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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- Journal of Cell Science
- Biology of Reproduction
- Journal of Andrology
- Reproductive Biomedicine Online
- Molecular Reproduction and Development
- Journal of Cell Science
- Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
- The International Journal of Developmental Biology
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
- Communicative & Integrative Biology
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Articles by Linda Lefievre in JoVE
تقنيات التصوير كاليفورنيا 2 + في اشارة الى الحيوانات المنوية البشرية
Katherine Nash1, Linda Lefievre2, Ruben Peralta-Arias1, Jennifer Morris1, Aduen Morales-Garcia1, Tom Connolly2, Sarah Costello1, Jackson C. Kirkman-Brown3, Stephen J. Publicover1
1School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, 2School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, 3Centre for Human Reproductive Science, Birmingham Women’s Hospital
التحفيز أثار [CA
Other articles by Linda Lefievre on PubMed
Journal of Cell Science. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11839783
Surf clam (Spisula solidissima) oocytes are spawned at the prophase I stage of meiosis, and they remain arrested at this stage until fertilization. Full oocyte meiosis reinitiation, first evidenced by germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), may be induced by artificial activators mimicking sperm, such as high K(+) or serotonin. Previous reports indicated that treatments thought to increase the level of oocyte cAMP inhibited sperm- or serotonin-induced, but not KCl-induced, GVBD in clam oocytes. These observations extend the well known requirement for a drop in oocyte cAMP levels in mammalian, amphibian or starfish oocytes and support the view that such a drop is universally important throughout the animal kingdom. We have re-examined the cAMP dependency of GVBD in clam oocytes and found that various treatments that raise oocyte cAMP levels did not, surprisingly, affect either KCl- or serotonin-induced GVBD. Such treatments, however, inhibited GVBD upon insemination of the oocytes, but this was due to the failure of sperm to fuse/penetrate the oocytes; thus, it was not an inhibition of oocyte activation as such. Direct measurements of oocyte cAMP levels after activation by serotonin, KCl or sperm showed that, contrary to expectations, there is a rise in cAMP levels before GVBD. Using SQ22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, the increase in oocyte cAMP level was partly prevented and GVBD proceeded, but with a significant retardation, indicating that the normal cAMP rise facilitates GVBD. Our work sheds light on the diversity of upstream pathways leading to activation of MPF and provides a unique model whereby the onset of meiosis reinitiation is associated with an increase, not a decrease, in oocyte cAMP levels.
Presence of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases PDE1A, Existing As a Stable Complex with Calmodulin, and PDE3A in Human Spermatozoa
Biology of Reproduction. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12135876
Mammalian sperm motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction are regulated by signal transduction systems involving cAMP as a second messenger. Levels of cAMP are controlled by two key enzymes, adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the latter being involved in cAMP degradation. Calmodulin-dependent PDE (PDE1) and cAMP-specific PDE (PDE4) activities were previously identified in spermatozoa via the use of specific inhibitors. Here we report that human sperm PDEs are associated with the plasma membrane (50%-60%) as well as with the particulate fraction (30%-50%) and have more affinity for cAMP than cGMP. Immunocytochemical data indicated that PDE1A, a variant of PDE1, is localized on the equatorial segment of the sperm head as well as on the mid and principal pieces of the flagellum, and that PDE3A is found on the postacrosomal segment of the sperm head. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of PDE1A and PDE3A isoforms in spermatozoa. Milrinone, a PDE3 inhibitor, increased intracellular levels of cAMP by about 15% but did not affect sperm functions, possibly because PDE3 represents only a small proportion of the sperm total PDE activity (10% and 25% in Triton X-100 soluble and particulate fractions, respectively). PDE1A activity in whole sperm extract or after partial purification by anion-exchange chromatography was not stimulated by calcium + calmodulin. Results obtained with electrophoresis in native conditions indicated that calmodulin is tightly bound to PDE1A. Incubation with EGTA + EDTA, trifluoperazine, or urea did not dissociate the PDE1A-calmodulin complex. These results suggest that PDE1A is permanently activated in human spermatozoa.
Journal of Andrology. Sep-Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12185106
Spermatozoa undergo a variety of changes during their life that are prerequisites to their maturation and ability to fertilize eggs. Mammalian sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction are regulated by signal transduction systems involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as a second messenger. This second messenger acts through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and indirectly regulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation. cAMP levels are controlled by a balance of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and adenylyl cyclase (AC) enzymatic activities, which are responsible for its degradation and production, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the intracellular levels of cAMP and PDE and PKA activities during human sperm capacitation induced by fetal cord serum ultrafiltrate (FCSu) and acrosome reaction induced by calcium ionophore A23187. We report that PKA activity was higher in capacitating than in noncapacitating spermatozoa and that intracellular levels of cAMP decreased but that PDE activity remained constant during capacitation. The acrosome reaction induced by A23187 was associated with increases in cAMP and PKA activity but not in PDE activity. These results strongly suggest that net cAMP concentration is under the control of AC, since PDE activity is constant during sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Moreover, the results suggest that low levels of cAMP are sufficient for capacitation and PKA activation and/or that the cAMP concentration measured in whole spermatozoa does not reflect the effective intracellular cAMP levels present in specific compartments of these cells.
Reproductive Biomedicine Online. Oct-Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14753177
This research aims firstly to understand, in cellular and molecular terms, how a mature human spermatozoon is prepared for fertilization, and secondly, to identify what factors are involved in the initial signalling interactions between the egg and spermatozoon. In order to achieve these objectives, a combination of approaches is being used, including single-cell imaging, patch clamping and proteomics. Single-cell imaging reveals hidden complexity and heterogeneity in signalling responses in spermatozoa. Characterization of cell physiology at the single-cell level must be a future aim, including the study of ion channel expression and function by patch clamping. Proteomic experiments are aimed at identifying defects in protein expression in specific subgroups of men, e.g. those with globozoospermia. A better understanding of prefertilization events will allow the development of non-assisted reproductive therapy, drug-based treatments for male infertility.
Molecular Reproduction and Development. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15457543
Second messengers are involved in sperm fertilizing potential, as both motility and the acrosome reaction are influenced by cAMP. Moreover, the activity of cyclic nucleotides is implicated in the appearance of tyrosine phosphorylated sperm proteins, which is associated with capacitation in the mammalian spermatozoa. Nevertheless, the involvement of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PK-A) pathway during pig sperm capacitation may be different from that observed in other mammals. The objective of the present study was to clarify the cAMP/PK-A pathway during the capacitation of porcine spermatozoa and to evaluate this impact on the p32 sperm tyrosine phosphoprotein appearance. The presence of p32 was assessed after incubating fresh pig sperm with IBMX/db-cAMP, H-89, a PK-A inhibitor or bistyrphostin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in capacitating (CM) or non-capacitating conditions (NCM) by immunoblotting SDS-extracted and separated sperm proteins using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. When pig spermatozoa were incubated in CM supplemented with H-89 (50 microM) or bistyrphostin (1.2 microM), capacitation decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The p32 sperm tyrosine phosphoprotein, previously shown to be associated with capacitation of porcine sperm though not necessarily an end point of this phenomenon, was not modulated by IBMX/db-cAMP (100 microM/1 mM), H-89 (50 microM) nor bistyrphostin (1.2 microM). Our results indicate, therefore, that pig sperm are regulated somewhat differently than as described for other mammals, because although the cAMP/PK-A and tyrosine kinase pathways are involved in capacitation, they do not influence the appearance of p32.
Use of Phosphoproteomics to Study Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Capacitating Boar Sperm. Kinase Activity and Capacitation
Theriogenology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15626419
It is generally accepted that sperm capacitation is associated with the protein kinase A-mediated appearance of tyrosine phosphoproteins, although the substrates and kinase(s) involved have not been identified. We described a Mr 32,000 tyrosine phosphoprotein, "p32", appearing in porcine sperm coincident with capacitation. We also discovered a tyrosine kinase-like enzyme in boar sperm of Mr 32,000 ("TK-32") with enhanced activity during capacitation. The present work was conducted to further characterize and to identify these capacitation-related protein(s). Fresh porcine sperm were incubated to induce capacitation then immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and proteomic analysis revealed seven tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins aligned in the range of Mr 30,000 with different isoelectric pH values (pI). Therefore, p32 may be composed of several tyrosine phosphoproteins. Three were identified as acrosin-binding sp32 (pI 6.5), and two triosephosphate isomerase isoforms (pI 7.1 and 7.9). At present, however, proteonomic analysis has not revealed any kinase at Mr 32,000. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that p32 and TK-32 are different molecules, as TK-32 activity remains in the supernatant of the antiphosphotyrosine precipitates. Finally, in-gel renaturation and immunoblotting suggest that TK-32 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The discovery of p32 and the MAPK-like TK-32 provides new insight regarding the mechanisms underlying capacitation in the pig.
Secretory Pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1) Ca(2)+ Pumps, Not SERCAs, Regulate Complex [Ca(2+)](i) Signals in Human Spermatozoa
Journal of Cell Science. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15811949
The sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors thapsigargin (0.1-1 microM) and cyclopiazonic acid (10 microM), failed to affect resting [Ca(2+)] in human spermatozoa. Slow progesterone-induced [Ca(2+ i)](i) oscillations in human spermatozoa, which involve cyclic emptying-refilling of an intracellular Ca(2+) store were also insensitive to these inhibitors. Non-selective doses of thapsigargin (5-30 microM, 50-300 times the saturating dose for SERCA inhibition), caused elevation of resting [Ca(2+)](i) and partial, dose-dependent disruption of oscillations. A 10-40 microM concentration of bis(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-phenyl)methane (bis-phenol), which inhibits both thapsigargin-sensitive and -insensitive microsomal Ca(2+) ATPases, caused elevation of resting [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at doses consistent with inhibition of thapsigargin-resistant, microsomal ATPase and liberation of stored Ca(2+). Low doses of bis-phenol had marked effects on [Ca(2+)](i) oscillation kinetics. Application of the drug to cells previously stimulated with progesterone had effects very similar to those observed when it was applied to unstimulated cells, suggesting that the sustained Ca(2+) influx induced by progesterone is not mediated via mobilisation of Ca(2+) stores. Western blotting for human sperm proteins showed expression of secretory pathway Ca(2+) ATPase (SPCA1). Immunolocalisation studies revealed expression of SPCA1 in all cells in an area behind the nucleus, extending into the midpiece. Staining for SERCA, carried out in parallel, detected no expression with either technique. We conclude that: (1) intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) and store-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in human spermatozoa rely primarily on a thapsigargin/cyclopiazonic acid-insensitive Ca(2+) pump, which is not a SERCA as characterised in somatic cells; (2) effects of high-dose thapsigargin on spermatozoa primarily reflect non-specific actions on non-SERCAs and; (3) secretory pathway Ca(2+) ATPases contribute at least part of this non-SERCA Ca(2+) pump activity.
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17504912
Although sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of infertility, we have poor methods of diagnosis and surprisingly no effective treatment (excluding assisted reproductive technology). In this review, we challenge the usefulness of a basic semen analysis and argue that a new paradigm is required immediately. We discuss the use of at-home screening to potentially improve the diagnosis of the male and to streamline the management of the sub-fertile couple. Additionally, we outline the recent progress in the field, for example, in proteomics, which will allow the development of new biomarkers of sperm function. This new knowledge will transform our understanding of the spermatozoon as a machine and is likely to lead to non-ART treatments for men with sperm dysfunction.
Human Spermatozoa Contain Multiple Targets for Protein S-nitrosylation: an Alternative Mechanism of the Modulation of Sperm Function by Nitric Oxide?
Proteomics. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17683036
Nitric oxide (NO) enhances human sperm motility and capacitation associated with increased protein phosphorylation. NO activates soluble guanylyl cyclase, but can also modify protein function covalently via S-nitrosylation of cysteine. Remarkably, this mechanism remains unexplored in sperm although they depend on post-translational protein modification to achieve changes in function required for fertilisation. Our objective was to identify targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm. Spermatozoa were incubated with NO donors and S-nitrosylated proteins were identified using the biotin switch assay and a proteomic approach using MS/MS. 240 S-nitrosylated proteins were detected in sperm incubated with S-nitroso-glutathione. Minimal levels were observed in glutathione or untreated samples. Proteins identified consistently based on multiple peptides included established targets for S-nitrosylation in other cells e.g. tubulin, GST and HSPs but also novel targets including A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) types 3 and 4, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3 and semenogelin 1 and 2. In situ localisation revealed S-nitrosylated targets on the postacrosomal region of the head and throughout the flagellum. Potential targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm include physiologically significant proteins not previously reported in other cells. Their identification will provide novel insight into the mechanism of action of NO in spermatozoa.
Mobilisation of Stored Calcium in the Neck Region of Human Sperm--a Mechanism for Regulation of Flagellar Activity
The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18649275
Calcium signalling plays a pivotal role in sperm physiology, being intimately involved in the regulation of acrosome reaction, chemotaxis and hyperactivation. Here we describe briefly the mechanisms of calcium regulation in somatic cells and the ways in which these mechanisms have been adapted to function in mature spermatozoa. We then consider recent data from this and other laboratories on the responses of sperm to three compounds: progesterone and nitric oxide (both products of the cumulus oophorus) and 4-aminopyridine. All of these compounds induce calcium signals in the posterior sperm head and neck region and, when applied at appropriate concentrations, modify flagellar activity, causing asymmetric bending of the proximal flagellum. We argue that these effects reflect a common mode of action, mobilisation of calcium stored in the sperm neck region. Finally we consider the nature of calcium signalling pathways in sperm. We suggest that this highly specialised and extremely polarised cell, though working with the same calcium signalling 'tools' as those of somatic cells, employs them to generate unusually 'hard-wired' calcium signals that do not act to integrate stimuli. 'Leakage' between these calcium signalling pathways will generate inappropriate responses, compromising functioning of the cell.
Mobilisation of Ca2+ Stores and Flagellar Regulation in Human Sperm by S-nitrosylation: a Role for NO Synthesised in the Female Reproductive Tract
Development (Cambridge, England). Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18842814
Generation of NO by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is implicated in gamete interaction and fertilisation. Exposure of human spermatozoa to NO donors caused mobilisation of stored Ca(2+) by a mechanism that did not require activation of guanylate cyclase but was mimicked by S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO; an S-nitrosylating agent). Application of dithiothreitol, to reduce protein -SNO groups, rapidly reversed the actions of NO and GSNO on [Ca(2+)](i). The effects of NO, GSNO and dithiothreitol on sperm protein S-nitrosylation, assessed using the biotin switch method, closely paralleled their actions on [Ca(2+)](i). Immunofluorescent staining revealed constitutive and inducible NOS in human oviduct and cumulus (the cellular layer investing the oocyte). 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF) staining demonstrated production of NO by these tissues. Incubation of human sperm with oviduct explants induced sperm protein S-nitrosylation resembling that induced by NO donors and GSNO. Progesterone (a product of cumulus cells) also mobilises stored Ca(2+) in human sperm. Pre-treatment of sperm with NO greatly enhanced the effect of progesterone on [Ca(2+)](i), resulting in a prolonged increase in flagellar excursion. We conclude that NO regulates mobilisation of stored Ca(2+) in human sperm by protein S-nitrosylation, that this action is synergistic with that of progesterone and that this synergism is potentially highly significant in gamete interactions leading to fertilisation.
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19542252
Intracellular Ca2+ stores play a central role in the regulation of cellular [Ca2+](i) and the generation of complex [Ca2+] signals such as oscillations and waves. Ca2+ signalling is of particular significance in sperm cells, where it is a central regulator in many key activities (including capacitation, hyperactivation, chemotaxis and acrosome reaction) yet mature sperm lack endoplasmic reticulum and several other organelles that serve as Ca2+ stores in somatic cells. Here, we review i) the evidence for the expression in sperm of the molecular components (pumps and channels) which are functionally significant in the activity of Ca2+ stores of somatic cells and ii) the evidence for the existence of functional Ca2+ stores in sperm. This evidence supports the existence of at least two storage organelles in mammalian sperm, one in the acrosomal region and another in the region of the sperm neck and midpiece. We then go on to discuss the probable identity of these organelles and their discrete functions: regulation by the acrosome of its own secretion and regulation by membranous organelles at the sperm neck (and possibly by the mitochondria) of flagellar activity and hyperactivation. Finally, we consider the ability of the sperm discretely to control mobilisation of these stores and the functional interaction of stored Ca2+ at the sperm neck/midpiece with CatSper channels in the principal piece in regulation of the activities of mammalian sperm.
Communicative & Integrative Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19704895
Signaling through [Ca(2+)](i) is central to regulation of sperm activity and is likely to be the mechanism that transduces signals from the female reproductive tract to regulate sperm motility. In a recent paper1 we showed that exposure of sperm to nitric oxide mobilizes stored Ca(2+) in human sperm, an effect that occurs through nitrosylation of protein thiols. Not only did we find that NO* production by cells of the human female tract would be sufficient to elicit this effect, but progesterone, which is also present in the female tract and is synthesized by the oocyte vestments, acted synergistically with NO* to mobilize Ca(2+) and enhance flagellar beating. Here we argue that a Ca(2+) store at the junction of the sperm head and flagellum is subject to regulation by both progesterone and NO* and that ryanodine receptors at the store may be the point at which coincidence detection and synergistic interaction occurs.