JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE General

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Applied Physics

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

|   

JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms I

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms II

You have trial access to videos in this collection until May 31, 2014.

In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (6)

Articles by Michael D. Leipold in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Mass Cytometry: Protocol for Daily Tuning and Running Cell Samples on a CyTOF Mass Cytometer

1Human Immune Monitoring Center, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation, and Infection, Stanford University


JoVE 4398

The steps necessary for daily tuning and optimization of the performance of a CyTOF mass cytometer are described. Comments on optimal sample preparation and flow rate are discussed

Other articles by Michael D. Leipold on PubMed

Structure and Potential Mutagenicity of New Hydantoin Products from Guanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine Oxidation by Transition Metals

In vitro work in this laboratory has identified new DNA lesions resulting from further oxidation of a common biomarker of oxidative damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG). The major product of oxidation of OG in a nucleoside, nucleotide, or single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide using metal ions that act as one-electron oxidants is the new nucleoside derivative spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp). In duplex DNA an equilibrating mixture of two isomeric products, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and iminoallantoin (Ia), is produced. These products are also formed by the overall four-electron oxidation of guanosine by photochemical processes involving O(2). DNA template strands containing either Sp or Gh/Ia generally acted as a block to DNA synthesis with the Klenow exo(-) fragment of pol I. However, when nucleotide insertion did occur opposite the lesions, only 2'-deoxyadenosine 5-triphosphate and 2'-deoxyguanine 5-triphosphate were used for primer extension. The Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme Fpg was able to remove the Sp and Gh/Ia lesions from duplex DNA substrates, although the efficiency was depended on the base opposite the lesion.

Recognition and Removal of Oxidized Guanines in Duplex DNA by the Base Excision Repair Enzymes HOGG1, YOGG1, and YOGG2

8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) is susceptible to further oxidation in vitro to form two secondary oxidation products, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp). Previous work from this laboratory has shown that OG, Gh, and Sp are recognized and excised from duplex DNA substrates by the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme Fpg. In this report, we extend these studies to the functionally related eukaryotic OG glycosylases (OGG) from yeast and humans: yOGG1, yOGG2, and hOGG1. The hOGG1 enzyme was active only toward the removal of 8-oxoguanine, exhibiting a 1000-fold faster rate of removal of 8-oxoguanine from OG.C-containing duplexes relative to their OG.A counterparts. Duplexes containing Gh or Sp opposite any of the four natural bases were not substrates for the hOGG1 enzyme. In contrast, both yOGG1 and yOGG2 enzymes removed Gh and Sp in a relatively efficient manner from an 18 bp duplex. No significant difference was observed in the rate of reaction of Gh- and Sp-containing duplexes with yOGG1. However, yOGG2 removed Sp at a faster rate than Gh. Both yOGG enzymes exhibit a negligible dependence on the base opposite the lesion, suggesting that the activity of these enzymes may be promutagenic. Surprisingly, in the 18 bp sequence context, both yOGG enzymes did not exhibit OG removal activity. However, both removed OG in a 30 bp duplex with a different sequence surrounding the OG. The wide range of repair efficiencies observed by these enzymes with different substrates in vitro suggests that this could greatly affect the mutagenicity of these lesions in vivo. Indeed, the greater efficiency of the yOGG proteins for removal of the further oxidized products, Gh and Sp, over their 8-oxoguanine parent, suggests that these lesions may be the preferred substrates in vivo.

The C-terminal Domain of the Escherichia Coli WaaJ Glycosyltransferase is Important for Catalytic Activity and Membrane Association

The waaJ gene encodes an alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the outer core region of the lipopolysaccha-ride of some Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates. WaaJ belongs to glycosyltransferase CAZy family 8, characterized by the GT-A fold, a DXD motif, and by retention of configuration at the anomeric carbon of the donor sugar. Detailed kinetic and structural information for bacterial family 8 glycosyltransferases has resulted from studies of Neisseria meningitidis LgtC. As many as 28 amino acids could be deleted from the C terminus of LgtC without affecting its in vitro catalytic behavior. This C-terminal domain has a high ratio of positively charged and hydrophobic residues, a feature conserved in WaaJ and some other family 8 representatives. Unexpectedly, deletion of as few as five residues from the C terminus of WaaJ resulted in substantially reduced in vivo activity. With deletions of 15 residues or less, activity was only detected when levels of expression were elevated. No in vivo activity was detected after the removal of 20 amino acids, regardless of expression levels. Longer deletions (20 residues and greater) compromised the ability of WaaJ to associate with the membrane. However, the reduced in vivo activity in enzymes lacking 5-12 C-terminal residues also reflected a dramatic drop in catalytic activity in vitro (a 294-fold decrease in the apparent kcat/Km,LPS). Deletions removing 20 or more residues resulted in a protein showing no detectable in vitro activity. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of WaaJ plays a critical role in enzyme function.

Glycosyltransferases Involved in Biosynthesis of the Outer Core Region of Escherichia Coli Lipopolysaccharides Exhibit Broader Substrate Specificities Than is Predicted from Lipopolysaccharide Structures

The waaJ, waaT, and waaR genes encode alpha-1,2-glycosyltransferases involved in synthesis of the outer core region of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli. They belong to the glycosyltransferase CAZy family 8, characterized by the GT-A fold, DXD motifs, and by retention of configuration at the anomeric carbon of the donor sugar. Each enzyme adds a hexose residue at the same stage of core oligosaccharide backbone extension. However, they differ in the epimers for their donor nucleotide sugars, and in their acceptor residues. WaaJ is a UDP-glucose: (galactosyl) LPS alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase, whereas WaaR and WaaT have UDP-glucose:(glucosyl) LPS alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:(glucosyl) LPS alpha-1,2-galactosyltransferase activities, respectively. The objective of this work was to examine their ability to utilize alternate donors and acceptors. When expressed in the heterologous host, each enzyme was able to extend the alternate LPS acceptor in vivo but they retained their natural donor specificity. In vitro assays were then performed to test the effect of substituting the epimeric donor sugar on incorporation efficiency with the natural LPS acceptor of the enzyme. Although each enzyme could utilize the alternate donor epimer, activity was compromised because of significant decreases in k(cat) and corresponding increases in K(m)(donor). Finally, in vitro assays were performed to probe acceptor preference in the absence of the cellular machinery. The results were enzyme-dependent: while an alternate acceptor had no significant effect on the kinetic behavior of His(6)-WaaT, His(6)-WaaJ showed a significantly decreased k(cat) and increased K(m)(acceptor). These results illustrate the differences in behavior between closely related glycosyltransferase enzymes involved in the synthesis of similar glycoconjugates and have implications for glycoengineering applications.

ICP-MS-based Multiplex Profiling of Glycoproteins Using Lectins Conjugated to Lanthanide-chelating Polymers

Lectins have been increasingly important in the study of glycoproteins. Here, we report a glycoprofiling method based on the covalent attachment of metal-chelating polymers to lectins for use in an ICP-MS-based assay. The labeled lectins are able to distinguish between glycoproteins covalently attached to a microtiter plate and their binding can be directly quantified by ICP-MS. Since each conjugate contains a different lanthanide, the assays can be conducted in a single or multiplex fashion, and may be readily elaborated to many different assay formats.

Development of Mass Cytometry Methods for Bacterial Discrimination

Fluorescent flow cytometry has become the method of choice for interrogation of bacterial populations at the single-cell level. However, limitations of this technique include issues of dynamic range, spectral overlap, photobleaching, and overall low signal intensity due to the small size of bacteria. The recent development of mass cytometry allows single-cell analysis with the resolution of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, facilitating multiparametric analysis. Using a combination of a metal-based membrane stain and lectins conjugated to lanthanide-chelating polymers, we demonstrate that individual Escherichia coli cells can be differentiated based on their cell surface polysaccharides using mass cytometry. The model E. coli system involves evaluation of three different surface polysaccharides using element-tagged concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin lectins. Finally, this technique enabled experiments designed to follow the export of O-antigen substituted lipopolysaccharide in a conditional mutant. These studies revealed that the culture responds as a uniform population and that lipopolysaccharide export is approximately 10 times faster than the logarithmic bacterial doubling time.

Waiting
simple hit counter