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In JoVE (3)
- תיוג של פלורסנט תסיסנית לב מבנים
- לדמיין את הלב הפועם תסיסנית
- חצי אוטומטיות Heartbeat ניתוח אופטי של לבבות קטנים
Other Publications (32)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
- PloS One
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- Experimental Gerontology
- The Journal of Experimental Biology
- Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
- Aging Cell
- Molecules and Cells
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Developmental Biology
- Aging Cell
- PloS One
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- BMB Reports
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- BMB Reports
- Cell Metabolism
- Experimental Gerontology
- Genes & Development
- BMB Reports
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PloS One
- PLoS Genetics
- Heart Rhythm : the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
- Molecular Biology Reports
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Articles by Karen Ocorr in JoVE
תיוג של פלורסנט תסיסנית לב מבנים
Nakissa N. Alayari1,2, Georg Vogler2, Ouarda Taghli-Lamallem2, Karen Ocorr2, Rolf Bodmer2, Anthony Cammarato1,2
1Biology Department, San Diego State University, 2Development and Aging Program, NASCR Center, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research
כאן אנו מתארים פרוטוקול בסיסי תיוג הניאון של אלמנטים שונים של צינורות הלב של הזחל והמבוגר
לדמיין את הלב הפועם תסיסנית
Georg Vogler, Karen Ocorr
Development and Aging Program, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research
טכניקה נדרש לדמיין את הלב הפועם של הזחל והמבוגר
חצי אוטומטיות Heartbeat ניתוח אופטי של לבבות קטנים
Karen Ocorr1, Martin Fink2, Anthony Cammarato1,3, Sanford I. Bernstein3, Rolf Bodmer1
1Development and Aging Program, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 2Cardiac Electrophysiology Group, Dept. of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 3Biology Department and Heart Institute, San Diego State University
פיתחנו חצי אוטומטיות Heartbeat אופטי ניתוח בשיטה (סוהא) לניתוח הקלטות מהירות גבוהה אופטי מ
Other articles by Karen Ocorr on PubMed
The ATP-sensitive Potassium (KATP) Channel-encoded DSUR Gene is Required for Drosophila Heart Function and is Regulated by Tinman
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16882722
The homeobox transcription factor Tinman plays an important role in the initiation of heart development. Later functions of Tinman, including the target genes involved in cardiac physiology, are less well studied. We focused on the dSUR gene, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transmembrane protein that is expressed in the heart. Mammalian SUR genes are associated with K(ATP) (ATP-sensitive potassium) channels, which are involved in metabolic homeostasis. We provide experimental evidence that Tinman directly regulates dSUR expression in the developing heart. We identified a cis-regulatory element in the first intron of dSUR, which contains Tinman consensus binding sites and is sufficient for faithful dSUR expression in the fly's myocardium. Site-directed mutagenesis of this element shows that these Tinman sites are critical to dSUR expression, and further genetic manipulations suggest that the GATA transcription factor Pannier is synergistically involved in cardiac-restricted dSUR expression in vivo. Physiological analysis of dSUR knock-down flies supports the idea that dSUR plays a protective role against hypoxic stress and pacing-induced heart failure. Because dSUR expression dramatically decreases with age, it is likely to be a factor involved in the cardiac aging phenotype of Drosophila. dSUR provides a model for addressing how embryonic regulators of myocardial cell commitment can contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cardiac performance.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17125816
We have begun to study the genetic basis of deterioration of cardiac function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as an age-related cardiac disease model. For this purpose we have developed heart function assays in Drosophila and found that the fly's cardiac performance, as that of the human heart, deteriorates with age: aging fruit flies exhibit a progressive increase in electrical pacing-induced heart failure as well as in arrhythmias. The insulin receptor and associated pathways have a dramatic and heart-autonomous influence on age-related cardiac performance in flies, suggestive of potentially similar mechanisms in regulating cardiac aging in vertebrates. Compromised KCNQ and K(ATP) ion channel functions also seem to contribute to the decline in heart performance in aging flies, suggesting that the corresponding vertebrate gene functions may similarly decline with age, in addition to their conserved role in protecting against arrhythmias and hypoxia/ischemia, respectively. The fly heart is thus emerging as a promising genetic model for studying the age-dependent decline in organ function.
KCNQ Potassium Channel Mutations Cause Cardiac Arrhythmias in Drosophila That Mimic the Effects of Aging
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17360457
Population profiles of industrialized countries show dramatic increases in cardiovascular disease with age, but the molecular and genetic basis of disease progression has been difficult to study because of the lack of suitable model systems. Our studies of Drosophila show a markedly elevated incidence of cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias in aging fruit fly hearts and a concomitant decrease in the expression of the Drosophila homolog of human KCNQ1-encoded K(+) channel alpha subunits. In humans, this channel is involved in myocardial repolarization, and alterations in the function of this channel are associated with an increased risk for Torsades des Pointes arrhythmias and sudden death. Hearts from young KCNQ1 mutant fruit flies exhibit prolonged contractions and fibrillations reminiscent of Torsades des Pointes arrhythmias, and they exhibit severely increased susceptibility to pacing-induced cardiac dysfunction at young ages, characteristics that are observed only at advanced ages in WT flies. The fibrillations observed in mutant flies correlate with delayed relaxation of the myocardium, as revealed by increases in the duration of phasic contractions, extracellular field potentials, and in the baseline diastolic tension. These results suggest that K(+) currents, mediated by a KCNQ channel, contribute to the repolarization reserve of fly hearts, ensuring normal excitation-contraction coupling and rhythmical contraction. That arrhythmias in both WT and KCNQ1 mutants become worse as flies age suggests that additional factors are also involved.
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17574126
The Drosophila heart has proven itself to be an excellent model for human cardiac development and recent investigations suggest that it may serve as a model for human heart function as well. Just as tinman-related genes underlie cardiac development in all organisms with a heart, the functional properties of mature hearts also appear to be conserved in the animal kingdom. Ion channels, such as those encoded by the potassium channel genes KCNQ and HERG, contribute to normal heart function in humans and flies, and when malfunctioning, cause cardiomyopathies or arrhythmias in remarkably similar ways in both species. Moreover, the KATP channel encoded by dSUR protects the heart against hypoxia/ischemia in flies and mammals, and this protection seems to be reduced with age. Indeed, aging appears to affect heart function and performance in flies in ways that are reminiscent of the decline in human heart function with age, and this likely includes a cardiac autonomous function for the insulin-signaling pathway. The potential for discovery of new genes, such as the two-pore ORK1 K+ channel that affects heart rate in flies, makes Drosophila an attractive heart model for genome-wide screens and for complex genetic manipulations needed to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to cardiac malfunction. Insights gained from the fly heart may prove to be instrumental in unraveling the mysteries of the human heart in health and disease.
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17622346
Common diseases may be attributed to combinations of variant alleles, but there are few model systems where the interactions among such variants can be studied in controlled genetic crosses. While association studies are designed to detect common polymorphisms of moderate effect, new approaches are required to characterize the impact on disease of interactions among rare alleles.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17910948
We have cloned a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene, ZNF307, encoding a protein of 545aa. ZNF307 is conserved across species in evolution and is differentially expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The fusion protein of EGFP-ZNF307 localizes in the nucleus. Transcriptional activity assays show ZNF307 suppresses transcriptional activity of L8G5-luciferase. Overexpressing ZNF307 in different cell lines also inhibits the transcriptional activities of p53 and p21. Moreover, ZNF307 works by reducing the p53 protein level and p53 protein reduction is achieved by increasing transcription of MDM2 and EP300. ZNF307 might suppress p53-p21 pathway through activating MDM2 and EP300 expression and inducing p53 degradation.
Myosin Transducer Mutations Differentially Affect Motor Function, Myofibril Structure, and the Performance of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18045988
Striated muscle myosin is a multidomain ATP-dependent molecular motor. Alterations to various domains affect the chemomechanical properties of the motor, and they are associated with skeletal and cardiac myopathies. The myosin transducer domain is located near the nucleotide-binding site. Here, we helped define the role of the transducer by using an integrative approach to study how Drosophila melanogaster transducer mutations D45 and Mhc(5) affect myosin function and skeletal and cardiac muscle structure and performance. We found D45 (A261T) myosin has depressed ATPase activity and in vitro actin motility, whereas Mhc(5) (G200D) myosin has these properties enhanced. Depressed D45 myosin activity protects against age-associated dysfunction in metabolically demanding skeletal muscles. In contrast, enhanced Mhc(5) myosin function allows normal skeletal myofibril assembly, but it induces degradation of the myofibrillar apparatus, probably as a result of contractile disinhibition. Analysis of beating hearts demonstrates depressed motor function evokes a dilatory response, similar to that seen with vertebrate dilated cardiomyopathy myosin mutations, and it disrupts contractile rhythmicity. Enhanced myosin performance generates a phenotype apparently analogous to that of human restrictive cardiomyopathy, possibly indicating myosin-based origins for the disease. The D45 and Mhc(5) mutations illustrate the transducer's role in influencing the chemomechanical properties of myosin and produce unique pathologies in distinct muscles. Our data suggest Drosophila is a valuable system for identifying and modeling mutations analogous to those associated with specific human muscle disorders.
Experimental Gerontology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18061385
Research on aging in Drosophila continues to provide new insights into this complex process. Drosophila is highly amenable to study aging because of its short generation time, comprehensive resources for genetic manipulation, and functionally conserved physiology. Importantly, many of these physiological processes such as heart function, sleep, and metabolism functionally senescence in older flies. As the evolutionarily conserved insulin and TOR pathways are critical regulators of aging, the influence of insulin and TOR signaling on these processes is an important area for future research. An important emerging theme is determining the age-dependent alterations that occur at the organ level and how this functional senescence is regulated by different tissues.
The Journal of Experimental Biology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18083727
Muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a cytoskeletal protein located at the Z-disc of sarcomeres. Mutations in the human MLP gene are associated with hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy. MLP has been proposed to be a key player in the stretch-sensing response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its function in normal and diseased cardiac muscle have not been established. A Drosophila homolog, Mlp84B, displays a similar subcellular localization at the Z-disc of sarcomeres throughout development and in the adult, suggesting Drosophila as a model to study MLP function. Here we employed genetic ablation and cardiac-specific RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of mlp84B to investigate its role in heart function. We found that Mlp84B-deficient or heart-specific RNAi knockdown flies exhibit diastolic interval prolongation, heart rhythm abnormalities and a reduced lifespan, while showing no obvious structural phenotype. Our data demonstrate that Mlp84B is essential for normal cardiac function and establish the Drosophila model for the investigation of the mechanisms connecting defective cardiac Z-disc components to the development of cardiomyopathy.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18084723
Cardiac differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated gene expression that regulates cell proliferation and matrix protein formation in a defined temporal-spatial manner. Zinc finger-containing transcription factors have been implicated as critical regulators of multiple cardiac-expressed genes, and are thought to be important for human heart development and diseases. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel zinc finger gene named ZNF418 from a human embryo heart cDNA library. The gene spans 13.5 kb on chromosome 19q13.43 encompassing six exons, and transcribes a 3.7-kb mRNA that encodes a protein with 676 amino acid residues. The predicted protein contains a KRAB-A box and 17 tandem C2H2 type zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that ZNF418 is expressed in multiple fetal and adult tissues, but is expressed at higher levels in the heart. Reporter gene assays show that ZNF418 is a transcriptional repressor, and the KRAB motif of ZNF418 represents the basal repressive domain. Overexpression of ZNF418 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activity of SRE and AP-1 which may be silenced by siRNA. These results suggest that ZNF418 is a member of the zincfinger transcription factor family and may act as a negative regulator in MAPK signaling pathway.
Aging Cell. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18221418
A number of studies have been conducted recently on the model organism Drosophila to determine the function of genes involved in human disease, including those implicated in neurological disorders, cancer and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The simple structure and physiology of the Drosophila heart tube together with the available genetics provide a suitable in vivo assay system for studying cardiac gene functions. In our study, we focus on analysis of the role of dystrophin (Dys) in heart physiology. As in humans, the Drosophila dys gene encodes multiple isoforms, of which the large isoforms (DLPs) and a truncated form (Dp117) are expressed in the adult heart. Here, we show that the loss of dys function in the heart leads to an age-dependent disruption of the myofibrillar organization within the myocardium as well as to alterations in cardiac performance. dys RNAi-mediated knockdown in the mesoderm also shortens lifespan. Knockdown of all or deletion of the large isoforms increases the heart rate by shortening the diastolic intervals (relaxation phase) of the cardiac cycle. Morphologically, loss of the large DLPs isoforms causes a widening of the cardiac tube and a lower fractional shortening, a phenotype reminiscent of dilated cardiomyopathy. The dilated dys mutant phenotype was reversed by expressing a truncated mammalian form of dys (Dp116). Our results illustrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system to study dilated cardiomyopathy and other muscular-dystrophy-associated phenotypes.
A Novel Human BTB-kelch Protein KLHL31, Strongly Expressed in Muscle and Heart, Inhibits Transcriptional Activities of TRE and SRE
Molecules and Cells. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18719355
The Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, Broad-complex (BTB) domain is a protein-protein interaction domain that is found in many zinc finger transcription factors. BTB containing proteins play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including regulation of transcription, regulation of the cytoskeleton, protein ubiquitination, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human gene, KLHL31, from a human embryonic heart cDNA library. The cDNA of KLHL31 is 5743 bp long, encoding a protein product of 634 amino acids containing a BTB domain. The protein is highly conserved across different species. Western blot analysis indicates that the KLHL31 protein is abundantly expressed in both embryonic skeletal and heart tissue. In COS-7 cells, KLHL31 proteins are localized to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In primary cultures of nascent mouse cardiomyocytes, the majority of endogenous KLHL31 proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. KLHL31 acts as a transcription repressor when fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain and deletion analysis indicates that the BTB domain is the main region responsible for this repression. Overexpression of KLHL31 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of both the TPA-response element (TRE) and serum response element (SRE). KLHL31 also significantly reduces JNK activation leading to decreased phosphorylation and protein levels of the JNK target c-Jun in both COS-7 and Hela cells. These results suggest that KLHL31 protein may act as a new transcriptional repressor in MAPK/JNK signaling pathway to regulate cellular functions.
Transcription Factor Neuromancer/TBX20 is Required for Cardiac Function in Drosophila with Implications for Human Heart Disease
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19074289
neuromancer/Tbx20 (nmr) genes are cardiac T-box transcription factors that are evolutionarily conserved from flies to humans. Along with other known congenital heart disease genes, including tinman/Nkx2-5, dorsocross/Tbx5/6, and pannier/Gata4/6, they are important for specification and morphogenesis of the embryonic heart. The Drosophila heart has proven to be an excellent model to study genes involved in establishing and maintaining the structural integrity of the adult heart, as well as genes involved in maintaining physiological function. Using this model, we have identified nmr as a gene required in adult fly hearts for the maintenance of both normal myofibrillar architecture and cardiac physiology. Moreover, we have discovered synergistic interactions between nmr and other cardiac transcription factors, including tinman/Nkx2-5, in regulating cardiac performance, rhythmicity, and cardiomyocyte structure, reminiscent of similar interactions in mice. This suggests a remarkably conserved role for this network of cardiac transcription factors in the genetic control of the adult heart. In addition, nmr-tinman interactions also influence the expression of potential downstream effectors, such as ion channels. Interestingly, genetic screening of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease has revealed TBX20 variants in three sporadic and two familial cases that were not found in controls. These findings suggest that the fly heart might serve as an identifier of candidate genes involved in human heart disease.
Developmental Biology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19233157
The outermost layer of the vertebrate heart originates from migratory mesothelial cells (epicardium) that give rise to coronary vascular smooth muscles and fibroblasts. The role of the epicardium in myocardial morphogenesis and establishment of normal heart function is still largely unknown. Here, we use Drosophila to investigate non-autonomous influences of epicardial-like tissue surrounding the heart tube on the structural and functional integrity of the myocardium. It has previously been shown that during Drosophila heart formation, mesodermal expression of the homeobox transcription factor even-skipped (eve) is required for specification of a subset of non-myocardial progenitors in the precardiac mesoderm. These progenitors may share some similarities with the vertebrate epicardium. To investigate a non-autonomous epicardial-like influence on myocardial physiology, we studied the consequences of reduced mesodermal Eve expression and epi/pericardial cell numbers on the maturation of the myocardial heart tube, its contractility, and acquisition of a normal heart rhythm in the Drosophila model. Targeting the eve repressor ladybird early (lbe) with the minimal eve mesodermal enhancer efficiently eliminates the mesodermal Eve lineages. These flies exhibit defects in heart structure, including a reduction in systolic and diastolic diameter (akin to 'restrictive cardiomyopathy'). They also exhibit an elevated incidence of arrhythmias and intermittent asystoles, as well as compromised performance under stress. These abnormalities are restored by eve reexpression or by lbe-RNAi co-overexpression. The data suggest that adult heart function in Drosophila is likely to be modulated non-autonomously, possibly by paracrine influences from neighboring cells, such as the epi/pericardium. Thus, Drosophila may serve as a model for finding genetic effectors of epicardial-myocardial interactions relevant to higher organisms.
A New Method for Detection and Quantification of Heartbeat Parameters in Drosophila, Zebrafish, and Embryonic Mouse Hearts
BioTechniques. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19317655
The genetic basis of heart development is remarkably conserved from Drosophila to mammals, and insights from flies have greatly informed our understanding of vertebrate heart development. Recent evidence suggests that many aspects of heart function are also conserved and the genes involved in heart development also play roles in adult heart function. We have developed a Drosophila heart preparation and movement analysis algorithm that allows quantification of functional parameters. Our methodology combines high-speed optical recording of beating hearts with a robust, semi-automated analysis to accurately detect and quantify, on a beat-to-beat basis, not only heart rate but also diastolic and systolic intervals, systolic and diastolic diameters, percent fractional shortening, contraction wave velocity, and cardiac arrhythmicity. Here, we present a detailed analysis of hearts from adult Drosophila, 2-3-day-old zebrafish larva, and 8-day-old mouse embryos, indicating that our methodology is potentially applicable to an array of biological models. We detect progressive age-related changes in fly hearts as well as subtle but distinct cardiac deficits in Tbx5 heterozygote mutant zebrafish. Our methodology for quantifying cardiac function in these genetically tractable model systems should provide valuable insights into the genetics of heart function.
Aging Cell. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19594484
dTOR (target of rapamycin) and dFoxo respond to changes in the nutritional environment to induce a broad range of responses in multiple tissue types. Both dTOR and dFoxo have been demonstrated to control the rate of age-related decline in cardiac function. Here, we show that the Eif4e-binding protein (d4eBP) is sufficient to protect long-term cardiac function against age-related decline and that up-regulation of dEif4e is sufficient to recapitulate the effects of high dTOR or insulin signaling. We also provide evidence that d4eBP acts tissue-autonomously and downstream of dTOR and dFoxo in the myocardium, where it enhances cardiac stress resistance and maintains normal heart rate and myogenic rhythm. Another effector of dTOR and insulin signaling, dS6K, may influence cardiac aging nonautonomously through its activity in the insulin-producing cells, possibly by regulating dilp2 expression. Thus, elevating d4eBP activity in cardiac tissue represents an effective organ-specific means for slowing or reversing cardiac functional changes brought about by normal aging.
Heterozygous Mutation of Drosophila Opa1 Causes the Development of Multiple Organ Abnormalities in an Age-dependent and Organ-specific Manner
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19718456
Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a ubiquitously expressed dynamin-like GTPase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It plays important roles in mitochondrial fusion, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. Mutations of OPA1 result in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). The molecular mechanisms by which link OPA1 mutations and DOA are not fully understood. Recently, we created a Drosophila model to study the pathogenesis of optic atrophy. Heterozygous mutation of Drosophila OPA1 (dOpa1) by P-element insertion results in no obvious morphological abnormalities, whereas homozygous mutation is embryonic lethal. In eye-specific somatic clones, homozygous mutation of dOpa1 causes rough (mispatterning) and glossy (decreased lens deposition) eye phenotypes in adult Drosophila. In humans, heterozygous mutations in OPA1 have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which is predicted to affect multiple organs. In this study, we demonstrated that heterozygous dOpa1 mutation perturbs the visual function and an ERG profile of the Drosophila compound eye. We independently showed that antioxidants delayed the onset of mutant phenotypes in ERG and improved larval vision function in phototaxis assay. Furthermore, heterozygous dOpa1 mutation also caused decreased heart rate, increased heart arrhythmia, and poor tolerance to stress induced by electrical pacing. However, antioxidants had no effects on the dysfunctional heart of heterozygous dOpa1 mutants. Under stress, heterozygous dOpa1 mutations caused reduced escape response, suggesting abnormal function of the skeletal muscles. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutation of dOpa1 shows organ-specific pathogenesis and is associated with multiple organ abnormalities in an age-dependent and organ-specific manner.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19718521
Although advancements in the preventive and therapeutic strategies of cardiac diseases have successfully improved the prognosis of many types of cardiac diseases, they are still challengeable targets because of their high mortality and large medical expenses. Moreover, because heart function is tightly associated with quality of life, it is important to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of disease progression. One of the recent advances for assessing protein function is reverse chemical genetics, which has the advantages that complement classical reverse genetics and should advance efforts at drug discovery for many diseases. Toward that end an appropriate biological assay system is required to describe specific heart phenotypes. Recent studies have shown that many aspects of Drosophila heart development and function are similar to those observed in the human heart, making Drosophila a useful model system with the advantage of a simpler genetic organization and shorter life span. Here we describe several assay systems that can be used to characterize Drosophila heart function. The first method is an external electrical pacing assay that is used to assess the response to stress in the adult fly. The incidence of pacing-induced heart dysfunction measured by this method strongly correlates with natural aging and mutation in genes known to be involved in human cardiac dysfunction. Consequently, this method can be used to identify unapparent heart failure phenotypes. This procedure is applicable for both genetic and pharmacological screening. The second method is an image-based heart performance assay. This method provides details of the dynamics of heart contraction in real time similar to clinical echocardiography. This method may be used for secondary drug screening as well as for more detailed analysis of the genetic and pharmacological phenotypes of Drosophila hearts.
BMB Reports. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20132730
In this study, a novel member of BTB-kelch proteins, named KBTBD7, was cloned from a human embryonic heart cDNA library. The cDNA of KBTBD7 is 3,008 bp long and encodes a protein product of 684 amino acids (77.2 kD). This protein is highly conserved in evolution across different species. Western blot analysis indicates that a 77 kD protein specific for KBTBD7 is wildly expressed in all embryonic tissues examined. In COS-7 cells, KBTBD7 proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. KBTBD7 is a transcription activator when fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain. Deletion analysis indicates that the BTB domain and kelch repeat motif are main regions for transcriptional activation. Overexpression of KBTBD7 in MCF-7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and serum response element (SRE), which can be relieved by siRNA. These results suggest that KBTBD7 proteins may act as a new transcriptional activator in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 17-22].
Science (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20203043
Sestrins are conserved proteins that accumulate in cells exposed to stress, potentiate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibit activation of target of rapamycin (TOR). We show that the abundance of Drosophila sestrin (dSesn) is increased upon chronic TOR activation through accumulation of reactive oxygen species that cause activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and transcription factor Forkhead box O (FoxO). Loss of dSesn resulted in age-associated pathologies including triglyceride accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and cardiac malfunction, which were prevented by pharmacological activation of AMPK or inhibition of TOR. Hence, dSesn appears to be a negative feedback regulator of TOR that integrates metabolic and stress inputs and prevents pathologies caused by chronic TOR activation that may result from diminished autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria, protein aggregates, or lipids.
Cell. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20371351
Heart diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and death in humans. Using cardiac-specific RNAi-silencing in Drosophila, we knocked down 7061 evolutionarily conserved genes under conditions of stress. We present a first global roadmap of pathways potentially playing conserved roles in the cardiovascular system. One critical pathway identified was the CCR4-Not complex implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Silencing of CCR4-Not components in adult Drosophila resulted in myofibrillar disarray and dilated cardiomyopathy. Heterozygous not3 knockout mice showed spontaneous impairment of cardiac contractility and increased susceptibility to heart failure. These heart defects were reversed via inhibition of HDACs, suggesting a mechanistic link to epigenetic chromatin remodeling. In humans, we show that a common NOT3 SNP correlates with altered cardiac QT intervals, a known cause of potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Thus, our functional genome-wide screen in Drosophila can identify candidates that directly translate into conserved mammalian genes involved in heart function.
SAMD4B, a Novel SAM-containing Protein, Inhibits AP-1-, P53- and P21-mediated Transcriptional Activity
BMB Reports. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20510020
The sterile alpha motif (SAM) is a putative protein interaction domain involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel gene, SAMD4B, which encodes a putative protein of 694 amino acids with a SAM domain. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that SAMD4B is widely expressed in human embryonic and adult tissues. Transcriptional activity assays show SAMD4B suppresses transcriptional activity of L8G5-luciferase. Over-expression of SAMD4B in mammalian cells inhibited the transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 (AP-1), p53 and p21, and the inhibitory effects can be relieved by siRNA. Deletion analysis indicates that the SAM domain is the main region for transcriptional suppression. The results suggest that SAMD4B is a widely expressed gene involved in AP-1-, p53-and p21-mediated transcriptional signaling activity.
Cell Metabolism. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21035763
High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a major contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use Drosophila to test the hypothesis that HFD-induced obesity and associated cardiac complications have early evolutionary origins involving nutrient-sensing signal transduction pathways. We find that HFD-fed flies exhibit increased triglyceride (TG) fat and alterations in insulin/glucose homeostasis, similar to mammalian responses. A HFD also causes cardiac lipid accumulation, reduced cardiac contractility, conduction blocks, and severe structural pathologies, reminiscent of diabetic cardiomyopathies. Remarkably, these metabolic and cardiotoxic phenotypes elicited by HFD are blocked by inhibiting insulin-TOR signaling. Moreover, reducing insulin-TOR activity (by expressing TSC1-2, 4EBP or FOXO), or increasing lipase expression-only within the myocardium-suffices to efficiently alleviate cardiac fat accumulation and dysfunction induced by HFD. We conclude that deregulation of insulin-TOR signaling due to a HFD is responsible for mediating the detrimental effects on metabolism and heart function.
Experimental Gerontology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21130861
With age, cardiac performance declines progressively and the risk of heart disease, a primary cause of mortality, rises dramatically. As the elderly population continues to increase, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the genetic influences and modulatory factors that impact cardiac aging. In an attempt to determine the relevance and utility of the Drosophila heart in unraveling the genetic mechanisms underlying cardiac aging, a variety of heart performance assays have recently been developed to quantify Drosophila heart performance that permit the use of the fruit fly to investigate the heart's decline with age. As for the human heart, Drosophila heart function also deteriorates with age. Notably, with progressive age the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, myofibrillar disorganization and susceptibility to heart dysfunction and failure all increase significantly. We review here the evidence for an involvement of the insulin-TOR pathway, the K(ATP) channel subunit dSur, the KCNQ potassium channel, as well as Dystrophin and Myosin in fly cardiac aging, and discuss the utility of the Drosophila heart model for cardiac aging studies.
Phospholipid Homeostasis Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Cardiac Function Through SREBP Signaling in Drosophila
Genes & Development. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21245170
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes is causing an increased incidence of dyslipidemia-related heart failure. While the primary etiology of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is an elevation of lipid levels resulting from an imbalance in energy availability and expenditure, increasing evidence suggests a relationship between dysregulation of membrane phospholipid homeostasis and lipid-induced cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we report that the Drosophila easily shocked (eas) mutants that harbor a disturbance in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis display tachycardia and defects in cardiac relaxation and are prone to developing cardiac arrest and fibrillation under stress. The eas mutant hearts exhibit elevated concentrations of triglycerides, suggestive of a metabolic, diabetic-like heart phenotype. Moreover, the low PE levels in eas flies mimic the effects of cholesterol deficiency in vertebrates by stimulating the Drosophila sterol regulatory element-binding protein (dSREBP) pathway. Significantly, cardiac-specific elevation of dSREBP signaling adversely affects heart function, reflecting the cardiac eas phenotype, whereas suppressing dSREBP or lipogenic target gene function in eas hearts rescues the cardiac hyperlipidemia and heart function disorders. These findings suggest that dysregulated phospholipid signaling that alters SREBP activity contributes to the progression of impaired heart function in flies and identifies a potential link to lipotoxic cardiac diseases in humans.
BMB Reports. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21345312
Leucine-rich repeat containing protein 10 (LRRC10) is characterized as a cardiac-specific gene, suggesting a role in heart development and disease. A severe cardiac morphogenic defect in zebrafish morphants was recently reported but a contradictory result was found in mice, suggesting a more complicated molecular mechanism exists during mouse embryonic development. To elucidate how LRRC10 is regulated, we analyzed the 5'enhancer region approximately 3 kilo bases (kb) upstream of the Lrrc10 start site using luciferase reporter gene assays. Our characterization of the Lrrc10 promoter indicates it possesses complicated cis-and trans-acting elements. We show that GATA4 and MEF2C could both increase transcriptional activity of Lrrc10 promoter individually but that they do not act synergistically, suggesting that there exists a more complex regulation pattern. Surprisingly, knockout of Gata4 and Mef2c binding sites in the 5'enhancer region (-2,894/-2,889) didn't change the transcriptional activity of the Lrrc10 promoter and the likely GATA4 binding site identified was located in a region only 100 base pair (bp) upstream of the promoter. Our data provides insight into the molecular regulation of Lrrc10 expression, which probably also contributes to its tissue-specific expression.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21690310
Unraveling the gene regulatory networks that govern development and function of the mammalian heart is critical for the rational design of therapeutic interventions in human heart disease. Using the Drosophila heart as a platform for identifying novel gene interactions leading to heart disease, we found that the Rho-GTPase Cdc42 cooperates with the cardiac transcription factor Tinman/Nkx2-5. Compound Cdc42, tinman heterozygous mutant flies exhibited impaired cardiac output and altered myofibrillar architecture, and adult heart-specific interference with Cdc42 function is sufficient to cause these same defects. We also identified K(+) channels, encoded by dSUR and slowpoke, as potential effectors of the Cdc42-Tinman interaction. To determine whether a Cdc42-Nkx2-5 interaction is conserved in the mammalian heart, we examined compound heterozygous mutant mice and found conduction system and cardiac output defects. In exploring the mechanism of Nkx2-5 interaction with Cdc42, we demonstrated that mouse Cdc42 was a target of, and negatively regulated by miR-1, which itself was negatively regulated by Nkx2-5 in the mouse heart and by Tinman in the fly heart. We conclude that Cdc42 plays a conserved role in regulating heart function and is an indirect target of Tinman/Nkx2-5 via miR-1.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21719711
The effects of the cellular environment on innate immunity remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that in Drosophila ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) mediate resistance to a cardiotropic RNA virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV viral load in the heart rapidly increases in K(ATP) mutant flies, leading to increased viremia and accelerated death. The effect of K(ATP) channels is dependent on the RNA interference genes Dcr-2, AGO2, and r2d2, indicating that an activity associated with this potassium channel participates in this antiviral pathway in Drosophila. Flies treated with the K(ATP) agonist drug pinacidil are protected against FHV infection, thus demonstrating the importance of this regulation of innate immunity by the cellular environment in the heart. In mice, the Coxsackievirus B3 replicates to higher titers in the hearts of mayday mutant animals, which are deficient in the Kir6.1 subunit of K(ATP) channels, than in controls. Together, our data suggest that K(ATP) channel deregulation can have a critical impact on innate antiviral immunity in the heart.
The UNC-45 Chaperone is Critical for Establishing Myosin-based Myofibrillar Organization and Cardiac Contractility in the Drosophila Heart Model
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21799905
UNC-45 is a UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4P) class chaperone necessary for myosin folding and/or accumulation, but its requirement for maintaining cardiac contractility has not been explored. Given the prevalence of myosin mutations in eliciting cardiomyopathy, chaperones like UNC-45 are likely to be equally critical in provoking or modulating myosin-associated cardiomyopathy. Here, we used the Drosophila heart model to examine its role in cardiac physiology, in conjunction with RNAi-mediated gene silencing specifically in the heart in vivo. Analysis of cardiac physiology was carried out using high-speed video recording in conjunction with movement analysis algorithms. unc-45 knockdown resulted in severely compromised cardiac function in adults as evidenced by prolonged diastolic and systolic intervals, and increased incidence of arrhythmias and extreme dilation; the latter was accompanied by a significant reduction in muscle contractility. Structural analysis showed reduced myofibrils, myofibrillar disarray, and greatly decreased cardiac myosin accumulation. Cardiac unc-45 silencing also dramatically reduced life-span. In contrast, third instar larval and young pupal hearts showed mild cardiac abnormalities, as severe cardiac defects only developed during metamorphosis. Furthermore, cardiac unc-45 silencing in the adult heart (after metamorphosis) led to less severe phenotypes. This suggests that UNC-45 is mostly required for myosin accumulation/folding during remodeling of the forming adult heart. The cardiac defects, myosin deficit and decreased life-span in flies upon heart-specific unc-45 knockdown were significantly rescued by UNC-45 over-expression. Our results are the first to demonstrate a cardiac-specific requirement of a chaperone in Drosophila, suggestive of a critical role of UNC-45 in cardiomyopathies, including those associated with unfolded proteins in the failing human heart. The dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype associated with UNC-45 deficiency is mimicked by myosin knockdown suggesting that UNC-45 plays a crucial role in stabilizing myosin and possibly preventing human cardiomyopathies associated with functional deficiencies of myosin.
PLoS Genetics. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22072978
A significant current challenge in human genetics is the identification of interacting genetic loci mediating complex polygenic disorders. One of the best characterized polygenic diseases is Down syndrome (DS), which results from an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. A short interval near the distal tip of chromosome 21 contributes to congenital heart defects (CHD), and a variety of indirect genetic evidence suggests that multiple candidate genes in this region may contribute to this phenotype. We devised a tiered genetic approach to identify interacting CHD candidate genes. We first used the well vetted Drosophila heart as an assay to identify interacting CHD candidate genes by expressing them alone and in all possible pairwise combinations and testing for effects on rhythmicity or heart failure following stress. This comprehensive analysis identified DSCAM and COL6A2 as the most strongly interacting pair of genes. We then over-expressed these two genes alone or in combination in the mouse heart. While over-expression of either gene alone did not affect viability and had little or no effect on heart physiology or morphology, co-expression of the two genes resulted in ≈50% mortality and severe physiological and morphological defects, including atrial septal defects and cardiac hypertrophy. Cooperative interactions between DSCAM and COL6A2 were also observed in the H9C2 cardiac cell line and transcriptional analysis of this interaction points to genes involved in adhesion and cardiac hypertrophy. Our success in defining a cooperative interaction between DSCAM and COL6A2 suggests that the multi-tiered genetic approach we have taken involving human mapping data, comprehensive combinatorial screening in Drosophila, and validation in vivo in mice and in mammalian cells lines should be applicable to identifying specific loci mediating a broad variety of other polygenic disorders.
Heart Rhythm : the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22138472
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a growing epidemic, and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T tubules. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. OBJECTIVE: To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. METHODS: Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from nonfailing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch-clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking-competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino-mediated knockdown of BIN1. RESULTS: BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced to 42% by imaging, and a biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced to 68%. The total calcium current is reduced to 41% in a cell line expressing a nontrafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility.
The Effect of Excess Expression of GFP in a Novel Heart-specific Green Fluorescence Zebrafish Regulated by Nppa Enhancer at Early Embryonic Development
Molecular Biology Reports. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20383585
In order to study the impalpable effect of GFP in homozygous heart-specific GFP-positive zebrafish during the early stage, the researchers analyzed the heart function of morphology and physiology at the first 3 days after fertilization. This zebrafish line was produced by a large-scale Tol2 transposon mediated enhancer trap screen that generated a transgenic zebrafish with a heart-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged under control of the nppa enhancer. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the nppa:GFP line faithfully recapitulated both the spatial and temporal expressions of the endogenous nppa. Green fluorescence was intensively and specifically expressed in the myocardial cells located both in the heart chambers and in the atrioventricular canal. The embryonic heart of nppa:GFP line developed normally compared with those in the wild type. There was no difference between the nappa:GFP and wild type lines with respect to heart rate, overall size, ejection volume, and fractional shortening. Thus the excess expression of GFP in this transgenic line seemed to exert no detrimental effects on zebrafish hearts during the early stages.