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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (21)
- The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
- The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
- Animal Reproduction Science
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Domestic Animal Endocrinology
- Domestic Animal Endocrinology
- The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
- Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne De Recherche Vétérinaire
- Domestic Animal Endocrinology
- Molecular Reproduction and Development
- Comparative Medicine
- The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
- Zygote (Cambridge, England)
- Gut Pathogens
- Zygote (Cambridge, England)
- Journal of Medical Primatology
Articles by John P. Kastelic in JoVE
Catheterization of Intestinal Loops in Ruminants
Richard R. E. Uwiera1, John P. Kastelic2, G. Douglas Inglis2
1Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge
We describe a novel surgical method for catheterizing 'intestinal loops' within the ileum of sheep. Once animals have recovered from surgery and have cleared antibiotics and analgesics, multiple treatments can be deposited directly in loops via the catheters.
Other articles by John P. Kastelic on PubMed
Theriogenology. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12041899
Four experiments were conducted to investigate modifications to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-based fixed-time Al protocols in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, the effect of reducing the interval from GnRH treatment to prostaglandin (PGF) was examined. Lactating beef cows (n = 111) were given 100 mg gonadorelin (GnRH) on Day 0 (start of treatment) and either 500 microg cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 6 with Al and 100 microg GnRH 60 h later, or PGF on Day 7 with Al and GnRH 48 h later (6- or 7-day Co-Synch regimens). Pregnancy rates were 32/61 (53.3%) versus 26/50 (52.0%), respectively (P = 0.96). In Experiment 2. cattle (n = 196) were synchronized with a 7-day Co-Synch regimen and received either no further treatment or a CIDR-B device (Days 0-7). Pregnancy rates were 32/71 (45.1%) versus 33/77 (42.9%) in cows (P < 0.8), and 9/23 (39.1 %) versus 17/25 (68.0%) in heifers (P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, 49 beef heifers were randomly assigned to receive 12.5 mg pLH on Day 0, PGF on Day 7 and 12.5 mg of pLH on Day 9 with Al 12 h later (pLH Ovsynch), or similar treatment plus a CIDR-B device from Days 0 to 7 (pLH Ovsynch + CIDR-B), or 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and 100 mg progesterone on Day 0, a CIDR-B device from Days 0 to 7 (EB/ P4 + CIDR-B), PGF on Day 7 (at the time of CIDR-B removal) and 1 mg i.m. EB on Day 8 with AI on Day 9 (52 h after PGF). Pregnancy rate in the EB/P4 + CIDR-B group (75.0%) was higher (P < 0.04) than in the pLH Ovsynch group (37.5%): the pLH Ovsynch + CIDR-B group was intermediate (64.7%). In Experiment 4, 266 non-lactating cows were allocated to a 7-day Co-Synch protocol (Co-Synch), a 7-day Co-Synch plus 0.6 mg per head per day melengestrol acetate (MGA) from Days 0 to 6 inclusive (Co-Synch + MGA) or MGA (Days 0-6) plus 2 mg EB and 50 mg progesterone on Day 0. 500 microg PGF on Day 7, 1 mg EB on Day 8 and fixed-time Al 28 h later (EB/ P4 + MGA). Pregnancy rates (P < 0.25) were 44.8% (39/87: Co-Synch), 47.8% (43/90; Co-Synch + MGA), and 60.7% (54/89: EB/P4 + MGA). In conclusion, a 6- or 7-day interval from GnRH to PGF in a Co-Synch regimen resulted in similar pregnancy rates in cows. The addition of a progestin to a Co-Synch or Ovsynch regimen significantly improved pregnancy rates in heifers but not in cows. Progestin-based regimens that included EB consistently resulted in high pregnancy rates to fixed-time Al.
The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12125185
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the ischiorectal fossa (IRF) as a route for the administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (dinoprost) in cattle. In Experiment 1, 21 nonlactating Holstein cows were given 100 micrograms of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), intramuscularly (i.m.), and, 7 d later, 25 mg of dinoprost into the IRF. Sixteen cows had serum progesterone concentrations > or = 1.0 ng/mL at the time of dinoprost treatment, and all of these had rapid and complete luteolysis; the other 5 cows were not considered to have a functional corpus luteum (CL) at the time of treatment. There were minimal adverse behavioral reactions to the IRF injections and no visible or palpable tissue reactions at the injection site. In Experiment 2, 74 Holstein heifers were given 25 mg of dinoprost by IRF injection. Luteolysis occurred in 84.3% of the heifers with a functional CL (as determined by the serum progesterone concentration at the time of treatment). Of the heifers bred by either natural service or artificial insemination, 61.8% became pregnant. In Experiment 3, 48 beef heifers received dinoprost 7 d after ovulation, as follows: 25 mg, i.m. (n = 9); 25 mg, IRF (n = 10); 10 mg, IRF (n = 10); 10 mg, subcutaneously (s.c.) (n = 10); or 10 mg, intravulvosubmucosally (IVSM) (n = 9). Fewer heifers (P < 0.05) were found to be in estrus or ovulating in the 10 mg IVSM group (0% and 11%, respectively) than in the 25 mg i.m. group (100% and 100%), the 25 mg IRF group (90% and 100%, respectively), or the 10 mg IRF group (80% and 80%). The rates of estrus (50%) and ovulation (50%) were intermediate in the 10 mg s.c. group. In summary, 25 mg of dinoprost injected into the IRF caused minimal behavioral or tissue response and induced luteolysis and fertile estrus. In addition, 10 mg of dinoprost injected into the IRF was as efficacious as 25 mg given either i.m. or into the IRF in inducing estrus and ovulation.
The Effects of 3 Gonadorelin Products on Luteinizing Hormone Release, Ovulation, and Follicular Wave Emergence in Cattle
The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12650040
The objective was to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and follicular dynamics in cattle following administration of 3 gonadorelin formulations that are commercially available in Canada. In experiment 1, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 4 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 100 micrograms gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate, intramuscularly (C; Cystorelin, or FE; Fertagyl). Blood samples (for LH analysis) were collected 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours after treatment. In experiment 2, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 10 per group) were randomly allocated to receive 100 micrograms gonadorelin, intramuscularly as follows: 2 mL of C; 1 mL of FE; or 2 mL of Factrel (FA, gonadorelin hydrochloride). Gonadorelin treatment was done on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples for LH analysis were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after treatment. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography, twice daily, to detect ovulation. A replicate was conducted using only C (n = 10) or FE (n = 10); blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. In experiment 3, beef heifers (n = 10 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 GnRH gonadorelin treatments (as in the first phase of experiment 2) on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 hours. In experiments 2 and 3, both mean and mean peak plasma LH concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with C. The proportion of dominant follicles that ovulated was higher (P < 0.02) in Holstein cows treated with C than in those treated with FE or FA (18/19, 11/19, and 4/7, respectively), but there was no significant difference among the products in beef heifers (6/10, 6/10, and 4/10, respectively). No significant differences were found in the interval from treatment to the emergence of the next follicular wave. In summary, C induced a greater LH release and this resulted in a higher ovulatory rate in Holstein cows but not in beef heifers.
Effects of Scrotal Insulation on Sperm Production, Semen Quality, and Testicular Echotexture in Bos Indicus and Bos Indicus X Bos Taurus Bulls
Animal Reproduction Science. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12853175
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of scrotal insulation on sperm production, semen quality, and testicular echotexture in Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred bulls. In one experiment, B. indicus bulls (n=12) were allocated to control and whole-scrotum insulation groups, while in a second experiment, crossbred bulls (n=21) were allocated into control, whole-scrotum, and scrotal-neck insulation groups. Insulation was applied for 4 days (start of insulation = Day 0) and semen collection and testicular ultrasonographic examinations were performed twice weekly until Day 35. Sperm concentration and total sperm output during the post-insulation period were greater in control groups, but significant differences were observed only in B. indicus bulls. Overall, sperm motility in scrotal-insulated B. indicus bulls was lower (P<0.05) than in the control group. After whole-scrotum insulation in crossbred bulls, sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) than pre-insulation levels between Days 21 and 31, and lower than control levels on Day 24. The proportion of normal sperm after whole-scrotum insulation was lower than pre-insulation and control values from Day 11 to the end of the experiment in B. indicus bulls (P<0.05 from Days 14 to 21 and on Day 27), and from Days 14 to 25 in crossbred bulls (P<0.05 on Days 14 and 18). Insulation of the scrotal neck in crossbred bulls did not significantly affect semen quality. Loose sperm heads (Day 11), midpiece defects (Days 11 and 14), and acrosome defects (Days 27 and 31) increased (P<0.05) in insulated B. indicus bulls, while proximal cytoplasmic droplets (Days 14, 18 and 27 in B. indicus; Days 24 and 27 in crossbred bulls) and sperm vacuoles (Days 18 and 21 in B. indicus; Day 18 in crossbred bulls) increased (P<0.05) in whole-scrotum insulation groups in both experiments. There was considerable variation among bulls in the incidence of specific sperm defects. The timing of appearance of sperm defects after insulation provided insights into the pathogenesis of specific abnormalities. Neither whole-scrotum nor scrotal-neck insulation affected testicular echotexture in either experiment. In conclusion, whole-scrotum insulation resulted in decreased sperm production and semen quality in B. indicus and B. indicus x B. taurus bulls, but those changes were not associated with changes in testicular echotexture.
Comparison of Methods to Evaluate the Plasmalemma of Bovine Sperm and Their Relationship with in Vitro Fertilization Rate
Theriogenology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14519474
The objectives of this study were to compare different methods of evaluating sperm plasmalemma and to determine their relationship with in vitro fertilization rate. A single batch of frozen semen from each of eight beef bulls was used for assessment of sperm viability and for in vitro fertilization. Conventional viability tests included sperm morphology, motility, acrosome integrity, and abnormal DNA condensation. Methods for evaluation of the sperm plasmalemma included eosin/nigrosin (EN) and trypan-blue (TB) vital stains, propidium iodide (PI) in combination with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) or SYBR-14 (SYBR) fluorescent vital stains, and the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST). A total of 133-150 oocytes were fertilized in vitro with sperm from each bull and cleavage rates were determined. There were high correlations between the results obtained with vital stains and good to excellent interclass correlation coefficients of agreement, indicating that these stains provide measures of the same sperm attribute, i.e. plasmalemma integrity. However, the proportions of membrane-intact sperm identified by EN or TB stains were greater (P<0.0001) than identified by CFDA/PI or SYBR/PI fluorescent stains. The results obtained with the HOST had moderate correlations but poor agreement with the results of the vital stains. The proportion of viable sperm identified by the HOST was lower (P<0.05) than the proportion identified by vital stains, indicating that response to the HOST did not depend only on the integrity of the plasmalemma. Although there were significant differences in fertilization rates and sperm viability among bulls, there was no sharp distinction for the results of sperm viability tests from bulls producing different in vitro fertilization rates. Proportions of normal, motile, acrosome-intact, and HOST-responsive sperm were identified as significant predictors of in vitro fertilizing potential; each of these endpoints explained 12-18% of the variation when evaluated separately (linear regression) and 48% when evaluated collectively (stepwise regression). In conclusion, EN and TB stains overestimated the proportion of plasmalemma-intact sperm compared to PI-based fluorescent stains. Vital stains evaluated the morphological integrity of the plasmalemma, whereas the HOST assessed plasmalemma function. In that regard, the HOST was the only plasmalemma evaluation method that significantly contributed to conventional sperm quality tests in predicting in vitro fertilization rate, indicating that the test could be incorporated to the routine of semen analysis.
Testicular Thermoregulation in Bos Indicus, Crossbred and Bos Taurus Bulls: Relationship with Scrotal, Testicular Vascular Cone and Testicular Morphology, and Effects on Semen Quality and Sperm Production
Theriogenology. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14662148
Mechanisms of testicular thermoregulation, the relationship of scrotal, testicular vascular cone (TVC), and testicular morphology with thermoregulatory capability, and their effects on semen quality and sperm production were studied in 20 Bos indicus, 28 crossbred, and 26 Bos taurus bulls. The ratio of testicular artery length and volume to testicular volume were larger (P<0.05) in B. indicus and crossbred bulls than in B. taurus bulls (1.03 and 0.94 cm/cm3 versus 0.48 cm/cm3; 0.034 and 0.047 ml/cm3 versus 0.017 ml/cm3, respectively). Testicular artery wall thickness (average 192.5, 229.0, and 290.0 microm, respectively) and arterial-venous blood distance in the TVC (average 330.5, 373.7, and 609.4 microm, respectively) were smallest in B. indicus, intermediary in crossbred, and greatest in B. taurus bulls (P<0.05); the proximity between arterial and venous blood was consistent with the estimated decrease in arterial blood temperature after passage through the TVC (5.9, 5.0, and 2.9 degrees C, in B. indicus, crossbred, and B. taurus bulls, respectively). In crossbred and B. taurus bulls, there was a positive top-to-bottom scrotal temperature gradient and a negative testicular subtunic temperature gradient. However, in B. indicus bulls, both scrotal and testicular subtunic temperatures gradients were positive. Differences in the vascular arrangement, characteristics of the artery (e.g. wall thickness) or thickness of the tunica albuginea may have affected the testicular arterial blood and subtunic temperatures in B. indicus bulls. Better testicular thermoregulatory capability was associated with increased scrotal shape (pendulosity), testicular artery length and volume, and top-to-bottom gradient of the distance between the artery wall and the veins in the TVC. Increased semen quality was associated with increased testicular volume and scrotal subcutaneous (SQT) temperature gradient, and with decreased scrotal surface and testicular temperatures. Increased sperm production was associated with increased testicular artery volume, testicular volume, and SQT temperature gradient, and with decreased testicular artery wall thickness, scrotal circumference (SC), and scrotal surface, testicular subtunic, and epididymal temperatures. In conclusion, morphology of the TVC may contribute to the greater resistance of B. indicus bulls to high ambient temperatures by conferring a better testicular blood supply and by facilitating heat transfer between the testicular artery and veins. Testicular thermoregulation was associated with opposing scrotal and testicular subtunic temperatures gradients only in crossbred and B. taurus bulls. Scrotal, TVC, and testicular morphology influence testicular thermoregulatory capability and were associated with differences in semen quality and sperm production.
Sexual Development in Early- and Late-maturing Bos Indicus and Bos Indicus X Bos Taurus Crossbred Bulls in Brazil
Theriogenology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15325547
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate sexual development in early- and late-maturing Nelore (Bos indicus) and Canchim (3/8 Bos indicus x 5/8 Bos taurus crossbred) bulls and to determine predictors of sexual precocity, and pubertal and maturity status. In Experiment 1, 12 Nelore bulls where examined from 300 to 900 days of age. Puberty was characterized by an ejaculate containing > or =50 million sperm with > or =10% motile sperm, and maturity by an ejaculate containing > or =70% morphologically normal sperm. In Experiment 2, 28 Canchim bulls where examined from 295 to 488 days of age and puberty was characterized by an ejaculate containing > or =30% motile sperm. In both experiments, bulls were classified as early- or late-maturing based on age at puberty. Early-maturing bulls were younger (P < 0.05) than late-maturing bulls at puberty (527 days versus 673 days in Experiment 1 and 360 days versus 461 days in Experiment 2) and at maturity (660 days versus 768 days in Experiment 1). In general, early-maturing bulls were heavier and had greater scrotal circumference (SC), testes, and testicular vascular cone diameter than late-maturing bulls during the experimental period. Scrotal circumference adjusted for 365 days of age was a good predictor of sexual precocity; minimum yearling SC of 19 and 24 cm for Nelore and Canchim bulls, respectively, had the best predictive values. Early-maturing bulls were lighter and had smaller SC at puberty than late-maturing bulls; therefore, sexual precocity was not related to the attainment of a threshold body weight or testicular size earlier, but to lower thresholds in early-maturing bulls. When predictors of pubertal status were evaluated, SC had the best sensitivity/specificity relationship in Nelore bulls, and high sensitivity and specificity in Canchim bulls. When predictors of sexual maturity were evaluated in Nelore bulls, age, weight, and SC had similar sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. At puberty, approximately 60% of the sperm present in the ejaculate were morphologically defective. Changes in semen quality after puberty in Nelore bulls were characterized by increased motility and proportion of morphologically normal sperm, with a decrease in the proportion of major sperm defects. In conclusion, early-maturing bulls were more developed in the pre-pubertal period and attained puberty at earlier stages of body and testicular development than late-maturing bulls. Yearling SC could be used to select bulls for sexual precocity and SC was the best predictor of pubertal status. Age, weight, and SC were equally good predictors of sexual maturity in B. indicus bulls.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16151098
The location and abundance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae in the intestines of beef cattle were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR in two studies. In an initial study, digesta and tissue samples were obtained along the digestive tract of two beef steers known to shed C. jejuni and C. lanienae (steers A and B). At the time of slaughter, steer B weighed 540 kg, compared to 600 kg for steer A, yet the intestine of steer B (40.5 m) was 36% longer than the intestine of steer A (26.1 m). In total, 323 digesta samples (20-cm intervals) and 998 tissue samples (3.3- to 6.7-cm intervals) were processed. Campylobacter DNA was detected in the digesta and in association with tissues throughout the small and large intestines of both animals. Although C. jejuni and C. lanienae DNA were detected in both animals, only steer A contained substantial quantities of C. jejuni DNA. In both digesta and tissues of steer A, C. jejuni was present in the duodenum and jejunum. Considerable quantities of C. jejuni DNA also were observed in the digesta obtained from the cecum and ascending colon, but minimal DNA was associated with tissues of these regions. In contrast, steer B contained substantial quantities of C. lanienae DNA, and DNA of this bacterium was limited to the large intestine (i.e., the cecum, proximal ascending colon, descending colon, and rectum); the majority of tissue-associated C. lanienae DNA was present in the cecum, descending colon, and rectum. In a second study, the location and abundance of C. jejuni and C. lanienae DNA were confirmed in the intestines of 20 arbitrarily selected beef cattle. DNA of C. jejuni and C. lanienae were detected in the digesta of 57% and 95% of the animals, respectively. C. jejuni associated with intestinal tissues was most abundant in the duodenum, ileum, and rectum. However, one animal contributed disproportionately to the abundance of C. jejuni DNA in the ileum and rectum. C. lanienae was most abundant in the large intestine, and the highest density of DNA of this bacterium was found in the cecum. Therefore, C. jejuni colonized the proximal small intestine of asymptomatic beef cattle, whereas C. lanienae primarily resided in the cecum, descending colon, and rectum. This information could be instrumental in developing efficacious strategies to manage the release of these bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle.
Effect of Nutrition During Calfhood and Peripubertal Period on Serum Metabolic Hormones, Gonadotropins and Testosterone Concentrations, and on Sexual Development in Bulls
Domestic Animal Endocrinology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16677793
The objective of the present study was to characterize the effects of nutrition on circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone during sexual development in bulls. Nutrition regulated the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis through effects on the GnRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus and through direct effects on the testes. Pituitary function (gonadotropin secretion after GnRH challenge) was not affected by nutrition. However, nutrition affected LH pulse frequency and basal LH concentration during the early gonadotropin rise (10-26 weeks of age). There were close temporal associations between changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and changes in LH pulse frequency, suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating the early gonadotropin rise in bulls. The peripubertal increase in testosterone concentration was delayed in bulls with lesser serum IGF-I concentrations (low nutrition), suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating Leydig cell function. Serum IGF-I concentrations accounted for 72 and 67% of the variation in scrotal circumference and paired-testes volume, respectively (at any given age), indicating that IGF-I may regulate testicular growth. Bulls with a more sustained elevated LH pulse frequency during the early gonadotropin rise (high nutrition) had greater testicular mass at 70 weeks of age relative to the control group (medium nutrition), despite no differences in metabolic hormone concentrations after 26 weeks of age. Therefore, gonadotropin-independent mechanism regulating testicular growth might be dependent on previous gonadotropin milieu.
Effect of Improved Nutrition During Calfhood on Serum Metabolic Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Testosterone Concentrations, and on Testicular Development in Bulls
Domestic Animal Endocrinology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17029677
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of improved nutrition during calfhood on serum metabolic hormones, gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations, and on sexual development in bulls. Bulls received high (n=17) or control nutrition (n=16) diets from 10 to 30 week of age and the same control nutrition diet from 31 to 74 week of age. Improved nutrition during calfhood resulted in a more sustained period of elevated LH secretion (pulse frequency and total secretion in 10h) during the early gonadotropin rise. GnRH-stimulated LH secretion was not affected by diet, indicating that pituitary responsiveness was not altered; therefore, improved nutrition had direct effects on GnRH secretion by the hypothalamus. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were greater during calfhood in bulls receiving high nutrition, indicating that these metabolic hormones might be involved in regulating GnRH and LH secretion. Improved nutrition also resulted in increased testosterone secretion that was associated with greater circulating IGF-I concentrations, suggesting a role for this metabolic hormone in regulating Leydig cell number and function. Furthermore, improved nutrition during calfhood resulted in greater testicular weight and sperm production in mature bulls, indicating that increased LH secretion during calfhood, and increased IGF-I and testosterone concentrations during calfhood and peripubertal period were associated with greater testicular cell proliferation and enhanced function.
Resynchronization of Estrus in Beef Cattle: Ovarian Function, Estrus and Fertility Following Progestin Treatment and Treatments to Synchronize Ovarian Follicular Development and Estrus
The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17310622
The objective was to optimize rebreeding of nonpregnant, previously inseminated beef cattle. In Experiment 1, 43 cows received a used intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (IVPRI; Days 0-7) 12.3 d after ovulation and received concurrently no treatment, 100 microg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), 1 mg estradiol cypionate (ECP), or 150 mg progesterone. Emergence of a new ovarian follicular wave was most synchronous (P < 0.0001) in the GnRH group. In Experiment 2, 675 heifers were given GnRH or no treatment on Day 0, fed melengestrol acetate (MGA; 0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0-5 (Day 0 = 13-14 d after timed insemination; TAI), given 0.5 mg ECP or nothing on Day 7, and reinseminated 6-12 h after onset of estrus. Estrus was more synchronous (P < 0.05) in heifers given GnRH versus no treatment on Day 0. In Experiment 3, 317 TAI heifers were resynchronized with either MGA or a used IVPRI with or without ECP on Day 7; estrus was more synchronous (P < 0.05) and pregnancy rates were higher (54.1% versus 39.2%, P < 0.05) in heifers given a used IVPRI than those fed MGA. For resynchronization of heifers, pregnancy rates were not significantly improved with GnRH treatment, but were higher with a used IVPRI than with MGA.
Comparison of 2 Enzyme Immunoassays and a Radioimmunoassay for Measurement of Progesterone Concentrations in Bovine Plasma, Skim Milk, and Whole Milk
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne De Recherche Vétérinaire. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18214159
The objective of this study was to compare 2 enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) as to sensitivity and accuracy in the measurement of the progesterone (P4) concentration in bovine plasma, skim milk, and whole milk. The 72 samples from 24 lactating dairy cows expected to have either a high P4 concentration (cows in diestrus or pregnant) or a low P4 concentration (cows in estrus or anestrus) were analyzed by RIA, solid-phase EIA (SPEIA), which included a solvent extraction step, or direct EIA (DEIA) without solvent extraction. The overall mean concentrations of P4 did not differ (P < 0.4) among the assays. However, for the cows that were in diestrus or pregnant, the mean P4 concentrations (and standard error) were higher (P < 0.03), regardless of sample type, with RIA than with SPEIA, at 7.3 (0.7) and 6.1 (0.6) ng/mL, respectively. When only the high-P4 samples analyzed by RIA were compared, the mean P4 concentration was higher (P < 0.001) in whole milk than in skim milk, at 9.8 (1.0) and 4.1 (0.7) ng/mL, respectively. Although the mean P4 concentrations in the low-P4 samples did not differ (P < 0.80) among assays, the proportions of cows with a P4 concentration > or = 1 ng/mL were 3%, 14%, and 44% for RIA, SPEIA, and DEIA, respectively (P < 0.01; DEIA > SPEIA > RIA).
Domestic Animal Endocrinology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17210239
The effects of plasma progesterone concentrations on LH release and ovulation in beef cattle given 100 microg of GnRH im were determined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, heifers were given GnRH 3, 6 or 9 days after ovulation; 8/9, 5/9 and 2/9 ovulated (P<0.02). Mean plasma concentrations of progesterone were lowest (P<0.01) and of LH were highest (P<0.03) in heifers treated 3 days after ovulation. In Experiment 2, heifers received no treatment (Control) or one or two previously used CIDR inserts (Low-P4 and High-P4 groups, respectively) on Day 4 (estrus=Day 0). On Day 5, the Low-P4 group received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF) twice, 12 h apart and on Day 6, all heifers received GnRH. Compared to heifers in the Control and Low-P4 groups, heifers in the High-P4 group had higher (P<0.01) plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 6 (3.0+/-0.3, 3.0+/-0.3 and 5.7+/-0.4 ng/ml, respectively; mean+/-S.E.M.) and a lower (P<0.01) incidence of GnRH-induced ovulation (10/10, 9/10 and 3/10). In Experiment 3, 4-6 days after ovulation, 20 beef heifers and 20 suckled beef cows were given a once-used CIDR, the two largest follicles were ablated, and the cattle were allocated to receive either PGF (repeated 12h later) or no additional treatment (Low-P4 and High-P4, respectively). All cattle received GnRH 6-8 days after follicular ablation. There was no difference between heifers and cows for ovulatory response (77.7 and 78.9%, P<0.9) or the GnRH-induced LH surge (P<0.3). However, the Low-P4 group had a higher (P<0.01) ovulatory response (94.7% versus 61.1%) and a greater LH surge of longer duration (P<0.001). In conclusion, although high plasma progesterone concentrations reduced both GnRH-induced increases in plasma LH concentrations and ovulatory responses in beef cattle, the hypothesis that heifers were more sensitive than cows to the suppressive effects of progesterone was not supported.
Na+/K+ATPase Regulates Sperm Capacitation Through a Mechanism Involving Kinases and Redistribution of Its Testis-specific Isoform
Molecular Reproduction and Development. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19834983
Incubation of bovine sperm with ouabain, an endogenous cardiac glycoside that inhibits both the ubiquitous (ATP1A1) and testis-specific alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, induces tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) fertilizing ability of bovine sperm capacitated by incubating with ouabain; (2) involvement of ATP1A4 in this process; and (3) signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of sperm capacitation induced by inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. Fresh sperm capacitated by incubating with ouabain (inhibits both ATP1A1 and ATP1A4) or with anti-ATP1A4 immunoserum fertilized bovine oocytes in vitro. Capacitation was associated with relocalization of ATP1A4 from the entire sperm head to the post-acrosomal region. To investigate signaling mechanisms involved in oubain-induced regulation of sperm capacitation, sperm preparations were pre-incubated with inhibitors of specific signaling molecules, followed by incubation with ouabain. The phosphotyrosine content of sperm preparations was determined by immunoblotting, and capacitation status of these sperm preparations were evaluated through an acrosome reaction assay. We inferred that Na(+)/K(+)ATPase was involved in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm proteins through receptor tyrosine kinase, nonreceptor type protein kinase, and protein kinases A and C. In conclusion, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase induced tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation through multiple signal transduction pathways, imparting fertilizing ability in bovine sperm. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting both the involvement of ATP1A4 in the regulation of bovine sperm capacitation and that fresh bovine sperm capacitated by the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase can fertilize oocytes in vitro.
Comparative Medicine. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21262134
Catheterized intestinal loops may be a valuable model to elucidate key components of the host response to various treatments within the small intestine of ruminants. We examined whether catheterizing ileal loops in sheep affected the overall health of animals and intestinal function, whether a bacterial treatment could be introduced into the loops through the catheters, and whether broad-spectrum antibiotics could sterilize the loops. Escherichia coli cells transformed to express the GFP gene were introduced readily into the loops through the catheters, and GFP E. coli cells were localized within the injected loops. Catheterized loops, interspaces, and intact ileum exhibited no abnormalities in tissue appearance or electrical resistance. Expression of the IFNγ, IL1α, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, IL18, TGFβ1, and TNFα cytokine genes did not differ significantly among the intact ileum, catheterized loops, and interspaces, nor did the expression of the gene for inducible nitric oxide synthase. Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered during surgery did not sterilize the loops or interspaces and did not substantively change the composition of the microbiota. However, antibiotics reduced the overall number of bacterial cells within the loop and the relative abundance of community constituents. We concluded that catheterization of intestinal loops did not adversely affect health or loop function in sheep. Furthermore, allowing animals to recover fully from surgery and to clear pharmaceuticals will remove any confounding effects due to these factors, making catheterized intestinal loops a feasible model for studying host responses in ruminants.
The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21731095
The objective of this study was to validate the assessment of bull sperm morphology done by veterinary practitioners. Out of 1606 bulls, 1400 (87.2%) and 1344 (83.7%) were designated by practitioners and an experienced andrologist, respectively, as having > 70% morphologically normal sperm. In 92% of the evaluations, there was agreement between the designations chosen.
The Effect of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) on in Vitro Maturation of Equine Oocytes
Zygote (Cambridge, England). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21794202
SummaryThe objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that equine growth hormone (eGH), in combination with insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), influences positively in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from follicles that were < 25 mm in diameter, characterized by morphology and were allocated randomly as follow: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 400 ng/ml anti-IGF-I antibody. Oocytes were matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2 and then stained with 10 μg/ml propidium iodide (PI) to evaluate nuclear status and 10 μg/ml Lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein complex (FITC-LCA) to assess cortical granule migration by confocal microscopy. The proportion of immature oocytes that developed to the metaphase II (MII) stage in the eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45) was greater than in the groups that were treated only with IGF-I (7 of 36, p = 0.03). Oocytes that reached MII in the control group (20 of 56; 35.7%) showed a tendency to be different when compared with eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45; 33.3%, p = 0.08). The treated group that contained anti-IGF-I (15 of 33; 45.4%) decreased the number of oocytes reaching any stage of development when compared with eGH (47 of 72; 65.3%) and eGH + IGF-I (33 of 45; 73.3%) groups (p = 0.05) when data from MI and MII were combined. We concluded that the addition of eGH to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium influenced the in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. The use of GH and IGF-I in vitro may represent a potential alternative for IVM of equine oocytes.
Non-therapeutic Administration of a Model Antimicrobial Growth Promoter Modulates Intestinal Immune Responses
Gut Pathogens. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21943280
Permanent Contraception of Dogs Induced with Intratesticular Injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based Solution
Theriogenology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22192397
The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a single intratesticular injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based solution to induce sterility in male dogs. Fifteen pubertal mongrel dogs (8 mo to 4 y old) were assigned to two groups; Control dogs (n = 5) received a single injection of an isotonic saline solution into each testis, whereas Treated dogs (n = 10), were given Testoblock, a proprietary zinc-gluconate (13.1 mg zinc/ml) solution in a physiological vehicle. The volume of saline or Testoblock injected varied from 0.2 to 1.0 ml/testis (based on testis width). Physical examination, testis width, hematology, clinical chemistry (hepatic and renal function), plasma testosterone concentration, semen characteristics, and libido, were assessed until castration (150 d after treatment). In Treated dogs, testis width increased (approximately 20%) relative to that in Control dogs, but subsequently was not significantly different from Controls (group × time interaction, P < 0.0001). For all dogs, values for hematology and clinical chemistry consistently remained within reference ranges. Although plasma testosterone concentrations decreased over time (P < 0.006), there was only a tendency for an effect of group (P < 0.09), and libido was not significantly affected. By 63 d after Testoblock treatment, eight Treated dogs were azoospermic, whereas the remaining two were oligozoospermic (<10 × 10(6) sperm/ml). We concluded that intratesticular injection of the Zinc Gluconate-based chemical sterilant Testoblock has considerable potential to induce permanent contraception in male dogs.
Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase May Not Be Involved in AICAR- and Metformin-mediated Meiotic Arrest in Bovine Denuded and Cumulus-enclosed Oocytes in Vitro
Zygote (Cambridge, England). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20569514
The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators, 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin (MET), inhibit resumption of meiosis in bovine cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and denuded oocytes (DO). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the effects of AMPK inhibitors on bovine oocyte meiosis in vitro; and (2) determine if AICAR or MET activates oocyte and/or cumulus cell AMPK. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC; 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) did not reverse the inhibitory effects of AICAR (1 mM) and MET (2 mM) on bovine oocyte meiosis. Additionally, CC (5 and 10 μM) inhibited meiosis (p < 0.05) in CEO and DO cultured for 7 h. Okadaic acid (1 μM) reversed the inhibitory effect of MET (2 mM) and CC (5 μM; p < 0.05) but not of AICAR (1 mM). Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of AMPK on Thr172 is required for activation. Based on western blot analysis, AICAR, MET and CC did not affect Thr172 phosphorylation levels in DO and oocytes from complexes (p > 0.05). In cumulus cells, Thr172 phosphorylation decreased after 3 h of culture (p < 0.05), regardless of the presence of AMPK modulators in the culture medium. Higher concentrations of AICAR (2 mM) and MET (10 mM) did not affect Thr172 phosphorylation, but phosphorylation on Ser79 of ACC, a substrate of AMPK, was increased in response to MET (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we inferred that the inhibitory effect of AICAR and MET on bovine oocyte meiosis was probably not mediated through activation of AMPK. Moreover, these compounds probably inhibited meiosis through different pathways.
Journal of Medical Primatology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20698930
Ovarian absence is a rare condition with congenital or traumatic origin.