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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
- The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
- Malaria Journal
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Trends in Parasitology
- Malaria Journal
- European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
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Articles by Leonardo J. M. Carvalho in JoVE
מיקרוסקופית Intravital של microcirculation המוח עכבר באמצעות חלון גולגולתי סגור
Pedro Cabrales1, Leonardo J. M. Carvalho2
1Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, 2La Jolla Bioengineering Institute
מיקרוסקופיה Intravital לעקוב אחרי האירועים hemodynamic ו דלקתיות ומרחב ב microcirculation pial.
Other articles by Leonardo J. M. Carvalho on PubMed
Immunization of Saimiri Sciureus Monkeys with a Recombinant Hybrid Protein Derived from the Plasmodium Falciparum Antigen Glutamate-rich Protein and Merozoite Surface Protein 3 Can Induce Partial Protection with Freund and Montanide ISA720 Adjuvants
Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15699417
The immunogenicity and efficacy of a hybrid recombinant protein derived from the N-terminal end of the glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and the C-terminal portion of the merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in Saimiri sciureus monkeys. The GLURP/MSP3 hybrid protein, expressed in Lactococcus lactis, was administered in association with alum, Montanide ISA720, or complete or incomplete Freund adjuvant (CFA/IFA) in groups of five animals each. The three formulations were shown to be immunogenic, but the one with alum was shown to be weak compared to the other two, particularly CFA/IFA, which provided very high antibody titers (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of >3,000,000 and immunofluorescence antibody test titers of 6,400). After a challenge infection with P. falciparum FUP strain, all five monkeys from the GLURP/MSP3-alum group showed a rapid increase in parasitemia, reaching 10% and were treated early. The two monkeys with the highest antibody titers in group GLURP/MSP3-Montanide ISA720 had a delay in the course of parasitemia and were treated late due to a low hematocrit. In the GLURP/MSP3-CFA/IFA group, parasitemia remained below this threshold in four of the five animals and, after it reached a peak, parasitemia started to decrease and monkeys were treated late. When all animals were grouped according to the outcome, a statistically significant association between high antibody titers and partial protection was observed. The challenge infection boosted the antibody titers, and the importance of this event for vaccine efficacy in areas where this parasite is endemic is discussed. In conclusion, these data suggest that GLURP and MSP3 can induce protection against malaria infection if antibodies are induced at properly high titers.
Antibody Response Profiles Induced by Plasmodium Falciparum Glutamate-rich Protein in Naturally Exposed Individuals from a Brazilian Area Endemic for Malaria
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16354819
The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibody response induced by Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) in naturally exposed individuals from the Brazilian Amazon region (Rondonia State). The results showed that most individuals had IgG against two well-defined regions within P. falciparum GLURP, the relatively conserved N-terminal nonrepeat region (R0) and the immunodominant repeat region (R2), 67% and 79%, respectively. The peptides S4 from R2 (53%) and P11 from R0 (49%) were identified as immunodominant B cell epitopes and induced higher levels of antibodies. The number of GLURP peptides recognized and the levels of IgG against S4 and P11 peptides showed a positive correlation with age and time of exposure in the malaria-endemic area studied. The antibody responses against GLURP epitopes appear to be modulated by HLA class II antigens. Interestingly, the GLURP immunodominant B cell epitopes in individuals from a Brazilian malaria-endemic area are distinguishable from those of the African malaria-endemic area. Considering the importance of GLURP as a malaria vaccine candidate and the increasing focus on the use of subunit vaccines in the control of infectious diseases, the concern of the influence of class II allele frequencies in ethnically diverse populations may be important before vaccine trials are conducted among people naturally exposed to malaria parasites.
Estradiol, but Not Dehydroepiandrosterone, Decreases Parasitemia and Increases the Incidence of Cerebral Malaria and the Mortality in Plasmodium Berghei ANKA-infected CBA Mice
Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16699290
The effect of castration and subsequent replacement of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or estradiol on parasitemia, mortality and incidence of cerebral malaria (CM) was evaluated in CBA mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA.
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17072456
Immune responses to malaria infections are characterized by strong T and B cell activation, which, in addition of potentially causing immunopathology, are of poor efficacy against the infection. It is possible that the thymus is involved in the origin of immunopathological reactions and a target during malaria infections. This work was developed in an attempt to further clarify these points. We studied the sequential changes in the thymus of CBA mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, a model in which 60-90% of the infected animals develop cerebral malaria. During the acute phase of infection, different degrees of thymocyte apoptosis were recorded. (1) starry-sky pattern of diffuse apoptosis with maintenance of cortical-medullary structure; (2) intense apoptosis with cortical atrophy, with absence of large cells; (3) severe cortical thymocyte depletion, resulting in cortical-medullary inversion. In the latter, only residual clusters of small thymocytes were observed within the framework of epithelial cells. The intensity of thymus alterations could not be associated with the degree of parasitemia, the expression of clinical signs of cerebral malaria or intensity of brain lesions. The implications of these events for malaria immunity and pathology are discussed.
Malaria Journal. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17506896
Immune responses to malaria blood stage infection are in general defective, with the need for long-term exposure to the parasite to achieve immunity, and with the development of immunopathology states such as cerebral malaria in many cases. One of the potential reasons for the difficulty in developing protective immunity is the poor development of memory responses. In this paper, the potential association of cellular reactivity in lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) with immunity and pathology was evaluated during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice.
Murine Cerebral Malaria is Associated with a Vasospasm-like Microcirculatory Dysfunction, and Survival Upon Rescue Treatment is Markedly Increased by Nimodipine
The American Journal of Pathology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20110412
Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity. Leukocyte sequestration further decreased perfusion by narrowing luminal diameters in the affected vessels and blocking capillaries. Remarkably, vascular collapse at various degrees was observed in 44% of mice with CM, which also presented more severe vasoconstriction. Coadministration of artemether and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, to mice presenting CM markedly increased survival compared with artemether plus vehicle only. Administration of nimodipine induced vasodilation and increased pial blood flow. We conclude that vasoconstriction and vascular collapse play a role in murine CM pathogenesis and nimodipine holds potential as adjunctive therapy for CM.
Trends in Parasitology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20335068
Brazilian Plasmodium Falciparum Isolates: Investigation of Candidate Polymorphisms for Artemisinin Resistance Before Introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy
Malaria Journal. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21143867
This study was performed to better understand the genetic diversity of known polymorphisms in pfatpase6 and pfmdr1 genes before the introduction of ACT in Brazil, in order to get a genotypic snapshot of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that may be used as baseline reference for future studies.
Amodiaquine Analogues Containing NO-donor Substructures: Synthesis and Their Preliminary Evaluation As Potential Tools in the Treatment of Cerebral Malaria
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21396743
The synthesis and physico-chemical properties of novel compounds obtained by conjugation of amodiaquine with moieties containing either furoxan or nitrooxy NO-donor substructures are described. The synthesised compounds were tested in vitro against both the chloroquine sensitive, D10 and the chloroquine resistant, W-2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Most of the compounds showed an antiplasmodial activity comparable to that of the parent drug. By comparing the activities of simple related structures devoid of the ability to release NO, it appears that the contribution of NO to the antiplasmodial action in vitro is marginal. All the compounds were able to relax rat aorta strips with a NO-dependent mechanism, thus showing their capacity to release NO in the vessels. A preliminary in vivo study using Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice showed a trend for prolonged survival of mice with cerebral malaria treated with compound 40, which is potent and fast amodiaquine-derived NO-donor, when compared with amodiaquine alone or with compound 31, a milder NO-donor. The two compounds showed in vivo antiplasmodial activity similar to that of amodiaquine.
Nitric Oxide Protection Against Murine Cerebral Malaria is Associated with Improved Cerebral Microcirculatory Physiology
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21415018
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a leading cause of death in Plasmodium falciparum infections. In the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) murine model, CM pathogenesis is associated with low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and brain microcirculatory complications, with a marked decrease in cerebral blood flow, vasoconstriction, vascular plugging by adherent cells, and hemorrhages. Using intravital microscopy through a closed cranial window, here we show that NO supplementation in the form of a NO donor (dipropylenetriamine NONOate [DPTA-NO]) prevented vasoconstriction and improved blood flow in pial vessels of PbA-infected mice. Arterioles and venules of smaller diameters (20-35.5 μm) showed better response to treatment than vessels of larger diameters (36-63 μm). Exogenous NO provided protection against brain hemorrhages (mean, 1.4 vs 24.5 hemorrhagic foci per section) and inflammation (mean, 2.5 vs 10.9 adherent leukocytes per 100 μm vessel length) compared with saline treatment. In conclusion, NO protection against CM is associated with improved brain microcirculatory hemodynamics and decreased vascular pathology.
Exogenous Nitric Oxide Decreases Brain Vascular Inflammation, Leakage and Venular Resistance During Plasmodium Berghei ANKA Infection in Mice
Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21649904
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a lethal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections. In the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) murine model, CM is associated with marked brain inflammation, increased expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte and platelet accumulation in brain vessels, causing vascular occlusion and decreased blood flow, damaging the endothelium and leading to blood-brain barrier breakdown, leakage and hemorrhages. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) administration largely prevents the syndrome. Here we evaluated whether the mechanism of action of NO in preventing murine CM is related to its anti-inflammatory properties and to protection of the endothelium.