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In JoVE (2)
- Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Quantitative Measurement of Invadopodia-mediated Extracellular Matrix Proteolysis in Single and Multicellular Contexts
Other Publications (21)
- Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- Journal of Cell Science
- Journal of Cell Science
- Journal of Cell Science
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
- Journal of Cell Science
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- Journal of Cell Science
- PloS One
- Cancer Microenvironment : Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
- Communicative & Integrative Biology
- BMC Microbiology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- PloS One
- Infection and Immunity
Articles by Karen H. Martin in JoVE
Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Amanda Gatesman Ammer1, Karen E. Hayes1, Karen H. Martin1, Lingqing Zhang2, George A. Spirou3, Scott A. Weed1
1Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, 2Sensory Neuroscience Research Center, West Virginia University, 3Departments of Otolaryngology and Physiology, Center for Neuroscience, West Virginia University
A comprehensive overview of the techniques involved in generating a mouse model of oral cancer and quantitative monitoring of tumor invasion within the tongue through multi-photon microscopy of labeled cells is presented. This system can serve as a useful platform for the molecular assessment and drug efficacy of anti-invasive compounds.
Quantitative Measurement of Invadopodia-mediated Extracellular Matrix Proteolysis in Single and Multicellular Contexts
Karen H. Martin, Karen E. Hayes, Elyse L. Walk, Amanda Gatesman Ammer, Steven M. Markwell, Scott A. Weed
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University
We describe the prototypical method for producing microscope coverslips coated with fluorescent gelatin for visualizing invadopodia-mediated matrix degradation. Computational techniques using available software are presented for quantifying the resultant levels of matrix proteolysis by single cells within a mixed population and for multicellular groups encompassing entire microscopic fields.
Other articles by Karen H. Martin on PubMed
Regulation of Focal Adhesion Targeting and Inhibitory Functions of the FAK Related Protein FRNK Using a Novel Estrogen Receptor "switch"
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11921165
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a regulator of numerous adhesion-dependent processes including cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell survival. The C-terminal domain of FAK, FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK), is autonomously expressed and functions as an inhibitor of FAK signaling. Previous attempts to use FRNK as a tool to dissect FAK signaling have been limited because of an inability to temporally regulate the inhibitory functions of FRNK. In this report, we describe and characterize a conditionally targeted form of FRNK that was created by fusing the hormone-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ER*) to the C-terminus of FRNK. In the absence of added hormone, FRNK-ER* was diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm of cells. Upon addition of hormone, the cytoplasmic pool of FRNK-ER* was rapidly redistributed to focal adhesions. We demonstrate that cells expressing FRNK-ER* show a hormone-dependent decrease in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell migration. Furthermore, when cells expressing of FRNK-ER* were treated with hormone, the cells responded with a dramatic change in cell morphology, suggesting a role for FAK in the regulation of the adhesive properties of focal adhesions.
Science (New York, N.Y.). May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12040184
Integrins are transmembrane proteins that serve as primary sensors of the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. In response to interactions with the ECM, integrins initiate signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, growth, and survival. Advances in imaging have contributed to the understanding of the dynamic nature of these cell-ECM interactions and the complexes that form at these sites and have provided insights into their regulation and signal organizing functions.
The Association of ASAP1, an ADP Ribosylation Factor-GTPase Activating Protein, with Focal Adhesion Kinase Contributes to the Process of Focal Adhesion Assembly
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12058076
ASAP1 (ADP ribosylation factor [ARF]- GTPase-activating protein [GAP] containing SH3, ANK repeats, and PH domain) is a phospholipid-dependent ARF-GAP that binds to and is phosphorylated by pp60(Src). Using affinity chromatography and yeast two-hybrid interaction screens, we identified ASAP1 as a major binding partner of protein tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed the binding of ASAP1 to FAK is mediated by an interaction between the C-terminal SH3 domain of ASAP1 with the second proline-rich motif in the C-terminal region of FAK. Transient overexpression of wild-type ASAP1 significantly retarded the spreading of REF52 cells plated on fibronectin. In contrast, overexpression of a truncated variant of ASAP1 that failed to bind FAK or a catalytically inactive variant of ASAP1 lacking GAP activity resulted in a less pronounced inhibition of cell spreading. Transient overexpression of wild-type ASAP1 prevented the efficient organization of paxillin and FAK in focal adhesions during cell spreading, while failing to significantly alter vinculin localization and organization. We conclude from these studies that modulation of ARF activity by ASAP1 is important for the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and/or organization by influencing the mechanisms responsible for the recruitment and organization of selected focal adhesion proteins such as paxillin and FAK.
Focal Adhesion Kinase is Required for the Spatial Organization of the Leading Edge in Migrating Cells
Journal of Cell Science. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15914540
The process of cell migration is initiated by protrusion at the leading edge of the cell, the formation of peripheral adhesions, the exertion of force on these adhesions, and finally the release of the adhesions at the rear of the cell. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is intimately involved in the regulation of this process, although the precise mechanism(s) whereby FAK regulates cell migration is unclear. We have used two approaches to reduce FAK expression in fibroblasts. Treatment of cells with FAK-specific siRNAs substantially reduced FAK expression and inhibited the spreading of fibroblasts in serum-free conditions, but did not affect the rate of spreading in the presence of serum. In contrast with the wild-type cells, the FAK siRNA-treated cells exhibited multiple extensions during cell spreading. The extensions appeared to be inappropriately formed lamellipodia as evidenced by the localization of cortactin to lamellipodial structures and the inhibition of such structures by expression of dominant-negative Rac. The wild-type phenotype was restored by reexpressing wild-type FAK in the knockdown cells, but not by expression of FAK containing a point mutation at the autophosphorylation site (FAK Y397F). In wound-healing assays, FAK knockdown cells failed to form broad lamellipodia, instead forming multiple leading edges. Similar results were obtained using primary mouse embryo fibroblasts from FAK-flox mice in which Cre-mediated excision was used to ablate the expression of FAK. These data are consistent with a role for FAK in regulating the formation of a leading edge during cell migration by coordinating integrin signaling to direct the correct spatial activation of membrane protrusion.
Journal of Cell Science. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16254240
Journal of Cell Science. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16825425
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17395594
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a member of a family of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that regulates integrin and growth factor signaling pathways involved in cell migration, proliferation, and survival. FAK expression is increased in many cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Here we describe perturbation of adhesion-mediated signaling with a FAK inhibitor, PF-573,228. In vitro, this compound inhibited purified recombinant catalytic fragment of FAK with an IC(50) of 4 nM. In cultured cells, PF-573,228 inhibited FAK phosphorylation on Tyr(397) with an IC(50) of 30-100 nM. Treatment of cells with concentrations of PF-573,228 that significantly decreased FAK Tyr(397) phosphorylation failed to inhibit cell growth or induce apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with PF-573,228 inhibited both chemotactic and haptotactic migration concomitant with the inhibition of focal adhesion turnover. These studies show that PF-573,228 serves as a useful tool to dissect the functions of FAK in integrin-dependent signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells and forms the basis for the generation of compounds amenable for preclinical and patient trials.
Disruption of FRNK Expression by Gene Targeting of the Intronic Promoter Within the Focal Adhesion Kinase Gene
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17440961
FRNK, a non-catalytic variant of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is expressed in major blood vessels throughout mouse development and is postulated to play a role in regulating cell adhesion and signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The FRNK transcriptional start site lies within an intron of the FAK gene, suggesting that the FRNK gene is a "gene within a gene". Here, we identified a 1 kb intronic sequence of the FAK gene that is necessary for endogenous FRNK expression. Deletion of this sequence in gene-targeted mice abolished FRNK expression, showing the direct involvement of the FAK intron in the regulation of FRNK expression. The level of FAK expression was normal in the FRNK-deficient mice, indicating that FAK and FRNK are transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters. The FRNK-deficient mice were viable, fertile, and displayed no obvious histological abnormalities in any of the major blood vessels. Western blot analysis showed that FRNK-deficient and wild-type (WT) cells had comparable levels of steady-state and adhesion-dependent FAK autophosphorylation. Despite the fact that ectopic expression of FRNK suppresses focal adhesion formation in cultured cells, these results suggest that endogenous FRNK is not essential for development or the formation of the mouse vasculature.
FAK, PDZ-RhoGEF and ROCKII Cooperate to Regulate Adhesion Movement and Trailing-edge Retraction in Fibroblasts
Journal of Cell Science. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18303050
A key step in cell migration is the dynamic formation and disassembly of adhesions at the front and the concomitant movement and release of adhesions in the rear of the cell. Fibroblasts maintained in the absence of serum have stable adhesions within the rear of the cell and exhibit reduced trailing-edge retraction resulting in an elongated cell phenotype. Addition of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induced the movement of adhesions and retraction of the trailing edge, thus mimicking tail retraction in a migrating cell. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for Rho and the Rho effector Rho kinase II (ROCKII) are crucial for the regulation of adhesion movement and trailing-edge retraction. Downregulation of FAK by small interfering RNAs or small hairpin RNAs blocked LPA-induced adhesion movement and restoration of cell shape. This phenotype was rescued by the ectopic expression of PDZ-RhoGEF or a RhoA-effector-domain mutant that activates ROCK. Knockdown of PDZ-RhoGEF or ROCKII inhibited LPA-induced trailing-edge retraction and adhesion movement. Moreover, overexpressed PDZ-RhoGEF co-immunoprecipitated with FAK and localized to FAK-containing adhesions. These studies support a model in which FAK and PDZ-RhoGEF cooperate to induce Rho/ROCKII-dependent focal adhesion movement and trailing-edge retraction in response to LPA.
A(1) Adenosine Receptor-mediated PKC and P42/p44 MAPK Signaling in Mouse Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19592614
The A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) is coupled to G(i)/G(o) proteins, but the downstream signaling pathways in smooth muscle cells are unclear. This study was performed in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) isolated from the mouse heart [A(1)AR wild type (A(1)WT) and A(1)AR knockout (A(1)KO)] to delineate A(1)AR signaling through the PKC pathway. In A(1)WT cells, treatment with (2S)-N(6)-(2-endo-norbornyl)adenosine (ENBA; 10(-5)M) increased A(1)AR expression by 150%, which was inhibited significantly by the A(1)AR antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (10(-6)M), but not in A(1)KO CASMCs. PKC isoforms were identified by Western blot analysis in the cytosolic and membrane fractions of cell homogenates of CASMCs. In A(1)WT and A(1)KO cells, significant levels of basal PKC-alpha were detected in the cytosolic fraction. Treatment with the A(1)AR agonist ENBA (10(-5)M) translocated PKC-alpha from the cytosolic to membrane fraction significantly in A(1)WT but not A(1)KO cells. Phospholipase C isoforms (betaI, betaIII, and gamma(1)) were analyzed using specific antibodies where ENBA treatment led to the increased expression of PLC-betaIII in A(1)WT CASMCs while having no effect in A(1)KO CASMCs. In A(1)WT cells, ENBA increased PKC-alpha expression and p42/p44 MAPK (ERK1/2) phospohorylation by 135% and 145%, respectively. These effects of ENBA were blocked by Gö-6976 (PKC-alpha inhibitor) and PD-98059 (p42/p44 MAPK inhibitor). We conclude that A(1)AR stimulation by ENBA activates the PKC-alpha signaling pathway, leading to p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation in CASMCs.
Saracatinib Impairs Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion by Disrupting Invadopodia Function
Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20505783
Elevated Src kinase activity is linked to the progression of solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Src regulates HNSCC proliferation and tumor invasion, with the Src-targeted small molecule inhibitor saracatinib displaying potent anti-invasive effects in preclinical studies. However, the pro-invasive cellular mechanism(s) perturbed by saracatinib are unclear. The anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of saracatinib on HNSCC cell lines were therefore investigated in pre-clinical cell and mouse model systems. Saracatinib treatment inhibited growth, cell cycle progression and transwell Matrigel invasion in HNSCC cell lines. Dose-dependent decreases in Src activation and phosphorylation of the invasion-associated substrates focal adhesion kinase, p130 CAS and cortactin were also observed. While saracatinib did not significantly impact HNSCC tumor growth in a mouse orthotopic model of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, impaired perineural invasion and cervical lymph node metastasis was observed. Accordingly, saracatinib treatment displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on invadopodia formation, extracellular matrix degradation and matrix metalloprotease 9 activation. These results suggest that inhibition of Src kinase by saracatinib impairs the pro-invasive activity of HNSCC by inhibiting Src substrate phosphorylation important for invadopodia formation and associated matrix metalloprotease activity.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20164379
Ca(2+) entry is delicately controlled by inactivation of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) composed of the pore-forming subunit alpha1C and the auxiliary subunits beta1 and alpha2delta. Calmodulin is the key protein that interacts with the COOH-terminal motifs of alpha1C, leading to the fine control of LTCC inactivation. In this study we show evidence that a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, HCN2, can act as a nonchannel regulatory protein to narrow the L-type Ca(2+) channel current-voltage curve. In the absence of LTCC auxiliary subunits, HCN2 can induce alpha1C inactivation. Without alpha2delta, HCN2-induced fast inactivation of alpha1C requires calmodulin. With alpha2delta, the alpha1C/HCN2/alpha2delta channel inactivation does not require calmodulin. In contrast, beta1-subunit plays a relatively minor role in the interaction of alpha1C with HCN2. The NH(2) terminus of HCN2 and the IQ motif of alpha1C subunit are required for alpha1C/HCN2 channel interaction. Ca(2+) channel inactivation is significantly slowed in hippocampus neurons (HNs) overexpressing HCN2 mutant lacking NH(2) terminus and accelerated in HNs overexpressing the wild-type HCN2 compared with HN controls. Collectively, these results revealed a potentially novel protection mechanism for achieving the LTCC inactivation via interaction with HCN2.
Journal of Cell Science. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20980387
The proto-oncogene Src tyrosine kinase (Src) is overexpressed in human cancers and is currently a target of anti-invasive therapies. Activation of Src is an essential catalyst of invadopodia production. Invadopodia are cellular structures that mediate extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis, allowing invasive cell types to breach confining tissue barriers. Invadopodia assembly and maturation is a multistep process, first requiring the targeting of actin-associated proteins to form pre-invadopodia, which subsequently mature by recruitment and activation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that facilitate ECM degradation. We demonstrate that active, oncogenic Src alleles require the presence of a wild-type counterpart to induce ECM degradation at invadopodia sites. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of the invadopodia regulatory protein cortactin as an important mediator of invadopodia maturation downstream of wild-type Src. Distinct phosphotyrosine-based protein-binding profiles in cells forming pre-invadopodia and mature invadopodia were identified by SH2-domain array analysis. These results indicate that although elevated Src kinase activity is required to target actin-associated proteins to pre-invadopodia, regulated Src activity is required for invadopodia maturation and matrix degradation activity. Our findings describe a previously unappreciated role for proto-oncogenic Src in enabling the invasive activity of constitutively active Src alleles.
Cortactin Phosphorylated by ERK1/2 Localizes to Sites of Dynamic Actin Regulation and is Required for Carcinoma Lamellipodia Persistence
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21079800
Tumor cell motility and invasion is governed by dynamic regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The actin-binding protein cortactin is commonly upregulated in multiple cancer types and is associated with increased cell migration. Cortactin regulates actin nucleation through the actin related protein (Arp)2/3 complex and stabilizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Cortactin is regulated by multiple phosphorylation events, including phosphorylation of S405 and S418 by extracellular regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. ERK1/2 phosphorylation of cortactin has emerged as an important positive regulatory modification, enabling cortactin to bind and activate the Arp2/3 regulator neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp), promoting actin polymerization and enhancing tumor cell movement.
VE-cadherin Regulates Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Sensitivity to Apoptosis
Cancer Microenvironment : Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21209775
The mechanisms by which the bone marrow microenvironment regulates tumor cell survival are diverse. This study describes the novel observation that in addition to Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines, primary patient cells also express Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2α (HIF-2α) and Vascular Endothelial Cadherin (VE-cadherin), which are regulated by Abl kinase. Tumor expression of the classical endothelial protein, VE-cadherin, has been associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in other models, but has not been investigated in hematopoietic malignancies. Targeted knockdown of VE-cadherin rendered Ph+ ALL cells more susceptible to chemotherapy, even in the presence of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) derived survival cues. Pre-treatment of Ph+ ALL cells with ADH100191, a VE-cadherin antagonist, resulted in increased apoptosis during in vitro chemotherapy exposure. Consistent with a role for VE-cadherin in modulation of leukemia cell viability, lentiviral-mediated expression of VE-cadherin in Ph- ALL cells resulted in increased resistance to treatment-induced apoptosis. These observations suggest a novel role for VE-cadherin in modulation of chemoresistance in Ph+ ALL.
Communicative & Integrative Biology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21655441
The filamentous (F)-actin regulatory protein cortactin plays an important role in tumor cell movement and invasion by promoting and stabilizing actin related protein (Arp)2/3-mediated actin networks necessary for plasma membrane protrusion. Cortactin is a substrate for ERK1/2 and Src family kinases, with previous in vitro findings demonstrating ERK1/2 phosphorylation of cortactin as a positive and Src phosphorylation as a negative regulatory event in promoting Arp2/3 activation through neuronal Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp). Evidence for this regulatory cortactin "switch" in cells has been hampered due to the lack of phosphorylation-specific antibodies that recognize ERK1/2-phosphorylated cortactin. Our findings with phosphorylation-specific antibodies against these ERK1/2 sites (pS405 and pS418) indicate that cortactin can be co-phosphorylated at 405/418 and tyrosine residues targeted by Src family tyrosine kinases. These results indicate that the ERK/Src cortactin switch is not the sole mechanism by which ERK1/2 and tyrosine phosphorylation events regulate cortactin function in cell systems.
Bioarchitecture. 1, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21866257
The actin regulatory protein cortactin is involved in multiple signaling pathways impinging on the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Cortactin is phosphorylated by ERK1/2 and Src family tyrosine kinases, resulting in neuronal Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp) activation and enhanced actin related protein (Arp)2/3-mediated actin nucleation. Cortactin migrates as an 80/85 kDa doublet when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Phosphorylation by ERK1/2 is associated with conversion of the 80 kDa to the 85 kDa form, postulated to occur by inducing a conformational alteration that releases the carboxyl-terminal SH3 domain from autoinhibition. Our recent analysis of the 80-85 kDa cortactin "shift" in tumor cells indicates that while ERK1/2 phosphorylation is associated with the 85 kDa shift, this phosphorylation event is not required for the shift to occur, nor does ERK1/2 phosphorylation appreciably alter global cortactin confirmation. These data indicate that additional factors besides ERK1/2 phosphorylation contribute to generating and/or maintaining the activated 85 kDa cortactin form in stimulated cells.
The Streptococcal Collagen-like Protein-1 (Scl1) is a Significant Determinant for Biofilm Formation by Group a Streptococcus
BMC Microbiology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22168784
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20839232
Osteoclasts are specialized macrophage derivatives that secrete acid and proteinases to mobilize bone for mineral homeostasis, growth, and replacement or repair. Osteoclast differentiation generally requires the monocyte growth factor m-CSF and the TNF-family cytokine RANKL, although differentiation is regulated by many other cytokines and by intracellular signals, including Ca(2+). Studies of osteoclast differentiation in vitro were performed using human monocytic precursors stimulated with m-CSF and RANKL, revealing significant loss in both the expression and function of the required components of store-operated Ca(2+) entry over the course of osteoclast differentiation. However, inhibition of CRAC using either the pharmacological agent 3,4-dichloropropioanilide (DCPA) or by knockdown of Orai1 severely inhibited formation of multinucleated osteoclasts. In contrast, no effect of CRAC channel inhibition was observed on expression of the osteoclast protein tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Our findings suggest that despite the fact that they are down-regulated during osteoclast differentiation, CRAC channels are required for cell fusion, a late event in osteoclast differentiation. Since osteoclasts cannot function properly without multinucleation, selective CRAC inhibitors may have utility in management of hyperresorptive states.
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22363485
Hematopoietic reconstitution, following bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, requires a microenvironment niche capable of supporting both immature progenitors and stem cells with the capacity to differentiate and expand. Osteoblasts comprise one important component of this niche. We determined that treatment of human primary osteoblasts (HOB) with melphalan or VP-16 resulted in increased phospho-Smad2, consistent with increased TGF-β1 activity. This increase was coincident with reduced HOB capacity to support immature B lineage cell chemotaxis and adherence. The supportive deficit was not limited to committed progenitor cells, as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human CD34+ bone marrow cells co-cultured with HOB pre-exposed to melphalan, VP-16 or rTGF-β1 had profiles distinct from the same populations co-cultured with untreated HOB. Functional support deficits were downstream of changes in HOB gene expression profiles following chemotherapy exposure. Melphalan and VP-16 induced damage of HOB suggests vulnerability of this critical niche to therapeutic agents frequently utilized in pre-transplant regimens and suggests that dose escalated chemotherapy may contribute to post-transplantation hematopoietic deficits by damaging structural components of this supportive niche.
Examining the Role of Actin-Plasma Membrane Association in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection and Type III Secretion Translocation in Migratory T24 Epithelial Cells
Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22689823
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets wounded epithelial barriers, but the cellular alteration that increases susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection remains unclear. This study examined how cell migration contributes to the establishment of P. aeruginosa infections using (i) highly migratory T24 epithelial cells as a cell culture model, (ii) mutations in the type III secretion (T3S) effector ExoS to manipulate P. aeruginosa infection, and (iii) high-resolution immunofluorescent microscopy to monitor ExoS translocation. ExoS includes both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activities, and P. aeruginosa cells expressing wild-type ExoS preferentially bound to the leading edge of T24 cells, where ExoS altered leading-edge architecture and actin anchoring in conjunction with interrupting T3S translocation. Inactivation of ExoS GAP activity allowed P. aeruginosa to be internalized and secrete ExoS within T24 cells, but as with wild-type ExoS, translocation was limited in association with disruption of actin anchoring. Inactivation of ExoS ADPRT activity resulted in significantly enhanced T3S translocation by P. aeruginosa cells that remained extracellular and in conjunction with maintenance of actin-plasma membrane association. Infection with P. aeruginosa expressing ExoS lacking both GAP and ADPRT activities resulted in the highest level of T3S translocation, and this occurred in conjunction with the entry and alignment of P. aeruginosa and ExoS along actin filaments. Collectively, in using ExoS mutants to modulate and visualize T3S translocation, we were able to (i) confirm effector secretion by internalized P. aeruginosa, (ii) differentiate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ExoS GAP and ADPRT activities on P. aeruginosa internalization and T3S translocation, (iii) confirm that ExoS ADPRT activity targeted a cellular substrate that interrupted T3S translocation, (iv) visualize the ability of P. aeruginosa and ExoS to align with actin filaments, and (v) demonstrate an association between actin anchoring at the leading edge of T24 cells and the establishment of P. aeruginosa infection. Our studies also highlight the contribution of ExoS to the opportunistic nature of P. aeruginosa infection through its ability to exert cytotoxic effects that interrupt T3S translocation and P. aeruginosa internalization, which in turn limit the P. aeruginosa infectious process.