method for generating cDNA from environmental mRNA. In general, total RNA is first collected from the environment, rRNA is selectively removed, mRNA is selectively amplified, and cDNA synthesized from the enriched mRNA pool is sequenced. Recovered sequences can be annotated using standard bioinformatics techniques to identify the expressed genes.
1Department of Cancer Genetics and Developmental Biology, BC Cancer Research Centre, 2Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, University of British Columbia - UBC, 3These authors contributed equally., 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia - UBC, 5Photography/Video Production, Multi-Media Services, BC Cancer Agency, 6Department of Medical Genetics, Life Sciences Institute,, University of British Columbia - UBC
This video demonstrates the protocol for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). MeDIP is a two day procedure that selectively extracts methylated DNA fragments from a genomic DNA sample using antibodies with specificity for 5 -methylcytosine (anti-5 mC).
1Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, 4McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Genetics Institute, Center for Translational Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, University of Florida
We describe here the procedures for the extraction and purification of mRNA and metabolites from Drosophila heads. We are applying these techniques to better understand the cellular perturbations underlying neuronal degeneration. These methodologies can be easily scaled and adapted for other "omic" projects.
Non-Laser Capture Microscopy Approach for the Microdissection of Discrete Mouse Brain Regions for Total RNA Isolation and Downstream Next-Generation Sequencing and Gene Expression Profiling
RNA expression profiling of discrete mouse brain regions requires a precise and repeatable tissue collection strategy. A protocol that uses both coronal brain sectioning and tissue corer-assisted microdissection is described here. The yield and quality of total RNA obtained from the resulting samples confirms the utility of the outlined method.
An in vitro model for genetic study of axon regeneration using cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons is described. The method includes a re-suspension/re-plating step to allow axon re-growth from neurons undergoing genetic manipulation. This approach is especially useful for loss-of-function studies of axon regeneration using RNAi-based protein knockdown.
The Use of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) to Explore Protein Expression Variation within Individual Renal Cell Cancers
1Edinburgh Urological Cancer Group, University of Edinburgh, 2School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, 3Division of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, 4MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, University of Edinburgh, 5Department of Pathology, Western General Hospital, 6Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, 7St Bartholomew's Cancer Institute, Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Queen Mary University of London
RPPA enables the protein expression of hundreds of samples, printed on nitrocellulose slides to be interrogated simultaneously, using fluorescently labelled antibodies. This technique has been applied to study the effect of drug treatment heterogeneity within clear cell renal carcinoma.
Using Luminex Corporation’s xMAP microsphere technology, we have developed the Multiplexed Fluorometric ImmunoAssay (MFIA) for serosurveillance of various laboratory animal species. The MFIA is a suspension microarray where antigen, tissue control or immunoglobulins are covalently linked to color-coded polystyrene microspheres. The MFIA testing method as well as various troubleshooting topics is addressed.
1Laboratory for NeuroRegeneration and Repair, Department of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tuebingen, 2Graduate School for Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tuebingen
We present a method for chromatin immunoprecipitation from dorsal root ganglia tissue following axonal injury. The approach can be used to identify specific transcription factor binding sites and epigenetic modification of histone and DNA important for the regeneration of injured axons in both the peripheral and central nervous system.
Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq)
The combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and ultra-high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) can identify and map protein-DNA interactions in a given tissue or cell line. Outlined is how to generate a high quality ChIP template for subsequent sequencing, using experience with the transcription factor TCF7L2 as an example.
Fabrication of Micropatterned Hydrogels for Neural Culture Systems using Dynamic Mask Projection Photolithography
Simple techniques are described for the rapid production of microfabricated neural culture systems using a digital micromirror device for dynamic mask projection lithography on regular cell culture substrates. These culture systems may be more representative of natural biological architecture, and the techniques described could be adapted for numerous applications.