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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Organic Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Methods
- Nature Protocols
- Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro
- Stem Cells and Development
- Biophysical Journal
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Articles by Michael T. Yang in JoVE
Microfabricated פוסט מערך גלאים (mPADs): גישה לבודד כוחות מכניים
Ravi A. Desai1, Michael T. Yang1, Nathan J. Sniadecki2, Wesley R. Legant1, Christopher S. Chen1
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 2University of Washington
בסרטון זה אנו מדגימים כיצד לפברק ולנצל microfabricated גלאי מערך פוסט (mPADs) כדי להעריך מודולציות של contractility הסלולר.
Other articles by Michael T. Yang on PubMed
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16257459
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family binds multiple endothelial cell surface receptors. Our goal is to build comprehensive models of these interactions for the purpose of simulating angiogenesis. In view of low concentrations of growth factors in vivo and in vitro, stochastic modeling of molecular interactions may be necessary. Here, we compare Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic binding of VEGF and two of its major receptors on cells in vitro to equivalent deterministic simulations. In the range of typical VEGF concentrations, the stochastic and deterministic models are in agreement. However, we observe significant variability in receptor binding, which may be linked to biological stochastic events, e.g., blood vessel sprout initiation. We study patches of cell surface of varying sizes to investigate spatial integration of the signal by the cell, which impacts directly the variability of binding, and find significant variability up to the single-cell level. Dimerization of VEGF receptors does not significantly alter the variability in ligand binding. A 'sliding window' approach demonstrated no reduction in the variability of binding by temporal integration. The variability is expected to be more prominent in in vivo situations where the number of ligand molecules available for binding is less.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804810
Cells respond to mechanical forces whether applied externally or generated internally via the cytoskeleton. To study the cellular response to forces separately, we applied external forces to cells via microfabricated magnetic posts containing cobalt nanowires interspersed among an array of elastomeric posts, which acted as independent sensors to cellular traction forces. A magnetic field induced torque in the nanowires, which deflected the magnetic posts and imparted force to individual adhesions of cells attached to the array. Using this system, we examined the cellular reaction to applied forces and found that applying a step force led to an increase in local focal adhesion size at the site of application but not at nearby nonmagnetic posts. Focal adhesion recruitment was enhanced further when cells were subjected to multiple force actuations within the same time interval. Recording the traction forces in response to such force stimulation revealed two responses: a sudden loss in contractility that occurred within the first minute of stimulation or a gradual decay in contractility over several minutes. For both types of responses, the subcellular distribution of loss in traction forces was not confined to locations near the actuated micropost, nor uniformly across the whole cell, but instead occurred at discrete locations along the cell periphery. Together, these data reveal an important dynamic biological relationship between external and internal forces and demonstrate the utility of this microfabricated system to explore this interaction.
The Effect of Electrostatic Interactions on Conformational Equilibria of Multiply Substituted Tetrahydropyran Oxocarbenium Ions
The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19072093
The three-dimensional structures of dioxocarbenium ions related to glycosyl cations were determined by an analysis of spectroscopic, computational, and reactivity data. Hypothetical low-energy structures of the dioxocarbenium ions were correlated with both experimentally determined (1)H NMR coupling constants and diastereoselectivity results from nucleophilic substitution reactions. This method confirmed the pseudoaxial preference of C-3 alkoxy-substituted systems and revealed the conformational preference of the C-5 alkoxymethyl group. Although the monosubstituted C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent preferred a pseudoequatorial orientation, the C-5-C-6 bond rotation was controlled by an electrostatic effect. The preferred diaxial conformer of the trans-4,5-disubstituted tetrahydropyranyl system underscored the importance of electrostatic effects in dictating conformational equilibria. In the 2-deoxymannose system, although steric effects influenced the orientation of the C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent, the all-axial conformer was favored because of electrostatic stabilization.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19541627
Physical forces generated by cells drive morphologic changes during development and can feedback to regulate cellular phenotypes. Because these phenomena typically occur within a 3-dimensional (3D) matrix in vivo, we used microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to generate arrays of microtissues consisting of cells encapsulated within 3D micropatterned matrices. Microcantilevers were used to simultaneously constrain the remodeling of a collagen gel and to report forces generated during this process. By concurrently measuring forces and observing matrix remodeling at cellular length scales, we report an initial correlation and later decoupling between cellular contractile forces and changes in tissue morphology. Independently varying the mechanical stiffness of the cantilevers and collagen matrix revealed that cellular forces increased with boundary or matrix rigidity whereas levels of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins correlated with levels of mechanical stress. By mapping these relationships between cellular and matrix mechanics, cellular forces, and protein expression onto a bio-chemo-mechanical model of microtissue contractility, we demonstrate how intratissue gradients of mechanical stress can emerge from collective cellular contractility and finally, how such gradients can be used to engineer protein composition and organization within a 3D tissue. Together, these findings highlight a complex and dynamic relationship between cellular forces, ECM remodeling, and cellular phenotype and describe a system to study and apply this relationship within engineered 3D microtissues.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20463286
Actomyosin contractility affects cellular organization within tissues in part through the generation of mechanical forces at sites of cell-matrix and cell-cell contact. While increased mechanical loading at cell-matrix adhesions results in focal adhesion growth, whether forces drive changes in the size of cell-cell adhesions remains an open question. To investigate the responsiveness of adherens junctions (AJ) to force, we adapted a system of microfabricated force sensors to quantitatively report cell-cell tugging force and AJ size. We observed that AJ size was modulated by endothelial cell-cell tugging forces: AJs and tugging force grew or decayed with myosin activation or inhibition, respectively. Myosin-dependent regulation of AJs operated in concert with a Rac1, and this coordinated regulation was illustrated by showing that the effects of vascular permeability agents (S1P, thrombin) on junctional stability were reversed by changing the extent to which these agents coupled to the Rac and myosin-dependent pathways. Furthermore, direct application of mechanical tugging force, rather than myosin activity per se, was sufficient to trigger AJ growth. These findings demonstrate that the dynamic coordination of mechanical forces and cell-cell adhesive interactions likely is critical to the maintenance of multicellular integrity and highlight the need for new approaches to study tugging forces.
Nature. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20613844
Mechanical forces are central to developmental, physiological and pathological processes. However, limited understanding of force transmission within sub-cellular structures is a major obstacle to unravelling molecular mechanisms. Here we describe the development of a calibrated biosensor that measures forces across specific proteins in cells with piconewton (pN) sensitivity, as demonstrated by single molecule fluorescence force spectroscopy. The method is applied to vinculin, a protein that connects integrins to actin filaments and whose recruitment to focal adhesions (FAs) is force-dependent. We show that tension across vinculin in stable FAs is approximately 2.5 pN and that vinculin recruitment to FAs and force transmission across vinculin are regulated separately. Highest tension across vinculin is associated with adhesion assembly and enlargement. Conversely, vinculin is under low force in disassembling or sliding FAs at the trailing edge of migrating cells. Furthermore, vinculin is required for stabilizing adhesions under force. Together, these data reveal that FA stabilization under force requires both vinculin recruitment and force transmission, and that, surprisingly, these processes can be controlled independently.
Nature Methods. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20676108
We report the establishment of a library of micromolded elastomeric micropost arrays to modulate substrate rigidity independently of effects on adhesive and other material surface properties. We demonstrated that micropost rigidity impacts cell morphology, focal adhesions, cytoskeletal contractility and stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, early changes in cytoskeletal contractility predicted later stem cell fate decisions in single cells.
Assaying Stem Cell Mechanobiology on Microfabricated Elastomeric Substrates with Geometrically Modulated Rigidity
Nature Protocols. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21293460
We describe the use of a microfabricated cell culture substrate, consisting of a uniform array of closely spaced, vertical, elastomeric microposts, to study the effects of substrate rigidity on cell function. Elastomeric micropost substrates are micromolded from silicon masters comprised of microposts of different heights to yield substrates of different rigidities. The tips of the elastomeric microposts are functionalized with extracellular matrix through microcontact printing to promote cell adhesion. These substrates, therefore, present the same topographical cues to adherent cells while varying substrate rigidity only through manipulation of micropost height. This protocol describes how to fabricate the silicon micropost array masters (~2 weeks to complete) and elastomeric substrates (3 d), as well as how to perform cell culture experiments (1-14 d), immunofluorescence imaging (2 d), traction force analysis (2 d) and stem cell differentiation assays (1 d) on these substrates in order to examine the effect of substrate rigidity on stem cell morphology, traction force generation, focal adhesion organization and differentiation.
Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21445393
Mechanical traction forces exerted by adherent cells on their surroundings serve an important role in a multitude of cellular and physiological processes including cell motility and multicellular rearrangements. For endothelial cells, contraction also provides a means to disrupt cell-cell junctions during inflammation to increase permeability between blood and interstitial tissue compartments. The degree of contractility exhibited by endothelial cells is influenced by numerous soluble factors, such as thrombin, histamine, lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Upon binding to cell surface receptors, these agents trigger changes in cytoskeletal organization, adhesion and myosin II activity to varying degrees. While conventional antibody-based biochemical assays are suitable for detecting relatively large changes in biomarkers of contractility in an end-point format, they cannot resolve subtle or rapid changes in contractility and cannot do so noninvasively. To overcome these limitations, we developed an approach to measure the contractile response of single cells exposed to contractility agonists with high spatiotemporal resolution. A previously developed traction force sensor, comprised of dense arrays of elastomeric microposts on which cells are cultured, was combined with custom, semi-automated software developed here to extract strain energy measurements from thousands of time-lapse images of micropost arrays deformed by adherent cells. Using this approach we corroborated the differential effects of known agonists of contractility and characterized the dynamics of their effects. All of these agonists produced a characteristic first-order rise and plateau in forces, except VEGF, which stimulated an early transient spike in strain energy followed by a sustained increase. This novel, two-phase contractile response was present in a subpopulation of cells, was mediated through both VEGFR2 and ROCK activation, and its magnitude was modulated by receptor internalization. Interestingly, the concentration of VEGF could shift the proportion of cells that responded with a spike versus only a gradual increase in forces. Furthermore, cells repeatedly exposed to VEGF were found to contract with different dynamics after pretreatment, suggesting that exposure history can impact the mechanical response. These studies highlight the importance of direct measurements of traction force dynamics as a tool for studies of mechanotransduction.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Signaling and Osteogenesis Is Regulated by Cell Shape, RhoA/ROCK, and Cytoskeletal Tension
Stem Cells and Development. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21967638
Abstract Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is classically thought to be mediated by different cytokines such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we report that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and its effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal mechanics, regulates BMP-induced signaling and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Using micropatterned substrates to progressively restrict cell spreading and flattening against ECM, we demonstrated that BMP-induced osteogenesis is progressively antagonized with decreased cell spreading. BMP triggered rapid and sustained RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) activity and contractile tension only in spread cells, and this signaling was required for BMP-induced osteogenesis. Exploring the molecular basis for this effect, we found that restricting cell spreading, reducing ROCK signaling, or inhibiting cytoskeletal tension prevented BMP-induced SMA/mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)1 c-terminal phosphorylation, SMAD1 dimerization with SMAD4, and SMAD1 translocation into the nucleus. Together, these findings demonstrate the direct involvement of cell spreading and RhoA/ROCK-mediated cytoskeletal tension generation in BMP-induced signaling and early stages of in vitro osteogenesis, and highlight the essential interplay between biochemical and mechanical cues in stem cell differentiation.
Biophysical Journal. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22261049
Dendritic cells (DCs) migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid organs where they initiate the adaptive immune response. Although motility is essential to DC function, the mechanisms by which they migrate are not fully understood. We incorporated micropost array detectors into a microfluidic gradient generator to develop what we consider to be a novel method for probing low magnitude traction forces during directional migration. We found migration of primary murine DCs is driven by short-lived traction stresses at the leading edge or filopodia. The traction forces generated by DCs are smaller in magnitude than found in neutrophils, and of similar magnitude during chemotaxis and chemokinesis, at 18 ± 1.4 and 16 ± 1.3 nN/cell, respectively. The characteristic duration of local DC traction forces was 3 min. The maximum principal stress in the cell occurred in the plane perpendicular to the axis of motion, forward of the centroid. We illustrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of traction stresses can be used to predict the direction of future DC motion. Overall, DCs show a mode of migration distinct from both mesenchymal cells and neutrophils, characterized by rapid turnover of traction forces in leading filopodia.