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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (57)
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- The Prostate
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cancer Research
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Cancer Research
- Transgenic Research
- Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
- Diagnostic Molecular Pathology : the American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Part B
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Cancer Research
- Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
- Toxicologic Pathology
- Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Cancer Research
- Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Breast Disease
- Nature Reviews. Cancer
- Mutation Research
- Genome Biology
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Cancer Research
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Genome Biology
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Research
- Breast Disease
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Research
- Breast Cancer Research : BCR
- Cancer Research
- Experimental Cell Research
- The Prostate
- Toxicologic Pathology
- European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Cancer Research
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
- Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro
- PloS One
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- BMC Medical Genomics
- Genome Biology
- BMC Medical Genomics
- Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII
Articles by Jeffrey E. Green in JoVE
An In Vitro System to Study Tumor Dormancy and the Switch to Metastatic Growth
Dalit Barkan1, Jeffrey E. Green2
1Department of Biology, University of Haifa, 2Transgenic Oncogenesis and Genomics Section, Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute
A modified 3-D in vitro system is presented in which growth characteristics of several tumor cell lines in reconstituted basement membrane correlate with the dormant or proliferative behavior of the tumor cells at a metastatic secondary site in vivo.
Other articles by Jeffrey E. Green on PubMed
Development of PIN and Prostate Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: a Model System for Multistage Tumor Progression
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Mar-Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11896566
Existing prostate cancer cell lines have been derived from late stages of human prostate cancer. In this paper, we present two cell lines generated from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), the precursor lesion for prostate adenocarcinoma. Pr-111 and Pr-117 were established from PIN lesions that developed in the C3(1)/Tag transgenic model of prostate cancer. Pr-111 and Pr-117 cells express simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 Tag) and are immortalized in culture, distinguishing them from normal prostate cells. The growth rates of these two cell lines are quite different; with Pr-111 cells growing much more slowly (doubling time approximately 40 hours) compared to Pr-117 cells (doubling time approximately 22 hours), and also show significantly different growth rates in different media. Both prostate cell lines express cytokeratin and androgen receptor (AR) with Pr-111 cells demonstrating androgen-dependent growth and Pr-117 cells exhibiting androgen-responsive growth characteristics. Athymic nude mice injected with Pr-111 cells either do not develop tumors or develop tumors after a long latency period of 14 weeks. Pr-117 cells, however, develop tumors by 3 to 6 weeks, suggesting that Pr-117 cells represent a later stage of tumor progression. These two novel cell lines will be useful for studying early stages of prostate tumor development and androgen responsiveness.
The Prostate. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11920954
Despite the region-specific nature of human prostate disease, there is a paucity of information regarding the molecular basis of prostate regionalization and patterning. To elucidate genetic mechanisms that underlie prostate growth and development, we investigated differential gene expression in mouse prostate lobes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12011455
Molecular expression profiling of tumors initiated by transgenic overexpression of c-myc, c-neu, c-ha-ras, polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) or simian virus 40 T/t antigen (T-ag) targeted to the mouse mammary gland have identified both common and oncogene-specific events associated with tumor formation and progression. The tumors shared great similarities in their gene-expression profiles as compared with the normal mammary gland with an induction of cell-cycle regulators, metabolic regulators, zinc finger proteins, and protein tyrosine phosphatases, along with the suppression of some protein tyrosine kinases. Selection and hierarchical clustering of the most variant genes, however, resulted in separating the mouse models into three groups with distinct oncogene-specific patterns of gene expression. Such an identification of targets specified by particular oncogenes may facilitate development of lesion-specific therapeutics and preclinical testing. Moreover, similarities in gene expression between human breast cancers and the mouse models have been identified, thus providing an important component for the validation of transgenic mammary cancer models.
Adenovirus-mediated Endostatin Delivery Results in Inhibition of Mammary Gland Tumor Growth in C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen Transgenic Mice
Cancer Research. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12124322
We demonstrate the efficacy of systemic administration of a replication-defective adenovirus expressing endostatin (Ad-mEndo) administered during the preinvasive stage of mammary tumor development in C3(1)/T antigen transgenic mice. Mean serum levels of endostatin increased about 8-fold above that of controls and resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and an increase in survival. The inhibitory effect of endostatin occurred during or after the progression to invasive carcinoma. Reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA were found in association with high levels of endostatin. Our results demonstrate that the adenoviral induction of high levels of circulating endostatin significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth during the period when the "angiogenic switch" occurs.
Inhibition of the Mammary Carcinoma Angiogenic Switch in C3(1)/SV40 Transgenic Mice by a Mutated Form of Human Endostatin
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12209972
Cancer therapies based on the inhibition of angiogenesis by endostatin have recently been developed. We demonstrate that a mutated form of human endostatin (P125A) can inhibit the angiogenic switch in the C3(1)/Tag mammary cancer model. P125A has a stronger growth-inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation than wild-type endostatin. We characterize the angiogenic switch, which occurs during the transition from preinvasive lesions to invasive carcinoma in this model, and which is accompanied by a significant increase in total protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and an invasion of blood vessels. Expression of the VEGF(188) mRNA isoform, however, is suppressed in invasive carcinomas. The VEGF receptors fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) and Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) become highly expressed in epithelial tumor and endothelial cells in the mammary carcinomas, suggesting a potential autocrine effect for VEGF on tumor cell growth. Angiopoietin-2 mRNA levels are also increased during tumor progression. CD-31 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule [PECAM]) staining revealed that blood vessels developed in tumors larger than 1 mm The administration of P125A human endostatin in C3(1)/Tag females resulted in a significant delay in tumor onset, decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor burden and prolonged survival of the animals. Endostatin treatment did not reduce the number of preinvasive lesions, proliferation rates or apoptotic index, compared with controls. However, mRNA levels of a variety of proangiogenic factors (VEGF, VEGF receptors Flk-1 and Flt-1, angiopoietin-2, Tie-1, cadherin-5 and PECAM) were significantly decreased in the endostatin-treated group compared with controls. These results demonstrate that P125A endostatin inhibits the angiogenic switch during mammary gland adenocarcinoma tumor progression in the C3(1)/Tag transgenic model.
Alterations in Gene Expression Profiles During Prostate Cancer Progression: Functional Correlations to Tumorigenicity and Down-regulation of Selenoprotein-P in Mouse and Human Tumors
Cancer Research. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12235003
To identify molecular changes that occur during prostate tumor progression, we have characterized a series of prostate cancer cell lines isolated at different stages of tumorigenesis from C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice. Cell lines derived from low- and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, invasive carcinoma, and a lung metastasis exhibited significant differences in cell growth, tumorigenicity, invasiveness, and angiogenesis. cDNA microarray analysis of 8700 features revealed correlations between the tumorigenicity of the C3(1)/Tag-Pr cells and changes in the expression levels of genes regulating cell growth, angiogenesis, and invasion. Many changes observed in transcriptional regulation in this in vitro system are similar to those reported for human prostate cancer, as well as other types of human tumors. This analysis of expression patterns has also identified novel genes that may be involved in mechanisms of prostate oncogenesis or serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Examples include the L1-cell adhesion molecule, metastasis-associated gene (MTA-2), Rab-25, tumor-associated signal transducer-2 (Trop-2), and Selenoprotein-P, a gene that binds selenium and prevents oxidative stress. Many genes identified in the Pr-cell line model have been shown to be altered in human prostate cancer. The comprehensive microarray data provides a rational basis for using this model system for studies where alterations of specific genes or pathways are of particular interest. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR for Selenoprotein-P demonstrated a similar down-regulation of the transcript of this gene in a subset of human prostate tumors, mouse tumors, and prostate carcinoma cell lines. This work demonstrates that expression profiling in animal models may lead to the identification of novel genes involved in human prostate cancer biology.
Validation of Transgenic Mammary Cancer Models: Goals of the NCI Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium and the Mammary Cancer CD-ROM
Transgenic Research. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12509138
Development and Characterization of a Progressive Series of Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines Derived from the C3(1)/SV40 Large T-antigen Transgenic Mouse Model
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12602905
We have developed four new mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines from the C3(1)/SV40 Large T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mouse model: M28N2 and M27H4 (weakly tumorigenic), M6 (carcinoma), and M6C (metastatic). The C3(1) promoter directs Tag expression to the mammary epithelium and 100% of female C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice develop mammary adenocarcinoma in a predictable and progressive manner. The cell lines we developed from this model are demonstrated to be of epithelial origin and display growth rates, both in vitro and following subcutaneous inoculation into nude mice, that are consistent with their representative stage of tumor progression. The more tumorigenic cell lines, M6 and M6C, both express the sodium/iodide symporter, a mammary carcinoma cell marker with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. All of the cell lines express estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ER beta mRNA, and Western blot analysis demonstrates that the ER alpha protein is down-regulated in the M6 and M6C cell lines. M28N2 cells also express progesterone receptor (PgR), which is very unusual in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In addition, all of the cell lines display growth inhibition when plated in media supplemented with charcoal-stripped fetal calf serum (CS FBS). When CS FBS is supplemented with beta estradiol or the progestin MPA, no significant difference in growth rates is observed relative to growth in CS FBS. The development and characterization of a progressive series of new mammary carcinoma cell lines will aid in the study of mammary carcinoma progression both in vitro and in vivo.
Carcinogenesis. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12663504
The effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, on experimental mammary and prostate oncogenesis, were studied in vitro and in vivo. Lovastatin inhibited cell growth in vitro in a dose-dependent manner for both mammary and prostate cancer cell lines, which was associated with p53-independent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analyses of lovastatin-treated mammary and prostate cancer cells demonstrated cell-cycle G(1) arrest, as well as decreases in S and G(2)/M fractions. p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1) were induced by lovastatin in both types of cancer cells. Gene expression profiling of cells treated with lovastatin, however, was remarkable for a paucity of transcriptional changes induced by lovastatin. Treatment with lovastatin for 4 weeks did inhibit the formation of pre-neoplastic mammary intraepithelial neoplasias (MIN) in vivo, but not invasive carcinomas in the C3(1)/SV40 TAg transgenic model of mammary cancer. The decreased multiplicity of MIN lesions was associated with increased levels of apoptosis in these lesions. However, cell proliferation in the mammary lesions was not significantly different between lovastatin-treated and control mice 1 day after lovastatin treatment. In female mice treated with lovastatin for 12 weeks, there was a tendency for reduced tumor volume, which did not reach statistical significance. However, lovastatin did not suppress any lesion formation in the prostate of C3(1)/SV40 TAg transgenic male mice. Our results suggest that as lovastatin exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of early mammary lesions of mammary carcinogenesis, this compound may be useful for the chemoprevention of mammary cancer and might have utility as an adjuvant in breast cancer therapy. The chemopreventive effects of lovastatin in vivo, however, may be tissue-specific.
Molecular Differentiation of High- and Moderate-grade Human Prostate Cancer by CDNA Microarray Analysis
Diagnostic Molecular Pathology : the American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Part B. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12766610
The prognosis of men with moderate-grade prostate cancer is uncertain. At present, there are few if any reliable molecular markers that can distinguish moderate-grade tumors from those that behave more aggressively. To better understand the molecular basis of human prostate cancer and potentially provide information toward more accurate prognosis, we measured and analyzed gene expression profiles of 13 high- and moderate-grade human prostate tumors using cDNA microarrays. The expression of 136 genes was observed to differ significantly (P < 0.001) between normal prostate and tumors using one-sample t testing and Wilcoxon ranking. Hierarchical clustering of genes demonstrated a relatively similar pattern of differential expression across the tumors. However, importantly, permutation t tests (two-tailed P < 0.001) revealed 21 genes whose expression profiles segregated moderate- and high-grade tumors from each other, which was significantly (P < 0.03) greater than what was expected by chance. These results were compared in silico with prostate cancer profiling efforts performed by other groups, including a meta-analysis of four data sets, which validated many of the dysregulated genes. We suggest that these data provide insight into the molecular nature of clinically aggressive prostate cancer.
The Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12840216
Chemoprevention through nutritional and dietary changes may offer an important means of inhibiting the development and progression of breast cancer, which would have a major impact on public health. Studies to assess the efficacy of potential chemopreventive compounds are difficult to perform in large human populations, whereas the use of genetically engineered mice (GEM) for preclinical testing offers several advantages. GEM models can be utilized to assess the inhibitory effects of nutritional and chemopreventive agents on well-defined oncogenic signaling pathways. Because several transgenic mouse models progress through a well-defined temporal series of stages leading to invasive carcinoma formation, they may be particularly useful for determining cancer stage-specific responses to nutritional and chemopreventive agents. The C3(1)SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mouse mammary cancer model has been utilized for chemopreventive research in which mammary tumors develop over a well-characterized time course. Several compounds have been shown to inhibit mammary tumor development in this model, including retinoids, di-fluoromethylornithine (DFMO), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), antiangiogenic compounds and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID). All of the chemopreventive agents used in the C3(1)Tag mammary mouse model appear to affect the promotion stage of tumorigenesis, suggesting that these agents may be useful in inhibiting the transition of human ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma. Selective combinations of chemopreventive agents may be particularly useful for targeting multiple signaling pathways involved in cancer development and progression leading to improved clinical responses. The application of gene expression profiling to chemopreventive studies will aid in the selection of appropriate models for preclinical testing and further define mechanisms of action.
Induction of Cre Recombinase Activity Using Modified Androgen Receptor Ligand Binding Domains: a Sensitive Assay for Ligand-receptor Interactions
Nucleic Acids Research. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12888538
Novel systems of inducible gene expression are presented in which CRE-M, an altered form of cre recombinase (cre), is fused to and activated by ligand binding to two forms of the androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding domain (LBD). Selective activation or inactivation of gene transcription is induced upon the addition of appropriate ligand. The coupling of this cre-LBD system with our previously reported highly sensitive assay to measure cre activity in vitro using a dual fluorescent gene switch reporter provides a novel, high-throughput assay system for identifying compounds that bind to and activate various forms of the LBD of androgen receptor. This method can similarly be applied to screen compounds for their activating properties on other steroid hormone LBDs. Three different forms of the AR-LBD were fused to CRE-M, including the wild-type AR-LBD (wt), a non-ligand binding truncated form, LBD (T), and a mutated form (Thr-->Ala substitution) identified in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, LBD (LNCaP). We demonstrate a 10-fold induction of cre activity by the addition of androgen agonists to the CRE-M-AR-LBD(wt) fusion protein, but not in the presence of the anti-androgen, flutamide. However, cre activity can be induced by flutamide with the CRE-M-AR-LBD(LNCaP) fusion protein. Similar activation properties were obtained when these fusion proteins were expressed using adenoviral vectors. When combined with our previously reported cre-lox gene switch system, the CRE-M-AR-LBD system can be utilized in gene therapy systems in which a therapeutic product may be initially expressed, replaced by a second product, or turned-off following exposure to ligand. This provides an important, additional level of regulation to gene therapy systems.
Reduced Circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor I Levels Delay the Onset of Chemically and Genetically Induced Mammary Tumors
Cancer Research. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12907608
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between serum IGF-I levels and breast cancer risk. To do this, we studied liver-specific IGF-I gene-deleted (LID) mice, in which circulating IGF-I levels are 25% of that in control mice. Mammary tumors were induced in two ways: (a) by exposing mice to the carcinogen 7,12-dimethybenz (a)anthracene; and (b) by crossing LID mice with C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen transgenic mice. In both models, LID mice exhibited a delayed latency period of mammary tumor development. In the 7,12-dimethybenz (a)anthracene-induced mammary tumor model, the incidence of palpable mammary tumors was significantly lower in LID mice (26% versus 56% in controls), and the onset of the tumors was delayed (74 +/- 1.2 days in LID mice versus 59.5 +/- 1.1 days in controls). Histological analysis showed extensive squamous metaplasia in late-stage mammary tumors of control mice, whereas late-stage tumors from LID mice exhibited extensive hyperplasia, but little metaplasia. In control mice, the onset of C3(1)/SV40-large T-antigen-induced mammary tumors occurred at 21.6 +/- 1.8 weeks of age, whereas in LID mice the average age of onset was 30.2 +/- 1.7 weeks. In addition, 60% of the mice in the control group developed two or more mammary tumors per mouse, whereas in the LID mice only 30% developed more than one mammary tumor per mouse. Our data demonstrate that circulating IGF-I levels play a significant role as a risk factor in the onset and development of mammary tumors in two well-established animal models of breast cancer.
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14973376
Numerous mouse models for mammary cancer have been developed and characterized based upon their biological, molecular, and histopathological features. In an effort to dissect the molecular anatomy of such models and compare their gene expression profiles to those of human breast cancer, six models representing various oncogenic pathways have been investigated using cDNA microarray technology. Results of these analyses are presented and discussed in the context of technological challenges presented by analyzing data on such a large scale. Further expression profiling coupled with emerging proteomic technologies will more completely define and distinguish mouse models of mammary cancer from each other and provide a comprehensive basis for comparing such models with the human disease they are intended to represent.
Toxicologic Pathology. Mar-Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15209407
While classical histopathologic approaches are invaluable in classifying tumors and understanding aspects of cellular interactions, genomic approaches provide a means to molecularly dissect tumorigenesis. The relationship of gene expression to the development of neoplasia remains an area of intensive research. With the advent of large-scale genomic platforms, alterations in gene expression can be related to the morphological development of cancer. The feasibility of using large-scale genomic analysis platforms has dramatically changed the landscape of biological sciences, as cellular processes must be considered in the context of complex networks. Alterations in gene expression must now be understood in a systems approach in which the relationships between genes expression changes are studied by considering the interplay of multiple regulatory networks. Ultimately, such changes must be understood at the protein level. We have begun to apply this technology to determine changes in gene expression that differentiate various types of mammary cancers that arise in mouse models that have been initiated by different genetic alterations. Ultimately, a molecular catalogue of similarities and differences between rodent and human tumors can be created which will serve to validate or credential particular models for specific experimental purposes, such as preclinical testing. These approaches have led to new insights into molecular pathways involved in oncogenesis, new classifications of human breast cancer, and the identification of new genes that may be relevant to understanding and treating human cancer.
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15247103
In microarray experiments investigators sometimes wish to pool RNA samples before labeling and hybridization due to insufficient RNA from each individual sample or to reduce the number of arrays for the purpose of saving cost. The basic assumption of pooling is that the expression of an mRNA molecule in the pool is close to the average expression from individual samples. Recently, a method for studying the effect of pooling mRNA on statistical power in detecting differentially expressed genes between classes has been proposed, but the different sources of variation arising in microarray experiments were not distinguished. Another paper recently did take different sources of variation into account, but did not address power and sample size for class comparison. In this paper, we study the implication of pooling in detecting differential gene expression taking into account different sources of variation and check the basic assumption of pooling using data from both the cDNA and Affymetrix GeneChip microarray experiments.
Identification of a Novel Putative Non-selenocysteine Containing Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (NPGPx) Essential for Alleviating Oxidative Stress Generated from Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer Cells
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15294905
A dramatic reduction in the expression of a novel phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), which incorporates cysteine instead of selenocysteine in the conserved catalytic motif was observed in a microarray analysis using cDNAs amplified from mRNA of Brca1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This non-selenocysteine PHGPx named NPGPx is a cytoplasmic protein with molecular mass of approximately 22 kDa and has little detectable glutathione peroxidase activity in vitro. Ectopic expression of NPGPx in Brca1-null cells that were sensitive to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide conferred a similar resistance level to that of the wild-type cells, suggesting the importance of this protein in reducing oxidative stress. Expression of NPGPx was found in many tissues, including developing mammary gland. However, the majority of breast cancer cell lines studied (11 of 12) expressed very low or undetectable levels of NPGPx irrespective of BRCA1 status. Re-expression of NPGPx in breast cancer lines, MCF-7 and HCC1937, which have very little or no endogenous NPGPx, induced resistance to eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 type of polyunsaturated fatty acid)-mediated cell death. Conversely, inhibition of the expression of NPGPx by the specific small interfering RNA in HS578T breast cancer cells that originally express substantial amounts of endogenous NPGPx increased their sensitivity to eicosapentaenoic acid-mediated cell death. Thus, NPGPx plays an essential role in breast cancer cells in alleviating oxidative stress generated from polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism.
Global Expression Profiling Identifies Signatures of Tumor Virulence in MMTV-PyMT-transgenic Mice: Correlation to Human Disease
Cancer Research. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15342376
FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-PyMT)(634Mul)-transgenic mice develop multifocal mammary tumors with a high incidence of pulmonary metastasis. We have demonstrated previously that mammary tumors derived from transgene-positive F1 progeny in particular inbred strains display altered latency, tumor growth rates, and metastatic rates when compared with the FVB/NJ homozygous parent. To identify genes with expression that might be critical in modifying the biological behavior of MMTV-PyMT tumors, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of expression profiles from mammary tumors arising in the parental FVB/NJ background and F1 progeny from crosses with I/LnJ, LP/J, MOLF/Ei, and NZB/B1NJ mice. Compared with normal mammary glands, gene expression profiles of tumors from all five strains exhibited up-regulation of genes involved in cell growth (e.g., Cks1 and CDC25C) and down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, with many genes associated previously with human breast cancer such as STAT2, CD24 antigen, gelsolin, and lipocalin2. To identify genes with significant variation in expression between the five different genotypes, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and one-way ANOVA were used. Three definable groupings of tumors were identified: (a) tumors derived in the LP/J F1 and MOLF/Ei F1 strains in which tumor growth and dissemination are suppressed and latency prolonged; (b) the most aggressive tumors from the FVB/NJ parental strain and I/LnJ F1 genomic backgrounds; and (c) an intermediate virulence phenotype with tumors from NZB/B1NJ-F1 crosses. These array based assessments correlated well with a composite phenotype ranking using a "virulence" index. The gene expression signature that is associated with a high metastatic rate in the mouse contains the same 17 genes described recently as the signature gene set predictive of metastasis in human tumors (1) with 16 of the 17 genes exhibiting the same directional change in expression associated with human metastases. These results demonstrate that the genetic analysis of mouse models of tumorigenesis may be highly relevant to human cancer and that the metastatic phenotype of a tumor may be affected by the germline genetic configuration of the host.
Gene Expression Profiling Identifies a Unique Androgen-mediated Inflammatory/immune Signature and a PTEN (phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10)-mediated Apoptotic Response Specific to the Rat Ventral Prostate
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15358834
Understanding androgen regulation of gene expression is critical for deciphering mechanisms responsible for the transition from androgen-responsive (AR) to androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (PCa). To identify genes differentially regulated by androgens in each prostate lobe, the rat castration model was used. Microarray analysis was performed to compare dorsolateral (DLP) and ventral prostate (VP) samples from sham-castrated, castrated, and testosterone-replenished castrated rats. Our data demonstrate that, after castration, the VP and the DLP differed in the number of genes with altered expression (1496 in VP vs. 256 in DLP) and the nature of pathways modulated. Gene signatures related to apoptosis and immune response specific to the ventral prostate were identified. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the androgen repression of IGF binding protein-3 and -5, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-delta, and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) genes, previously implicated in apoptosis. We show that PTEN protein was increased only in the luminal epithelial cells of the VP, suggesting that it may be a key mediator of VP apoptosis in the absence of androgens. The castration-induced immune/inflammatory gene cluster observed specifically in the VP included IL-15 and IL-18. Immunostaining of the VP, but not the DLP, showed an influx of T cells, macrophages, and mast cells, suggesting that these cells may be the source of the immune signature genes. Interestingly, IL-18 was localized mainly to the basal epithelial cells and the infiltrating macrophages in the regressing VP, whereas IL-15 was induced in the luminal epithelium. The VP castration model exhibits immune cell infiltration and loss of PTEN that is often observed in progressive PCa, thereby making this model useful for further delineation of androgen-regulated gene expression with relevance to PCa.
Oncogene. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15378000
BTG2, a p53-inducible antiproliferative gene, is stimulated in breast cancer cells by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). In rat mammary glands, BTG2 is expressed in epithelial cells and levels decreased during pregnancy and lactation but recovered during involution. Estrogen and progestin suppress BTG2 expression, suggesting that these steroids, which stimulate proliferation and lobuloalveolar development of mammary epithelial cells, may downregulate BTG2 in the mammary gland during pregnancy. Consistent with the report that BTG2 inhibits cyclin D1 expression, suppression of BTG2 mRNA in the mammary gland during gestation, and by estrogen and progestin, correlated with stimulation of cyclin D1. Ectopic expression of BTG2 inhibited breast cancer cell growth by arresting cells in the G1 phase, an effect reversed by cyclin D1. BTG2 expression was very low or undetectable in human breast cancer cell lines compared with nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, and nuclear expression of BTG2 was absent in 65% of human breast tumors compared with adjacent matched normal glands. Spontaneous mammary tumors arising in a mouse model with targeted expression of the early region of the SV40 large tumor Ag demonstrated loss of BTG2 protein very early during the tumorigenic process. Thus deregulation of BTG2 may be an important step in the development of mammary tumors.
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Recent Advances and Future Directions in Endocrine Manipulation of Breast Cancer: Conference Summary Statement
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14734487
Genomic Approaches to Understanding Mammary Tumor Progression in Transgenic Mice and Responses to Therapy
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14734496
Scores of genetically engineered mice have been generated in the quest to understand mechanisms of breast cancer development and progression. More recently, there has been a growing trend for using such models for testing various therapeutic strategies and agents. The application of these mouse models for these purposes requires that they be characterized in ways that demonstrate they possess important similarities to human breast cancer. In particular, detailed comparisons of the features of the models to human breast cancer must include attention to the histological phenotypes, chromosomal and molecular alterations, and the predictive value of the models for preclinical testing. Whereas these models have become important tools for the study of breast cancer, the great majority of existing mouse mammary cancer models develop tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, with relatively few models demonstrating metastatic spread to the lungs, and none developing metastases to bone. This review focuses on recent studies using genomic approaches to further understand the oncogenic processes occurring in mouse models of mammary cancer and to compare these changes with those identified in human breast cancer. Gene expression profiling is being applied to help define pharmacological responses that occur in vivo. Detailed genomic analyses will provide important information for selecting models for specific experimental purposes, contribute to the understanding of oncogene-specific expression signatures and potential therapeutic targets, and further define mechanisms of chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
Molecular Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Progression: Lessons from Mouse Mammary Cancer Models and Gene Expression Profiling
Breast Disease. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15687699
The development of breast cancer is thought to occur through a multi-step process. The majority of breast cancers likely develop over extended periods of time arising from early, pre-invasive lesions such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and carcinoma in situ (DCIS), progressing to invasive carcinoma and culminating in metastatic disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. The molecular analysis of this multi-step process in human patients is hampered by the difficulty in obtaining tissue samples at all tumor stages, especially from the same patient. In contrast, mouse models of mammary cancer progression are amenable to pathological, genetic and biochemical analyses at all tumor stages. Global gene expression profiling allows for simultaneous interrogation of the expression of thousands of genes and provides important opportunities to identify molecular signatures of tumor progression. This approach provides a means to define networks of cancer-related genes and their potential role in tumor progression. In this review, we discuss mouse models that have contributed substantially to understanding the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer progression and insights gained from gene expression profiling of mouse mammary cancer models and human breast cancer.
Nature Reviews. Cancer. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15738982
Sophisticated genetic technologies have led to the development of mouse models of human cancers that recapitulate important features of human oncogenesis. Many of these genetically engineered mouse models promise to be very relevant and relatively rapid systems for determining the efficacy of chemopreventive agents and their mechanisms of action. The validation of such models for chemoprevention will help the selection of appropriate agents for large-scale clinical trials and allow the testing of combination therapies.
Mutation Research. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15950992
The emerging technology of microarray analysis allows the establishment of molecular portraits of prostate cancer and the discovery of novel genes involved in the carcinogenesis process. Many novel genes have already been identified using this technique, and functional analyses of these genes are currently being tested. The combination of microarray analysis with other recently developed high-throughput techniques, such as proteomics, tissue arrays, and gene promoter-methylation, especially using tissue microdissection methods, will provide us with more comprehensive insights into how prostate cancer develops and responds to gene-targeted therapies. Animal models of prostate cancer are being characterized by high throughput techniques to better define the similarities and differences between those models and the human disease, and to determine whether particular models may be useful for specific targeted therapies in pre-clinical studies. Although profiling of mRNA expression provides important information of gene expression, the development of proteomic technologies will allow for an even more precise global insight into cellular signaling and structural alterations during prostate carcinogenesis. Not only will the "omic" revolution change basic science, but it will lead to a new era of molecular medicine.
Disruption of Growth Hormone Signaling Retards Early Stages of Prostate Carcinogenesis in the C3(1)/T Antigen Mouse
Endocrinology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16141391
Recent epidemiological studies suggest that elevated serum titers of IGF-I, which are, to a large degree, regulated by GH, are associated with an increase in prostate cancer risk. The purpose of the current study was to develop the first animal models to directly test the hypothesis that a normal, functional GH/IGF-I axis is required for prostate cancer progression. The GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mouse (Ghr(-/-)), which has less than 10% of the plasma IGF-I found in GHR wild-type mice, was crossed with the C3(1)/T antigen (Tag) mouse, which develops prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by the large Tag that progress to invasive prostate carcinoma in a manner similar to the process observed in humans. Progeny of this cross were genotyped and Tag/Ghr(+/+) and Tag/Ghr(-/-) mice were killed at 9 months of age. Seven of eight Tag/Ghr(+/+) mice harbored prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of various grades. In contrast, only one of the eight Tag/Ghr(-/-) mice exhibited atypia (P < 0.01, Fischer's exact test). Disruption of the GHR gene altered neither prostate androgen receptor expression nor serum testosterone titers. Expression of the Tag oncogene was similar in the prostates of the two mouse strains. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in prostate epithelial cell proliferation and an increase in basal apoptotic indices. These results indicate that disruption of GH signaling significantly inhibits prostate carcinogenesis.
Genome Biology. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16207355
In human breast cancer normal mammary cells typically develop into hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive cancer, and metastasis. The changes in gene expression associated with this stepwise progression are unclear. Mice transgenic for mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 exhibit discrete steps of mammary tumorigenesis, including hyperplasia, invasive ductal carcinoma, and distant metastasis. These mice might therefore be useful models for discovering changes in gene expression during cancer development.
Inhibition of VEGF Receptors Significantly Impairs Mammary Cancer Growth in C3(1)/Tag Transgenic Mice Through Antiangiogenic and Non-antiangiogenic Mechanisms
Oncogene. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15592523
Cancer growth and progression is often critically influenced by the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF produced by tumor cells stimulates endothelial cell growth through the binding and activation of the KDR/Flk-1 receptor (VEGFR-2) on endothelial cells. Recently, some human breast cancer epithelial cells have been shown to express VEGF receptors, suggesting a potential autocrine-mediated growth stimulation of a subset of cancers by VEGF. We demonstrate that mammary tumors in the C3(1)/Tag transgenic model express VEGF and VEGF receptors and tumor growth is stimulated by this autocrine mechanism. GW654652, an indazolylpyrimidine, is a VEGFRs tyrosine kinase inhibitor that dramatically reduces both angiogenesis and tumor cell growth in this model, as demonstrated using both in vitro and in vivo assays. GW654652 significantly decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and M6 mammary tumor cells derived from C3(1)/Tag (Tag: simian virus 40 T-antigen) transgenic mice. A 75% reduction in VEGF-induced angiogenesis was observed with GW654652 using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, whereas GW654652 produced an approximately 85% reduction in angiogenesis as assessed by the Matrigel plug assay. A profound inhibitory effect on tumor growth in the C3(1)/Tag transgenic model of human breast cancer was observed with oral administration of GW654652 as measured by delayed tumor onset, decreased multiplicity, reduced tumor volume, and extended animal survival. The antitumor effects of GW654652 were associated with reduced tumor vascularization and no apparent toxicity. Tumor growth, however, rapidly advanced following cessation of treatment. This is the first demonstration that a VEGF receptor inhibitor, GW654652, has a strong inhibitory effect on angiogenesis and tumor progression in a transgenic model of mammary cancer, suggesting that this is a useful approach for preclinical testing of such agents.
Gene Expression Profiling Identifies IL-13 Receptor Alpha 2 Chain As a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Tumor Cells Overexpressing Adrenomedullin
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15609296
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52 amino acid peptide, which shares homology with the calcitonin gene-related peptide. Overexpression of AM in the prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3 results in growth inhibition with a 20% (for human AM) and 35% (for rat AM) increase in doubling time compared to parental or mock-transfected cells. We demonstrate by gene expression profiling that AM overexpression results in the dysregulation of approximately 100 genes. Examples of such genes include many involved in the formation of the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and the extracellular matrix, as well as regulators of the cell cycle and apoptosis, cytokines and transcription factors. Several genes related to cell growth arrest, such as GADD45, IGF-BP6 and RUNX-3, are upregulated by AM. Interestingly, interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13R alpha 2) transcripts were significantly increased in clones overexpressing AM, which was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. In addition, PC-3 cells treated with AM showed an overexpression of IL-13R alpha 2, which was abolished when cells were preincubated with an anti-AM blocking antibody. When PC-3 cells overexpressing AM and the IL-13R alpha 2 were treated with the highly specific IL13-PE38 cytotoxin, which binds to this receptor, a concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis was observed. The IC(50) (concentration of cytotoxin inhibiting protein synthesis by 50%) ranged from 1 to 4 ng/ml. This cytotoxicity was specific as it was neutralized by the excess of IL-13 and confirmed by clonogenic assays. This study describes a novel AM-induced mechanism of tumor sensitization through the upregulation of functional IL-13R alpha 2 chain, an ideal target for the highly specific recombinant chimeric cytotoxin IL13-PE38.
Distinct Tumor Stage-specific Inhibitory Effects of 2-methoxyestradiol in a Breast Cancer Mouse Model Associated with Id-1 Expression
Cancer Research. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16585173
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME(2)), a metabolite of 17-beta-estradiol, inhibits angiogenesis and has additional antitumor activities. We have analyzed the tumor stage-specific effects of 2ME(2) in the C3(1)/Tag transgenic mouse model for breast cancer, which spontaneously develops estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumors following a predictable progression of lesion formation. When given either as a therapeutic agent in established tumors (late intervention study) or in mice with pre-invasive mammary lesions (early intervention study), tumor growth was reduced by 60% compared with untreated controls and was associated with an induction of apoptosis. In a prevention study, a significant reduction in mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions was observed in animals beginning treatment at 6 weeks of age, before the appearance of histopathologic abnormalities. However, although 2ME(2) reduced the number of MIN lesions in the prevention study, a paradoxical increase in tumor multiplicity and growth rate was observed. This was associated with unusual cystic tumor formation, in which significant central necrosis was observed, surrounded by an outer region of proliferative tumor cell growth. The characteristics of the cystic tumor formation in mice treated with 2ME(2) at early ages are consistent with an impaired angiogenic response as observed in mice deficient for inhibitor of differentiation (Id-1). We further show that Id-1 expression is negatively regulated by 2ME(2), which may be an additional mechanism for the antiangiogenic effect of 2ME(2). Although 2ME(2) significantly reduced tumor growth at late stages, these results also suggest that altered tumor morphology and accelerated tumor growth may occur if 2ME(2) is administered in a prevention setting for prolonged periods.
Carcinogenesis. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16916863
Clinical trials and laboratory-based studies indicate that the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis may affect the development of breast cancer. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a genetic model of mammary cancer to test the hypothesis that downregulation of GH signaling can substantially retard mammary cancer progression. We crossed the Laron mouse, in which the gene for the GH receptor/binding protein has been disrupted, with the C3(1)/TAg mouse, which develops estrogen receptor alpha negative mammary cancers. All mice used in our experiments were heterozygous for the large T antigen (TAg) and either homozygous wild-type for GHR (Ghr+/+) or null for GHR (Ghr-/-). Compared with the TAg/Ghr+/+ mice, the TAg/Ghr-/- mice showed delayed mammary cancer latency with significantly decreased multiplicity (9.8 +/- 1.4 versus 3.2 +/- 1.2) and volume (776.1 +/- 284.4 versus 50.5 +/- 8.9 mm3). Furthermore, the frequency of mammary hyperplasias was significantly reduced in the TAg/Ghr-/- mice (15.0 +/- 1.7 versus 6.8 +/- 1.7). To establish that these mammary cancers were estrogen-independent, 12-week-old TAg/Ghr+/+ mice, which lack visible hyperplasia, were either ovariectomized (ovx) or sham operated (sham). Compared with the sham group, ovariectomy resulted in no difference in the frequency of mammary hyperplasia, mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity or tumor size. Together, these data demonstrate that the disruption of GH signaling significantly retards TAg-driven mammary carcinogenesis, and suggest that disrupting GH signaling may be an effective strategy to inhibit the progression of estrogen-independent breast cancer.
2-methoxyestradiol Induces Mammary Gland Differentiation Through Amphiregulin-epithelial Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Signaling: Molecular Distinctions from the Mammary Gland of Pregnant Mice
Endocrinology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17158205
Levels of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME(2)), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, are highly elevated during late stages of pregnancy when mammary glands have differentiated with the formation of alveolar structures producing milk proteins. Based upon our previous demonstration that 2ME(2) induces mammary ductal dilation associated with expression of mammary differentiation markers when administered to transgenic mice that spontaneously develop mammary cancer, we studied the effects of 2ME(2) on normal mammary gland development. The results of this study demonstrate that 2ME(2) can induce a partial differentiation of normal mammary glands in virgin mice, as evidenced by the appearance of limited numbers of alveolar cells and significantly increased expression of the differentiation markers beta-casein and whey acidic protein. 2ME(2)-induced differentiation is associated with inhibition of expression of inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id-1) in normal mammary epithelial cells through elements in the 5'-flanking region of the Id-1 gene. Microarray analysis revealed that 2ME(2)-induced differentiation of the mammary gland shares some significant similarities in gene expression with that of mammary glands from late-stage pregnancy, including elevated expression of many milk protein differentiation markers. However, several genes are differentially regulated between 2ME(2)-treated mammary glands and differentiated mammary glands through pregnancy. Significantly, amphiregulin, ATF3, serpine2, and SOX6 were up-regulated in 2ME(2)-treated mammary glands but not in mammary glands from pregnant mice. Using the SCp2 differentiation cell line system, we demonstrate that 2ME(2) induces differentiation through the down-regulation of Id-1 and up-regulation of amphiregulin. Administration of amphiregulin to SCp2 cells induced differentiation, whereas inhibition of 2ME(2)-induced expression of amphiregulin by small interfering RNA blocked differentiation. Estrogen receptor-negative SCp2 cells differentiate in response to 2ME(2), but not estradiol, suggesting that 2ME(2) operates through an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism. These data demonstrate that 2ME(2) can induce a partial differentiation of the mammary gland through mechanisms that differ from those normally used during pregnancy.
Increased Expression of VEGF121/VEGF165-189 Ratio Results in a Significant Enhancement of Human Prostate Tumor Angiogenesis
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17278099
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic factor upregulated in many tumors. The alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA renders 3 major isoforms of 121, 165 and 189 amino-acids in humans (1 less amino-acid for each mouse VEGF isoform). We have designed isoform specific real time QRT-PCR assays to quantitate VEGF transcripts in mouse and human normal and malignant prostates. In the human normal prostate, VEGF(165) was the predominant isoform (62.8% +/- 5.2%), followed by VEGF(121) (22.5% +/- 6.3%) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.001) (14.6% +/- 2.1%). Prostate tumors showed a significant increase in the percentage of VEGF(121) and decreases in VEGF(165) (p < 0.01) and VEGF(189) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of total VEGF mRNA was similar between normal and malignant prostates. VEGF(164) was the transcript with the highest expression in the mouse normal prostate. Unlike human prostate cancer, tumors from TRAMP mice demonstrated a significant increase in total VEGF mRNA levels and in each of the VEGF isoforms, without changes in the relative isoform ratios. Morpholino phosphorodiamide antisense oligonucleotide technology was used to increase the relative amount of VEGF(121) while proportionally decreasing VEGF(165) and VEGF(189) levels in human prostate cell lines, through the modification of alternative splicing, without changing transcription levels and total amount of VEGF. The increase in the VEGF(121)/VEGF(165-189) ratio in PC3 cells resulted in a dramatic increase in prostate tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our results underscore the importance of VEGF(121) in human prostate carcinoma and demonstrate that the relative expression of the different VEGF isoforms has an impact on prostate carcinogenesis.
Identification of Conserved Gene Expression Features Between Murine Mammary Carcinoma Models and Human Breast Tumors
Genome Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17493263
Although numerous mouse models of breast carcinomas have been developed, we do not know the extent to which any faithfully represent clinically significant human phenotypes. To address this need, we characterized mammary tumor gene expression profiles from 13 different murine models using DNA microarrays and compared the resulting data to those from human breast tumors.
Identification of an Integrated SV40 T/t-antigen Cancer Signature in Aggressive Human Breast, Prostate, and Lung Carcinomas with Poor Prognosis
Cancer Research. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804718
Understanding the genetic architecture of cancer pathways that distinguishes subsets of human cancer is critical to developing new therapies that better target tumors based on their molecular expression profiles. In this study, we identify an integrated gene signature from multiple transgenic models of epithelial cancers intrinsic to the functions of the Simian virus 40 T/t-antigens that is associated with the biological behavior and prognosis for several human epithelial tumors. This genetic signature, composed primarily of genes regulating cell replication, proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis, is not a general cancer signature. Rather, it is uniquely activated primarily in tumors with aberrant p53, Rb, or BRCA1 expression but not in tumors initiated through the overexpression of myc, ras, her2/neu, or polyoma middle T oncogenes. Importantly, human breast, lung, and prostate tumors expressing this set of genes represent subsets of tumors with the most aggressive phenotype and with poor prognosis. The T/t-antigen signature is highly predictive of human breast cancer prognosis. Because this class of epithelial tumors is generally intractable to currently existing standard therapies, this genetic signature identifies potential targets for novel therapies directed against these lethal forms of cancer. Because these genetic targets have been discovered using mammary, prostate, and lung T/t-antigen mouse cancer models, these models are rationale candidates for use in preclinical testing of therapies focused on these biologically important targets.
Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Growth by Muscadine Grape Skin Extract and Resveratrol Through Distinct Mechanisms
Cancer Research. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804756
The phytochemical resveratrol contained in red grapes has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth, in part, through its antioxidant activity. Muscadine grapes contain unique phytochemical constituents compared with other grapes and are potentially a source for novel compounds with antitumor activities. We compared the antitumor activities of muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE), which we show contains no resveratrol, with that of resveratrol using primary cultures of normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and the prostate cancer cell lines RWPE-1, WPE1-NA22, WPE1-NB14, and WPE1-NB26, representing different stages of prostate cancer progression. MSKE significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in all transformed prostate cancer cell lines but not PrEC cells. Prostate tumor cell lines, but not PrEC cells, exhibited high rates of apoptosis in response to MSKE through targeting of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase survival pathways. The reduction in Akt activity by MSKE is mediated through a reduction in Akt transcription, enhanced proteosome degradation of Akt, and altered levels of DJ-1, a known regulator of PTEN. In contrast to MSKE, resveratrol did not induce apoptosis in this model but arrested cells at the G(1)-S phase transition of the cell cycle associated with increased expression of p21 and decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. These results show that MSKE and resveratrol target distinct pathways to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in this system and that the unique properties of MSKE suggest that it may be an important source for further development of chemopreventive or therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.
Bmi-1 Cooperates with H-Ras to Transform Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Via Dysregulation of Multiple Growth-regulatory Pathways
Cancer Research. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17974970
Elevated expression of Bmi-1 is associated with many cancers, including breast cancer. Here, we examined the oncogenic potential of Bmi-1 in MCF10A cells, a spontaneously immortalized, nontransformed strain of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Bmi-1 overexpression alone in MCF10A cells did not result in oncogenic transformation. However, Bmi-1 co-overexpression with activated H-Ras (RasG12V) resulted in efficient transformation of MCF10A cells in vitro. Although early-passage H-Ras-expressing MCF10A cells were not transformed, late-passage H-Ras-expressing cells exhibited features of transformation in vitro. Early- and late-passage H-Ras-expressing cells also differed in levels of expression of H-Ras and Ki-67, a marker of proliferation. Subsets of early-passage H-Ras-expressing cells exhibited high Ras expression and were negative for Ki-67, whereas most late-passage H-Ras-expressing cells expressed low levels of Ras and were Ki-67 positive. Injection of late-passage H-Ras-expressing cells in severe combined immunodeficient mice formed carcinomas with leiomatous, hemangiomatous, and mast cell components; these tumors were quite distinct from those induced by late-passage cells co-overexpressing Bmi-1 and H-Ras, which formed poorly differentiated carcinomas with spindle cell features. Bmi-1 and H-Ras co-overexpression in MCF10A cells also induced features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, Bmi-1 inhibited senescence and permitted proliferation of cells expressing high levels of Ras. Examination of various growth-regulatory pathways suggested that Bmi-1 overexpression together with H-Ras promotes HMEC transformation and breast oncogenesis by deregulation of multiple growth-regulatory pathways by p16(INK4a)-independent mechanisms.
Comparing Genetically Engineered Mouse Mammary Cancer Models with Human Breast Cancer by Expression Profiling
Breast Disease. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18057542
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and much of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity is being unraveled using advanced genomic technologies. More recently, global transcriptional profiling has proven to be an effective new tool for characterizing human tumors. Genomic "signatures'' have been developed that classify tumors with varying prognoses and responses to treatment. Recent studies have begun to extend the use of global transcriptional profiling to better characterize genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of breast cancer, which will improve the ability to translate basic research advances into clinical advances. GEM models of mammary carcinoma have proven to be invaluable tools to gain insight into mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, and therapeutic responses in an in vivo system where tumors spontaneously develop in an appropriate tissue environment. This review will discuss the use of transcriptional profiling of breast cancer in tumors from both human patients and GEM models to improve prognostic measures, examine mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression, identify novel therapeutic targets, and improve pre-clinical testing for drug development. Together, these advances offer a framework for classifying human tumors, identifying appropriate GEM models for specific experimental purposes, and utilizing the combined data to identify more specific and effective cancer therapies.
Cancer Research. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18559513
Using a syngeneic p53-null mouse mammary gland tumor model that closely mimics human breast cancer, we have identified, by limiting dilution transplantation and in vitro mammosphere assay, a Lin(-)CD29(H)CD24(H) subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells. Upon subsequent transplantation, this subpopulation generated heterogeneous tumors that displayed properties similar to the primary tumor. Analysis of biomarkers suggests the Lin(-)CD29(H)CD24(H) subpopulation may have arisen from a bipotent mammary progenitor. Differentially expressed genes in the Lin(-)CD29(H)CD24(H) mouse mammary gland tumor-initiating cell population include those involved in DNA damage response and repair, as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation previously shown to be critical for stem cell self-renewal. These studies provide in vitro and in vivo data that support the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis. Furthermore, this p53-null mouse mammary tumor model may allow us to identify new CSC markers and to test the functional importance of these markers.
Cancer Research. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18676848
Metastatic breast cancer may emerge from latent tumor cells that remain dormant at disseminated sites for many years. Identifying mechanisms regulating the switch from dormancy to proliferative metastatic growth has been elusive due to the lack of experimental models of tumor cell dormancy. We characterized the in vitro growth characteristics of cells that exhibit either dormant (D2.0R, MCF-7, and K7M2AS1.46) or proliferative (D2A1, MDA-MB-231, and K7M2) metastatic behavior in vivo. Although these cells proliferate readily in two-dimensional culture, we show that when grown in three-dimensional matrix, distinct growth properties of the cells were revealed that correlate to their dormant or proliferative behavior at metastatic sites in vivo. In three-dimensional culture, cells with dormant behavior in vivo remained cell cycle arrested with elevated nuclear expression of p16 and p27. The transition from quiescence to proliferation of D2A1 cells was dependent on fibronectin production and signaling through integrin beta1, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization with filamentous actin (F-actin) stress fiber formation. We show that phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by MLC kinase (MLCK) through integrin beta1 is required for actin stress fiber formation and proliferative growth. Inhibition of integrin beta1 or MLCK prevents transition from a quiescent to proliferative state in vitro. Inhibition of MLCK significantly reduces metastatic outgrowth in vivo. These studies show that the switch from dormancy to metastatic growth may be regulated, in part, through epigenetic signaling from the microenvironment, leading to changes in the cytoskeletal architecture of dormant cells. Targeting this process may provide therapeutic strategies for inhibition of the dormant-to-proliferative metastatic switch.
Unlocking the Power of Cross-species Genomic Analyses: Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Breast Cancer Networks and Validation of Preclinical Models
Breast Cancer Research : BCR. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18828875
The application of high-throughput genomic technologies has revealed that individual breast tumors display a variety of molecular features that require more personalized approaches to treatment. Several recent studies have demonstrated that a cross-species analytic approach provides a powerful means to filter through genetic complexity by identifying evolutionarily conserved genetic networks that are fundamental to the oncogenic process. Mouse-human tumor comparisons will provide insights into cellular origins of tumor subtypes, define interactive oncogenetic networks, identify potential novel therapeutic targets, and further validate as well as guide the selection of genetically engineered mouse models for preclinical testing.
Human Adrenomedullin Up-regulates Interleukin-13 Receptor Alpha2 Chain in Prostate Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo: a Novel Approach to Sensitize Prostate Cancer to Anticancer Therapy
Cancer Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19010904
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptor alpha2 (IL-13Ralpha2), a high-affinity IL-13 binding subunit and a tumor antigen, is amplified in a variety of human tumor cell lines and tumors in vivo. By cDNA microarray, we have shown that gene transfer of human and rat adrenomedullin (AM) up-regulates IL-13Ralpha2 in a human prostate tumor cell line. Here, we show that IL-13Ralpha2 mRNA and protein are also up-regulated in PC-3 prostate tumor cells by recombinant AM (rAM) and human synthetic AM peptide in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo in mouse prostate tumor model. The 8- to 10-fold up-regulation of IL-13Ralpha2 by rAM or AM peptide in prostate tumor cells in vitro and in vivo increased their sensitivity to IL-13PE cytotoxin consisting of IL-13 and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin. Immunodeficient mice with established prostate tumors transfected with AM or treated with AM peptide showed reduction in tumor size by intratumoral administration of IL-13PE in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose (three 100 mug/kg/d every alternate day), >70% reduction of tumor size was observed compared with controls (P
VEGF Elicits Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN)-like Cells Via an Autocrine Loop
Experimental Cell Research. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20006606
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed during the transition from prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to invasive carcinoma. We have mimicked such a process in vitro using the PIN-like C3(1)/Tag-derived Pr-111 cell line, which expresses low levels of VEGF and exhibits very low tumorigenicity in vivo. Elevated expression of VEGF164 in Pr-111 cells led to a significant increase in tumorigenicity, invasiveness, proliferation rates and angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF164 induced strong changes in cell morphology and cell transcriptome through an autocrine mechanism, with changes in TGF-beta1- and cytoskeleton-related pathways, among others. Further analysis of VEGF-overexpressing Pr-111 cells or following exogenous addition of recombinant VEGF shows acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features, with an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin, Snail1, Snail2 (Slug) and vimentin, and a decrease in E-cadherin. Administration of VEGF led to changes in TGF-beta1 signaling, including reduction of Smad7 (TGF-beta inhibitory Smad), increase in TGF-betaR-II, and translocation of phospho-Smad3 to the nucleus. Our results suggest that increased expression of VEGF in malignant cells during the transition from PIN to invasive carcinoma leads to EMT through an autocrine loop, which would promote tumor cell invasion and motility. Therapeutic blockade of VEGF/TGF-beta1 in PIN lesions might impair not only tumor angiogenesis, but also the early dissemination of malignant cells outside the epithelial layer.
Molecular Characterization of the Ggamma-globin-Tag Transgenic Mouse Model of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer: Comparison to Human Prostate Cancer
The Prostate. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20058236
Prostate cancer (PrCa) has a high incidence in Western countries and at present, there is no cure for hormone refractory prostate cancer. Transgenic mouse models have proven useful for understanding mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis. The characterization of genetically modified mouse PrCa models using high-throughput genomic analyses provides important information to guide appropriate experiment applications for such model.
Genomic Analyses As a Guide to Target Identification and Preclinical Testing of Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Toxicologic Pathology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20080934
Cross-species genomic analyses have proven useful for identifying common genomic alterations that occur in human cancers and mouse models designed to recapitulate human tumor development. High-throughput molecular analyses provide a valuable tool for identifying particular animal models that may represent aspects of specific subtypes of human cancers. Corresponding alterations in gene copy number and expression in tumors from mouse and human suggest that these conserved changes may be mechanistically essential for cancer development and progression, and therefore, they may be critical targets for therapeutic intervention. Using a cross-species analysis approach, mouse models in which the functions of p53, Rb, and BRCA1 have been disrupted demonstrate molecular features of human, triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and ERBB2-), basal-type breast cancer. Using mouse tumor models based on the targeted abrogation of p53 and Rb function, we identified a large, integrated genetic network that correlates to poor outcome in several human epithelial cancers. This gene signature is highly enriched for genes involved in DNA replication and repair, chromosome maintenance, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Current studies are determining whether inactivation of specific members within this signature, using drugs or siRNA, will identify potentially important new targets to inhibit triple-negative, basal-type breast cancer for which no targeted therapies currently exist.
European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20304630
Metastases can develop after apparently successful treatment of a primary tumour, sometimes following a period of tumour dormancy that can last for years. However, factors that regulate metastatic tumour dormancy remain poorly understood. Here we review the potential contribution of interactions between tumour cells and the microenvironment in metastatic sites, in regulating tumour dormancy vs. metastatic growth. We focus particularly on the potential role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating maintenance and release from dormancy. Tumour cells that fail to properly adhere to the ECM may enter a state of dormancy. The molecular and physical composition of the ECM can be affected by tumour cells themselves, as well as multiple stromal cell types. The roles of integrins, fibronectin, and collagen are discussed, as are factors that can change the ECM. A better understanding of the molecular details of the crosstalk between tumour cells and the ECM in secondary sites, and how these regulate the dormant state, may lead to improved therapeutic strategies to induce or maintain disseminated tumour cells in a dormant state, or alternatively to successfully eradicate dormant cells.
Gastric Cancer-specific Protein Profile Identified Using Endoscopic Biopsy Samples Via MALDI Mass Spectrometry
Journal of Proteome Research. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20557134
To date, proteomic analyses on gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples have been performed using surgical specimens only, which are obtained after a diagnosis is made. To determine if a proteomic signature obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples could be found to assist with diagnosis, frozen endoscopic biopsy samples collected from 63 gastric cancer patients and 43 healthy volunteers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. A statistical classification model was developed to distinguish tumor from normal tissues using half the samples and validated with the other half. A protein profile was discovered consisting of 73 signals that could classify 32 cancer and 22 normal samples in the validation set with high predictive values (positive and negative predictive values for cancer, 96.8% and 91.3%; sensitivity, 93.8%; specificity, 95.5%). Signals overexpressed in tumors were identified as alpha-defensin-1, alpha-defensin-2, calgranulin A, and calgranulin B. A protein profile was also found to distinguish pathologic stage Ia (pT1N0M0) samples (n = 10) from more advanced stage (Ib or higher) tumors (n = 48). Thus, protein profiles obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples may be useful in assisting with the diagnosis of gastric cancer and, possibly, in identifying early stage disease.
Cancer Research. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20570886
Breast cancer that recurs as metastatic disease many years after primary tumor resection and adjuvant therapy seems to arise from tumor cells that disseminated early in the course of disease but did not develop into clinically apparent lesions. These long-term surviving, disseminated tumor cells maintain a state of dormancy, but may be triggered to proliferate through largely unknown factors. We now show that the induction of fibrosis, associated with deposition of type I collagen (Col-I) in the in vivo metastatic microenvironment, induces dormant D2.0R cells to form proliferative metastatic lesions through beta1-integrin signaling. In vitro studies using a three-dimensional culture system modeling dormancy showed that Col-I induces quiescent D2.0R cells to proliferate through beta1-integrin activation of SRC and focal adhesion kinase, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase and actin stress fiber formation. Blocking beta1-integrin, Src, ERK, or myosin light chain kinase by short hairpin RNA or pharmacologic approaches inhibited Col-I-induced activation of this signaling cascade, cytoskeletal reorganization, and proliferation. These findings show that fibrosis with Col-I enrichment at the metastatic site may be a critical determinant of cytoskeletal reorganization in dormant tumor cells, leading to their transition from dormancy to metastatic growth. Thus, inhibiting Col-I production, its interaction with beta1-integrin, and downstream signaling of beta1-integrin may be important strategies for preventing or treating recurrent metastatic disease.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20644255
Pulmonary metastasis remains the leading ca use of death for cancer patients. Opportunities to improve treatment outcomes for patients require new methods to study and view the biology of metastatic progression. Here, we describe an ex vivo pulmonary metastasis assay (PuMA) in which the metastatic progression of GFP-expressing cancer cells, from a single cell to the formation of multicellular colonies, in the mouse lung microenvironment was assessed in real time for up to 21 days. The biological validity of this assay was confirmed by its prediction of the in vivo behavior of a variety of high- and low-metastatic human and mouse cancer cell lines and the discrimination of tumor microenvironments in the lung that were most permissive to metastasis. Using this approach, we provide what we believe to be new insights into the importance of tumor cell interactions with the stromal components of the lung microenvironment. Finally, the translational utility of this assay was demonstrated through its use in the evaluation of therapeutics at discrete time points during metastatic progression. We believe that this assay system is uniquely capable of advancing our understanding of both metastasis biology and therapeutic strategies.
Identifying Functional MiRNA-mRNA Regulatory Modules with Correspondence Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20956247
MOTIVATION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that cause mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. They are important regulators of development and cellular homeostasis through their control of diverse processes. Recently, great efforts have been made to elucidate their regulatory mechanism, but the functions of most miRNAs and their precise regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. With more and more matched expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs having been made available, it is of great interest to utilize both expression profiles to discover the functional regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target mRNAs for potential biological processes that they may participate in. RESULTS: We present a probabilistic graphical model to discover functional miRNA regulatory modules at potential biological levels by integrating heterogeneous datasets, including expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs, with or without the prior target binding information. We applied this model to a mouse mammary dataset. It effectively captured several biological process specific modules involving miRNAs and their target mRNAs. Furthermore, without using prior target binding information, the identified miRNAs and mRNAs in each module show a large proportion of overlap with predicted miRNA target relationships, suggesting that expression profiles are crucial for both target identification and discovery of regulatory modules.
Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21212877
The tissue microenvironment critically influences the molecular characteristics of a tumor. However, as tumorous tissue is highly heterogeneous it may harbor various sub-populations with different microenvironments, greatly complicating the unambiguous analysis of tumor biology. Mass spectrometry imaging techniques allow for the direct analysis of tumors in the spatial context of their microenvironment. However, discovery of heterogeneous sub-populations often depends on the use of multivariate statistical methods. While this is routinely used for 2D images, multivariate statistical approaches are rarely seen in the context of 3D images. Here we present the automatic alignment of 2D images recorded by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) to reconstruct a 3D model of a mouse mammary tumor. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the whole 3D reconstruction at once, revealing distinct tumor regions, an observation that would not have been possible in such clarity through the analysis of isolated 2D sections. These sub-structures were confirmed by H&E and Oil Red O stains. This study shows that the combination of 3D imaging and multivariate statistics can be used to define tumor regions.
A Gene Expression Signature of Acquired Chemoresistance to Cisplatin and Fluorouracil Combination Chemotherapy in Gastric Cancer Patients
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21364753
We initiated a prospective trial to identify transcriptional alterations associated with acquired chemotherapy resistance from pre- and post-biopsy samples from the same patient and uncover potential molecular pathways involved in treatment failure to help guide therapeutic alternatives.
Distinctions in Gastric Cancer Gene Expression Signatures Derived from Laser Capture Microdissection Versus Histologic Macrodissection
BMC Medical Genomics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21635755
Gastric cancer samples obtained by histologic macrodissection contain a relatively high stromal content that may significantly influence gene expression profiles. Differences between the gene expression signature derived from macrodissected gastric cancer samples and the signature obtained from isolated gastric cancer epithelial cells from the same biopsies using laser-capture microdissection (LCM) were evaluated for their potential experimental biases.
Integrated MiRNA and MRNA Expression Profiling of Mouse Mammary Tumor Models Identifies MiRNA Signatures Associated with Mammary Tumor Lineage
Genome Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21846369
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, endogenous RNAs involved in regulating gene expression and protein translation. miRNA expression profiling of human breast cancers has identified miRNAs related to the clinical diversity of the disease and potentially provides novel diagnostic and prognostic tools for breast cancer therapy. In order to further understand the associations between oncogenic drivers and miRNA expression in sub-types of breast cancer, we performed miRNA expression profiling on mammary tumors from eight well-characterized genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of human breast cancer, including MMTV-H-Ras, -Her2/neu, -c-Myc, -PymT, -Wnt1 and C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice, BRCA1(fl/fl);p53(+/-);MMTV-cre knock-out mice and the p53(fl/fl);MMTV-cre transplant model.
BMC Medical Genomics. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22112324
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Identification of patients who likely will or will not benefit from cytotoxic chemotherapy through the use of biomarkers could greatly improve clinical management by better defining appropriate treatment options for patients. microRNAs may be potentially useful biomarkers that help guide individualized therapy for cancer because microRNA expression is dysregulated in cancer. In order to identify miRNA signatures for gastric cancer and for predicting clinical resistance to cisplatin/fluorouracil (CF) chemotherapy, a comprehensive miRNA microarray analysis was performed using endoscopic biopsy samples. METHODS: Biopsy samples were collected prior to chemotherapy from 90 gastric cancer patients treated with CF and from 34 healthy volunteers. At the time of disease progression, post-treatment samples were additionally collected from 8 clinical responders. miRNA expression was determined using a custom-designed Agilent microarray. In order to identify a miRNA signature for chemotherapy resistance, we correlated miRNA expression levels with the time to progression (TTP) of disease after CF therapy. RESULTS: A miRNA signature distinguishing gastric cancer from normal stomach epithelium was identified. 30 miRNAs were significantly inversely correlated with TTP whereas 28 miRNAs were significantly positively correlated with TTP of 82 cancer patients (P<0.05). Prominent among the upregulated miRNAs associated with chemosensitivity were miRNAs known to regulate apoptosis, including let-7g, miR-342, miR-16, miR-181, miR-1, and miR-34. When this 58-miRNA predictor was applied to a separate set of pre- and post-treatment tumor samples from the 8 clinical responders, all of the 8 pre-treatment samples were correctly predicted as low-risk, whereas samples from the post-treatment tumors that developed chemoresistance were predicted to be in the high-risk category by the 58 miRNA signature, suggesting that selection for the expression of these miRNAs occurred as chemoresistance arose. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 1) a miRNA expression signature that distinguishes gastric cancer from normal stomach epithelium from healthy volunteers, and 2) a chemoreresistance miRNA expression signature that is correlated with TTP after CF therapy. The chemoresistance miRNA expression signature includes several miRNAs previously shown to regulate apoptosis in vitro, and warrants further validation.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22083346
The microenvironment of cancer cells has proven to be a critical component of tumors that strongly influences cancer development and progression into invasive and metastatic disease. Compared to normal tissue, dramatic differences in gene expression occur in multiple cell types that constitute the tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that are important stromal components of growing tumors. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding how microRNAs are deregulated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and how this affects tumor biology. The microRNA signature of CAFs is discussed with respect to their functional relevance to tumor cells as well as other cell types involved in tumor homeostasis.