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In JoVE (1)
- Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay (ELISPOT): Quantification of Th-1 Cellular Immune Responses Against Microbial Antigens
Other Publications (13)
- European Journal of Immunology
- PLoS Biology
- Journal of Virology
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Journal of Virology
- PLoS Pathogens
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Infection and Immunity
- Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
- Respiratory Research
- Journal of Clinical Immunology
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Articles by Kyra Oswald-Richter in JoVE
Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay (ELISPOT): Quantification of Th-1 Cellular Immune Responses Against Microbial Antigens
Isfahan R. Chambers*1, Tiffany R. Cone*1, Kyra Oswald-Richter2, Wonder P. Drake1,2
1Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Identification of microbial targets of adaptive immunity in idiopathic diseases can be accomplished by the use of the enzyme-linked immunospot assay.
Other articles by Kyra Oswald-Richter on PubMed
European Journal of Immunology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15162441
HIV infection of primary human T cells requires T cell activation signals. However, how strength, duration, and quality of TCR signals affect susceptibility of resting human T cells to HIV infection remains poorly understood. We found that the same threshold and duration of antigen signals that lead to optimal T cell activation are required for HIV to progress beyond the level of reverse transcription within resting T cells. Remarkably, sustained cytokine signaling from the IL-2 receptor following TCR triggering was critical in establishing productive infection. While blockade of TCR signaling pathways with inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway caused a partial pre-integration block, another inhibitor, rapamycin, completely suppressed the infection. In contrast, cyclosporin A or FK506, inhibitors of NFAT, failed to block infection if the T cells were pre-activated. Collectively, these results bring to light significant parallels between successful HIV infection and optimal thresholds of T cell activation. Furthermore, our results underscore the critical role of IL-2 signaling in establishing productive HIV infection. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex interplay of HIV with host factors induced upon T cell activation.
PLoS Biology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15252446
A T-cell subset, defined as CD4(+)CD25(hi) (regulatory T-cells [Treg cells]), was recently shown to suppress T-cell activation. We demonstrate that human Treg cells isolated from healthy donors express the HIV-coreceptor CCR5 and are highly susceptible to HIV infection and replication. Because Treg cells are present in very few numbers and are difficult to expand in vitro, we genetically modified conventional human T-cells to generate Treg cells in vitro by ectopic expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor associated with reprogramming T-cells into a Treg subset. Overexpression of FoxP3 in naïve human CD4(+) T-cells recapitulated the hyporesponsiveness and suppressive function of naturally occurring Treg cells. However, FoxP3 was less efficient in reprogramming memory T-cell subset into regulatory cells. In addition, FoxP3-transduced T-cells also became more susceptible to HIV infection. Remarkably, a portion of HIV-positive individuals with a low percentage of CD4(+) and higher levels of activated T-cells have greatly reduced levels of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi) T-cells, suggesting disruption of the Treg cells during HIV infection. Targeting and disruption of the T-cell regulatory system by HIV may contribute to hyperactivation of conventional T-cells, a characteristic of HIV disease progression. Moreover, the ability to reprogram human T-cells into Treg cells in vitro will greatly aid in decoding their mechanism of suppression, their enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection, and the unique markers expressed by this subset.
Antimicrobial Peptides from Amphibian Skin Potently Inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Transfer of Virus from Dendritic Cells to T Cells
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16140737
Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin 1.1, caerin 1.9, and maculatin 1.1) completely inhibited HIV infection of T cells within minutes of exposure to virus at concentrations that were not toxic to target cells. These peptides also suppressed infection by murine leukemia virus but not by reovirus, a structurally unrelated nonenveloped virus. Preincubation with peptides prevented viral fusion to target cells and disrupted the HIV envelope. Remarkably, these amphibian peptides also were highly effective in inhibiting the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells, even when DCs were transiently exposed to peptides 8 h after virus capture. These data suggest that amphibian-derived peptides can access DC-sequestered HIV and destroy the virus before it can be transferred to T cells. Thus, amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides show promise as topical inhibitors of mucosal HIV transmission and provide novel tools to understand the complex biology of HIV capture by DCs.
Yeast Zymosan, a Stimulus for TLR2 and Dectin-1, Induces Regulatory Antigen-presenting Cells and Immunological Tolerance
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16543948
Emerging evidence suggests critical roles for APCs in suppressing immune responses. Here, we show that zymosan, a stimulus for TLR2 and dectin-1, regulates cytokine secretion in DCs and macrophages to induce immunological tolerance. First, zymosan induces DCs to secrete abundant IL-10 but little IL-6 and IL-12(p70). Induction of IL-10 is dependent on TLR2- and dectin-1-mediated activation of ERK MAPK via a mechanism independent of the activation protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Fos. Such DCs stimulate antigen-specific CD4+ T cells poorly due to IL-10 and the lack of IL-6. Second, zymosan induces F4-80+ macrophages in the splenic red pulp to secrete TGF-beta. Consistent with these effects on APCs, injection of zymosan plus OVA into mice results in OVA-specific T cells that secrete little or no Th1 or Th2 cytokines, but secrete robust levels of IL-10, and are unresponsive to challenge with OVA plus adjuvant. Finally, coinjection of zymosan with OVA plus LPS suppresses the response to OVA via a mechanism dependent on IL-10, TGF-beta, and lack of IL-6. Together, our data demonstrate that zymosan stimulates IL-10+ IL-12(p70)- IL-6low regulatory DCs and TGF-beta+ macrophages to induce immunological tolerance. These data suggest several targets for pharmacological modulation of immune responses in various clinical settings.
Helicobacter Pylori VacA Toxin Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Primary Human T Cells
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17005643
Human CD4(+) T cells are major targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Resting T cells are resistant to HIV infection unless activated through the T-cell receptor (TCR) or by cytokine signals. How T-cell signaling promotes susceptibility of T cells to HIV infection remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the VacA toxin produced by Helicobacter pylori can inhibit HIV infection of primary T cells, stimulated through the TCR or by cytokines alone. This activity of VacA was dependent on its ability to form membrane channels. VacA suppressed HIV infection of T cells at a stage after viral entry, post-reverse transcription and pre-two-long-terminal-repeat circle formation, similar to the cytokine signaling inhibitor rapamycin. Mechanistically, neither VacA nor rapamycin inhibited the activation of cytokine signal transduction components (STAT5, p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, or p38), but both blocked activation of key regulatory proteins required for G(1) cell cycle transition. In contrast to rapamycin, VacA did not suppress phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase but caused mitochondrial depolarization and ATP depletion within primary T cells. These results suggest that VacA inhibits T-cell activation and HIV infection via a novel mechanism. Identifying the host cell targets of VacA could be useful for elucidating the HIV life cycle within primary T cells.
PLoS Pathogens. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17465678
Infection with HIV-1 perturbs homeostasis of human T cell subsets, leading to accelerated immunologic deterioration. While studying changes in CD4(+) memory and naïve T cells during HIV-1 infection, we found that a subset of CD4(+) effector memory T cells that are CCR7(-)CD45RO(-)CD45RA(+) (referred to as TEMRA cells), was significantly increased in some HIV-infected individuals. This T cell subset displayed a differentiated phenotype and skewed Th1-type cytokine production. Despite expressing high levels of CCR5, TEMRA cells were strikingly resistant to infection with CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV-1, but remained highly susceptible to CXCR4 (X4)-tropic HIV-1. The resistance of TEMRA cells to R5-tropic viruses was determined to be post-entry of the virus and prior to early viral reverse transcription, suggesting a block at the uncoating stage. Remarkably, in a subset of the HIV-infected individuals, the relatively high proportion of TEMRA cells within effector T cells strongly correlated with higher CD4(+) T cell numbers. These data provide compelling evidence for selection of an HIV-1-resistant CD4(+) T cell population during the course of HIV-1 infection. Determining the host factors within TEMRA cells that restrict R5-tropic viruses and endow HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells with this ability may result in novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection.
Naive Precursors of Human Regulatory T Cells Require FoxP3 for Suppression and Are Susceptible to HIV Infection
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18178814
CD4+CD25+ human regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which express the transcription factor FoxP3, suppress T cell activation. In this study, we sought to define cellular and molecular mechanisms of human Treg cell differentiation. A subset of human naive CD4+ T cells that are CD25+ express high levels of FoxP3. We show that upon activation through the TCR, these FoxP3-expressing naive T cells (termed TNreg cells) greatly expand in vitro. Expanded TNreg cells acquire a full Treg phenotype with potent suppressive activity and display low IL-2 production upon TCR stimulation. TNreg cells in which FoxP3 expression was reduced through RNA interference lost their suppressive activity, but retained their low IL-2 secretion in response to TCR stimulation. Furthermore, in support of the notion that TNreg cells represent a separate lineage of naive cells, we found that they were more susceptible to HIV infection as compared with naive CD4+ T cells. Based on these findings, we propose that TNreg cells are precursors for human Treg cells and that these cells require a high level of FoxP3 expression to maintain their suppressive function. Accordingly, modulation of TNreg cell numbers during infections such as HIV may disrupt human Treg cell development, and contribute to chronic immune activation.
Cellular Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens Are Present in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Used in the Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis
Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19596780
Considerable evidence supports the concept that CD4(+) T cells are important in sarcoidosis pathogenesis, but the antigens responsible for the observed Th1 immunophenotype remain elusive. The epidemiologic association with bioaerosols and the presence of granulomatous inflammation support consideration of mycobacterial antigens. To explore the role of mycobacterial antigens in sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis, we assessed the immune recognition of mycobacterial antigens, the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic protein (ESAT-6) and catalase-peroxidase (KatG), by T cells derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained during diagnostic bronchoscopy. We report the presence of antigen-specific recognition of ESAT-6 and KatG in T cells from BAL fluid of 32/44 sarcoidosis subjects, compared to 1/27 controls (P < 0.0001). CD4(+) T cells were primarily responsible for immune recognition (32/44 sarcoidosis subjects), although CD8(+) T-cell responses were observed (25/41 sarcoidosis subjects). Recognition was significantly absent from BAL fluid cells of patients with other lung diseases, including infectious granulomatous diseases. Blocking of Toll-like receptor 2 reduced the strength of the observed immune response. The presence of immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in cells from BAL fluid used for sarcoidosis diagnosis suggests a strong association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis pathogenesis. Inhibition of immune recognition with monoclonal antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 suggests that induction of innate immunity by mycobacteria contributes to the polarized Th1 immune response.
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20665387
Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized pathologically by noncaseating granulomas that most commonly involve the lung, skin, lymph nodes, and eyes. Syndromes with similar pathological and immunologic features to sarcoidosis such as chronic beryllium disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and tuberculosis illustrate that granulomatous diseases may or may not have an infectious etiology. Although the etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, recent molecular, genetic, and immunologic studies strengthen the association of sarcoidosis with infectious antigens. Currently, the strongest agents considered include PROPIONIBACTERIUM and MYCOBACTERIUM species. Independent studies report the presence of microbial nucleic acids and proteins within sarcoidosis specimens. Th-1 immune responses to mycobacterial proteins have been detected within sarcoidosis diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). These proteins are actively secreted by the mycobacterial SecA 2 secretion system and are important to evade the host immune system. Recent discoveries regarding MHC class II alleles provide additional insight regarding the role of microbial antigens in sarcoidosis pathogenesis. Although further investigation is warranted, the recent progress of independent laboratories, using complementary techniques, strengthens the role of microbial antigens in sarcoidosis pathogenesis. These studies lay a strong foundation toward identifying therapeutic targets.
Multiple Mycobacterial Antigens Are Targets of the Adaptive Immune Response in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Respiratory Research. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21092305
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease for which the association with mycobacteria continues to strengthen. It is hypothesized that a single, poorly degradable antigen is responsible for sarcoidosis pathogenesis. Several reports from independent groups support mycobacterial antigens having a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis. To identify other microbial targets of the adaptive immune response, we tested the ability of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to recognize multiple mycobacterial antigens.
Mycobacterial ESAT-6 and KatG Are Recognized by Sarcoidosis CD4+ T Cells when Presented by the American Sarcoidosis Susceptibility Allele, DRB1*1101
Journal of Clinical Immunology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19536643
Genetic associations of American sarcoidosis susceptibility implicate MHC class II allele, DRB1*1101. We previously reported immune recognition of Mycobacterium peptides from peripheral cells of 26 sarcoidosis subjects, 24 PPD- healthy volunteers, and eight with latent tuberculosis infection.
Development of a Sarcoidosis Murine Lung Granuloma Model Using Mycobacterium Superoxide Dismutase A Peptide
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20348207
Sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas containing CD4(+) T cells with a Th1 immunophenotype. Although the causative antigens remain unknown, independent studies noted molecular and immunologic evidence of mycobacterial virulence factors in sarcoidosis specimens. A major limiting factor in discovering new insights into the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is the lack of an animal model. Using a distinct superoxide dismutase A peptide (sodA) associated with sarcoidosis granulomas, we developed a pulmonary model of sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Mice were sensitized by a subcutaneous injection of sodA, incorporated in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Control subjects consisted of mice with no sensitization (ConNS), sensitized with IFA only (ConIFA), or with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Fourteen days later, sensitized mice were challenged by tail-vein injection of naked beads, covalently coupled to sodA peptides or to schistosome egg antigens (SEA). Histologic analysis revealed hilar lymphadenopathy and noncaseating granulomas in the lungs of sodA-treated or SEA-treated mice. Flow cytometry of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) demonstrated CD4(+) T-cell responses against sodA peptide in the sodA-sensitized mice only. Cytometric bead analysis revealed significant differences in IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion in the BAL fluid of sodA-treated mice, compared with mice that received SEA or naked beads (P = 0.008, Wilcoxon rank sum test). ConNS and ConIFA mice demonstrated no significant formation of granuloma, and no Th1 immunophenotype. The use of microbial peptides distinct for sarcoidosis reveals a histologic and immunologic profile in the murine model that correlates well with those profiles noted in human sarcoidosis, providing the framework to investigate the molecular basis for the progression or resolution of sarcoidosis.
Necrotising Enterocolitis is Characterised by Disrupted Immune Regulation and Diminished Mucosal Regulatory (FOXP3)/effector (CD4, CD8) T Cell Ratios
Gut. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22267598
BackgroundNecrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in premature infants. Immaturity of gastrointestinal immune regulation may predispose preterm infants to NEC as FOXP3 T regulatory cells (Treg) are critical for intestinal immune homoeostasis.ObjectiveTo investigate the hypothesis that abnormal developmental regulation of lamina propria Treg would define premature infants with NEC.DesignLamina propria mononuclear cell populations from surgically resected ileum from 18 patients with NEC and 30 gestational age-matched non-NEC surgical controls were prospectively isolated. Polychromatic flow cytometry was performed to phenotype and analyse lamina propria T cell populations. The cytokine gene expression profile in NEC tissue was compared with that of non-NEC controls.ResultsThe total number of Treg, CD4, or CD8 T cells in each ileum section was independent of gestational age, age or postmenstrual age and similar between patients with NEC and controls. In contrast, the ratio of Treg to CD4 T cells or Treg to CD8 T cells was significantly lower in NEC ileum than in infants without NEC (medians 2.9% vs 6.6%, p=0.001 and medians 6.6% vs 25.9%, p<0.001, respectively). For any given number of CD4 or CD8 T cells, Treg were, on average, 60% lower in NEC ileum than in controls. NEC tissue cytokine gene expression profiles were characteristic of inhibited Treg development or function. Treg/CD4 and Treg/CD8 ratios recovered between initial resection for NEC and reanastomosis.ConclusionThe proportion of lamina propria Treg is significantly reduced in the ileum of premature infants with NEC and may contribute to the excessive inflammatory state of this disease.