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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Matthew M. Rankin in JoVE
Immunofluorescent Detection of Two Thymidine Analogues (CldU and IdU) in Primary Tissue
Alex H. Tuttle*, Matthew M. Rankin*, Monica Teta, Daniel J. Sartori, Geneva M. Stein, Gina J. Kim, Cristina Virgilio, Anne Granger, Di Zhou, Simon H. Long, Alisa B. Schiffman, Jake A. Kushner
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Institute of Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine
We have derived a strategy to detect sequential incorporation of thymidine analogues (CldU and IdU) into tissues of adult mice to quantify two successive rounds of cell division. This strategy is useful to detect cell turnover of long-lived tissues, oncogenic transformation, or transit-amplifying cells.
Other articles by Matthew M. Rankin on PubMed
Diabetes. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16123343
Although many signaling pathways have been shown to promote beta-cell growth, surprisingly little is known about the normal life cycle of preexisting beta-cells or the signaling pathways required for beta-cell survival. Adult beta-cells have been speculated to have a finite life span, with ongoing adult beta-cell replication throughout life to replace lost cells. However, little solid evidence supports this idea. To more accurately measure adult beta-cell turnover, we performed continuous long-term labeling of proliferating cells with the DNA precursor analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in 1-year-old mice. We show that beta-cells of aged adult mice have extremely low rates of replication, with minimal evidence of turnover. Although some pancreatic components acquired BrdU label in a linear fashion, only 1 in approximately 1,400 adult beta-cells were found to undergo replication per day. We conclude that adult beta-cells are very long lived.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16170201
The Irs2 branch of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling cascade activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase --> Akt --> Foxo1 cascade in many tissues, including hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells. The 3'-lipid phosphatase Pten ordinarily attenuates this cascade; however, its influence on beta-cell growth or function is unknown. To determine whether decreased Pten expression could restore beta-cell function and prevent diabetes in Irs2(-/-) mice, we generated wild type or Irs2 knock-out mice that were haploinsufficient for Pten (Irs2(-/-)::Pten(+/-)). Irs2(-/-) mice develop diabetes by 3 months of age as beta-cell mass declined progressively until insulin production was lost. Pten insufficiency increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in wild type and Irs2(-/-) mice and increased Akt and Foxo1 phosphorylation in the islets. Glucose tolerance improved in the Pten(+/-) mice, although beta-cell mass and circulating insulin levels decreased. Compared with Irs2(-/-) mice, the Irs2(-/-)::Pten(+/-) mice displayed nearly normal glucose tolerance and survived without diabetes, because normal but small islets produced sufficient insulin until the mice died of lymphoproliferative disease at 12 months age. Thus, steps to enhance phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling can promote beta-cell growth, function, and survival without the Irs2 branch of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling cascade.
Developmental Cell. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17488631
Cellular progenitors remain poorly characterized in many adult tissues, limited in part by the lack of unbiased techniques to identify progenitors and their progeny. To address this fundamental problem, we developed a novel DNA analog-based lineage-tracing technique to detect multiple rounds of cell division in vivo. Here, we apply this technique to determine the adult lineage mechanism of the insulin-secreting beta cells of pancreatic islets, an important unresolved question in diabetes research. As expected, gastrointestinal and skin epithelia involve specialized progenitors that repeatedly divide to give rise to postmitotic cells. In contrast, specialized progenitors do not contribute to adult beta cells, not even during acute beta cell regeneration. Instead, beta cells are the products of uniform self-renewal, slowed by a replication refractory period that prevents beta cells from immediately redividing. Our approach provides unbiased resolution of previously inaccessible developmental niches and can elucidate lineage mechanisms without candidate markers.
Diabetes. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19265026
Regeneration of the insulin-secreting beta-cells is a fundamental research goal that could benefit patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. beta-Cell proliferation can be acutely stimulated by a variety of stimuli in young rodents. However, it is unknown whether this adaptive beta-cell regeneration capacity is retained into old age.
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628581
The molecular determinants of beta-cell mass expansion remain poorly understood. Cyclin D2 is the major D-type cyclin expressed in beta-cells, essential for adult beta-cell growth. We hypothesized that cyclin D2 could be actively regulated in beta-cells, which could allow mitogenic stimuli to influence beta-cell expansion. Cyclin D2 protein was sharply increased after partial pancreatectomy, but cyclin D2 mRNA was unchanged, suggesting posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms influence cyclin D2 expression in beta-cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, cyclin D2 protein stability is powerfully regulated in fibroblasts. Threonine 280 of cyclin D2 is phosphorylated, and this residue critically limits D2 stability. We derived transgenic (tg) mice with threonine 280 of cyclin D2 mutated to alanine (T280A) or wild-type cyclin D2 under the control of the insulin promoter. Cyclin D2 T280A protein was expressed at much higher levels than wild-type cyclin D2 protein in beta-cells, despite equivalent expression of tg mRNAs. Cyclin D2 T280A tg mice exhibited a constitutively nuclear cyclin D2 localization in beta-cells, and increased cyclin D2 stability in islets. Interestingly, threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice had greatly reduced beta-cell apoptosis, with suppressed expression of proapoptotic genes. Suppressed beta-cell apoptosis in threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice resulted in greatly increased beta-cell area in aged mice. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclin D2 is regulated by protein stability in pancreatic beta-cells, that signals that act upon threonine 280 limit cyclin D2 stability in beta-cells, and that threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 overexpression prolongs beta-cell survival and augments beta-cell mass expansion.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20943662
The calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin intersects with both calcium and cAMP-mediated signaling pathways in the pancreatic β-cell. Pharmacologic calcineurin inhibition, necessary to prevent rejection in the setting of organ transplantation, is associated with post-transplant β-cell failure. We sought to determine the effect of calcineurin inhibition on β-cell replication and survival in rodents and in isolated human islets. Further, we assessed whether the GLP-1 receptor agonist and cAMP stimulus, exendin-4 (Ex-4), could rescue β-cell replication and survival following calcineurin inhibition. Following treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus, human β-cell apoptosis was significantly increased. Although we detected no human β-cell replication, tacrolimus significantly decreased rodent β-cell replication. Ex-4 nearly normalized both human β-cell survival and rodent β-cell replication when co-administered with tacrolimus. We found that tacrolimus decreased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that calcineurin could regulate replication and survival via the PI3K/Akt pathway. We identify insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2), a known cAMP-responsive element-binding protein target and upstream regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, as a novel calcineurin target in β-cells. Irs2 mRNA and protein are decreased by calcineurin inhibition in both rodent and human islets. The effect of calcineurin on Irs2 expression is mediated at least in part through the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), as NFAT occupied the Irs2 promoter in a calcineurin-sensitive manner. Ex-4 restored Irs2 expression in tacrolimus-treated rodent and human islets nearly to baseline. These findings reveal calcineurin as a regulator of human β-cell survival in part through regulation of Irs2, with implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes following organ transplantation.
Islets. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21099336
The role of aging in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes remains poorly understood. In the past adult β-cells were assumed to undergo frequent turnover. However, we find that β-cell turnover declines to very low levels in middle-aged mice. We therefore hypothesized that aged islets could exhibit a distinct gene expression program. We compared gene expression in islets from young mice to islets from aged mice under basal conditions. Aging was associated with differential expression of many genes in islets, including mRNAs encoding for chromatin remodeling components, RNA binding proteins, and pancreatic endocrine transcription factors. We previously observed that cell cycle entry of β-cells is severely restricted by middle age, with minimal of β-cell proliferation in response to regenerative stimuli such as 50% partial pancreatectomy. To characterize the effect of age in adaptive β-cell proliferation, we measured gene expression in islets from young mice after pancreatectomy. As expected, partial pancreatectomy induced differential expression of many genes, including those encoding Reg (regenerating) proteins. Surprisingly, partial pancreatectomy also induced expression of Reg genes in islets from aged mice, which have greatly reduced capacity for adaptive β-cell proliferation. However, there was little overlap (besides the Reg genes) in between the partial pancreatectomy induced islet genes in young mice versus old mice. Thus, partial pancreatectomy does not induce the same gene expression program in young mice vs old mice. Taken together, our results reveal that aged islets exhibit a unique gene expression signature that could contribute to the limited regenerative capacity of mature β-cells.