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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Lawrence Page in JoVE
Metabolic Pathway Confirmation and Discovery Through 13C-labeling of Proteinogenic Amino Acids
Le You1, Lawrence Page2, Xueyang Feng1, Bert Berla1, Himadri B. Pakrasi3, Yinjie J. Tang1
1Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, 2Department of Biology, Washington University, 3Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering and Department of Biology, Washington University
13C-isotope labeling is a useful technique for determining the cell central metabolism for various types of microorganisms. After cells have been cultured with a specific labeled substrate, GC-MS measurement can reveal functional metabolic pathways based on unique labeling patterns in proteinogenic amino acids.
Other articles by Lawrence Page on PubMed
The Evolution of Body Size in Extant Groups of North American Freshwater Fishes: Speciation, Size Distributions, and Cope's Rule
The American Naturalist. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12699221
Change in body size within an evolutionary lineage over time has been under investigation since the synthesis of Cope's rule, which suggested that there is a tendency for mammals to evolve larger body size. Data from the fossil record have subsequently been examined for several other taxonomic groups to determine whether they also displayed an evolutionary increase in body size. However, we are not aware of any species-level study that has investigated the evolution of body size within an extant continental group. Data acquired from the fossil record and data derived from the evolutionary relationships of extant species are not similar, with each set exhibiting both strengths and weaknesses related to inferring evolutionary patterns. Consequently, expectation that general trends exhibited in the fossil record will correspond to patterns in extant groups is not necessarily warranted. Using phylogenetic relationships of extant species, we show that five of nine families of North American freshwater fishes exhibit an evolutionary trend of decreasing body size. These trends result from the basal position of large species and the more derived position of small species within families. Such trends may be caused by the invasion of small streams and subsequent isolation and speciation. This pattern, potentially influenced by size-biased dispersal rates and the high percentage of small streams in North America, suggests a scenario that could result in the generation of the size-frequency distribution of North American freshwater fishes.
Antimicrobial Egg Cleaning by the Fringed Darter (Perciformes: Percidae: Etheostoma Crossopterum): Implications of a Novel Component of Parental Care in Fishes
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14667358
Broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds have recently been identified in the epidermal mucus of fishes and probably serve as a first line of defence against microbial pathogens. Because of the ubiquitous nature of fungi and bacteria in aquatic systems, defence against these pathogens should be required throughout the lifespan of fishes, including the egg stage. We conducted experiments on Etheostoma crossopterum (Percidae: Catonotus), the fringed darter, to determine if the presence of a guarding male inhibits microbial colonization of eggs. Based on results from a combination of in-stream experiments, in vitro microbial assays, and morphological characteristics and behaviour of breeding males, we propose that antimicrobial egg cleaning by the guarding male is an effective component of parental care in these fish. Although innate antimicrobial compounds have been identified in a variety of organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates, integration of these compounds into a species's reproductive life history has been identified only in a small number of insect species. The results from this study not only indicate that E. crossopterum males provide a novel form of vertebrate parental care, but also have implications regarding the evolution of parental care in fishes and transitional evolutionary stages from no parental care to male parental care.
Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16701395
Niche Adaptation and Genome Expansion in the Chlorophyll D-producing Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris Marina
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18252824
Acaryochloris marina is a unique cyanobacterium that is able to produce chlorophyll d as its primary photosynthetic pigment and thus efficiently use far-red light for photosynthesis. Acaryochloris species have been isolated from marine environments in association with other oxygenic phototrophs, which may have driven the niche-filling introduction of chlorophyll d. To investigate these unique adaptations, we have sequenced the complete genome of A. marina. The DNA content of A. marina is composed of 8.3 million base pairs, which is among the largest bacterial genomes sequenced thus far. This large array of genomic data is distributed into nine single-copy plasmids that code for >25% of the putative ORFs. Heavy duplication of genes related to DNA repair and recombination (primarily recA) and transposable elements could account for genetic mobility and genome expansion. We discuss points of interest for the biosynthesis of the unusual pigments chlorophyll d and alpha-carotene and genes responsible for previously studied phycobilin aggregates. Our analysis also reveals that A. marina carries a unique complement of genes for these phycobiliproteins in relation to those coding for antenna proteins related to those in Prochlorococcus species. The global replacement of major photosynthetic pigments appears to have incurred only minimal specializations in reaction center proteins to accommodate these alternate pigments. These features clearly show that the genus Acaryochloris is a fitting candidate for understanding genome expansion, gene acquisition, ecological adaptation, and photosystem modification in the cyanobacteria.
The Genome of Heliobacterium Modesticaldum, a Phototrophic Representative of the Firmicutes Containing the Simplest Photosynthetic Apparatus
Journal of Bacteriology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18441057
Despite the fact that heliobacteria are the only phototrophic representatives of the bacterial phylum Firmicutes, genomic analyses of these organisms have yet to be reported. Here we describe the complete sequence and analysis of the genome of Heliobacterium modesticaldum, a thermophilic species belonging to this unique group of phototrophs. The genome is a single 3.1-Mb circular chromosome containing 3,138 open reading frames. As suspected from physiological studies of heliobacteria that have failed to show photoautotrophic growth, genes encoding enzymes for known autotrophic pathways in other phototrophic organisms, including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Calvin cycle), citrate lyase (reverse citric acid cycle), and malyl coenzyme A lyase (3-hydroxypropionate pathway), are not present in the H. modesticaldum genome. Thus, heliobacteria appear to be the only known anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs that are not capable of autotrophy. Although for some cellular activities, such as nitrogen fixation, there is a full complement of genes in H. modesticaldum, other processes, including carbon metabolism and endosporulation, are more genetically streamlined than they are in most other low-G+C gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, several genes encoding photosynthetic functions in phototrophic purple bacteria are not present in the heliobacteria. In contrast to the nutritional flexibility of many anoxygenic phototrophs, the complete genome sequence of H. modesticaldum reveals an organism with a notable degree of metabolic specialization and genomic reduction.
Microbiology (Reading, England). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20430816
The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 (Cyanothece 51142) is able to grow aerobically under nitrogen-fixing conditions with alternating light-dark cycles or continuous illumination. This study investigated the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on Cyanothece 51142 metabolism via (13)C-assisted metabolite analysis and biochemical measurements. Under continuous light (50 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and nitrogen-fixing conditions, we found that glycerol addition promoted aerobic biomass growth (by twofold) and nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production [up to 25 mumol H(2) (mg chlorophyll)( -1) h(-1)], but strongly reduced phototrophic CO(2) utilization. Under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, Cyanothece 51142 was able to metabolize glycerol photoheterotrophically, and the activity of light-dependent reactions (e.g. oxygen evolution) was not significantly reduced. In contrast, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 showed apparent mixotrophic metabolism under similar growth conditions. Isotopomer analysis also detected that Cyanothece 51142 was able to fix CO(2) via anaplerotic pathways, and to take up glucose and pyruvate for mixotrophic biomass synthesis.
Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21274256
Metabolic flux analysis is a vital tool used to determine the ultimate output of cellular metabolism and thus detect biotechnologically relevant bottlenecks in productivity. ¹³C-based metabolic flux analysis (¹³C-MFA) and flux balance analysis (FBA) have many potential applications in biotechnology. However, noteworthy hurdles in fluxomics study are still present. First, several technical difficulties in both ¹³C-MFA and FBA severely limit the scope of fluxomics findings and the applicability of obtained metabolic information. Second, the complexity of metabolic regulation poses a great challenge for precise prediction and analysis of metabolic networks, as there are gaps between fluxomics results and other omics studies. Third, despite identified metabolic bottlenecks or sources of host stress from product synthesis, it remains difficult to overcome inherent metabolic robustness or to efficiently import and express nonnative pathways. Fourth, product yields often decrease as the number of enzymatic steps increases. Such decrease in yield may not be caused by rate-limiting enzymes, but rather is accumulated through each enzymatic reaction. Fifth, a high-throughput fluxomics tool hasnot been developed for characterizing nonmodel microorganisms and maximizing their application in industrial biotechnology. Refining fluxomics tools and understanding these obstacles will improve our ability to engineer highly efficient metabolic pathways in microbial hosts.