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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (16)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Nature Cell Biology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Research
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of Cell Science
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Experimental Dermatology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology
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Articles by Michael Cammer in JoVE
التصوير من HIV-1 مغلف من صنع المشبك الفيروسية، واشارة على طبقات ثنائية الدهون الاصطناعية
Kathleen C. Prins*1,2, Gaia Vasiliver-Shamis*2,3, Michael Cammer1,2, David Depoil1,2, Michael L. Dustin2, Catarina E. Hioe1,4
1Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, 2Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Marty and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine and Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Immunogenetics, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Veteran Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System
توضح هذه المقالة طريقة لتصور تشكيل المشبك 1 الفيروسية HIV-1 مغلف الناجم عن طبقات ثنائية الزجاج مستو بدعم من مجموع المجهري التأمل الداخلي (TIRF) مضان. ويمكن أيضا أن تكون مجتمعة مع طريقة تلوين المناعي للكشف عن تنشيط وإعادة توزيع الجزيئات مما يشير إلى أن تحدث أثناء-1 فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية مغلف التي يسببها تشكيل المشبك الفيروسية.
Other articles by Michael Cammer on PubMed
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11790790
A library of fluorescently labeled protein kinase C (PKC) peptide substrates was prepared to identify a phosphorylation-induced reporter of protein kinase activity. The lead PKC substrate displays a 2.5-fold change in fluorescence intensity upon phosphorylation. PKC activity is readily sampled in cell lysates containing the activated PKCs. Immunodepletion of conventional PKCs from the cell lysate eliminates the fluorescence response, suggesting that this peptide substrate is selectively phosphorylated by PKCalpha, beta, and gamma. Finally, living cells microinjected with the peptide substrate exhibit a 2-fold increase in fluorescence intensity upon exposure to a PKC activator. These results suggest that peptide-based protein kinase biosensors may be useful in monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of PKC activity in living cells.
Nature Cell Biology. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12055636
Phagocytosis is a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI(3)K)-dependent process in macrophages. We identified Myo10 (Myosin-X), an unconventional myosin with pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, as a potential downstream target of PI(3)K. Myo10 was recruited to phagocytic cups in a wortmannin-sensitive manner. Expression of a truncation construct of Myo10 (Myo10 tail) in a macrophage cell line or cytosolic loading of anti-Myo10 antibodies in bovine alveolar macrophages inhibited phagocytosis. In contrast, expression of a Myo10 tail construct containing a point mutation in one of its PH domains failed to inhibit phagocytosis. Expression of Myo10 tail inhibited spreading, but not adhesion, on IgG-coated substrates, consistent with a function for Myo10 in pseudopod extension. We propose that Myo10 provides a molecular link between PI(3)K and pseudopod extension during phagocytosis.
The Growth Arrest-specific Gene Product Gas6 Promotes the Survival of Human Oligodendrocytes Via a Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent Pathway
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12764109
Microarray analysis revealed that transcripts for the Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed at high levels in O4+-immunopanned oligodendrocytes isolated from second trimester human fetal spinal cord. In humans the sole known ligand for the Axl/Rse/Mer kinases is growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which in the CNS is secreted by neurons and endothelial cells. We hypothesized that Gas6 is a survival factor for oligodendrocytes and receptor activation signals downstream to the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway to increase cell survival in the absence of cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we grew enriched human oligodendrocytes for 6 d on a monolayer of NIH3T3 cells stably expressing Gas6. CNP+ oligodendrocytes on Gas6-secreting 3T3 cells had more primary processes and arborizations than those plated solely on 3T3 cells. Also, a twofold increase in CNP+ and MBP+ oligodendrocytes was observed when they were plated on the Gas6-secreting cells. The effect was abolished in the presence of Axl-Fc but remained unchanged in the presence of the irrelevant receptor fusion molecule TrkA-Fc. A significant decrease in CNP+/TUNEL+ oligodendrocytes was observed when recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) was administered to oligodendrocytes plated on poly-L-lysine, supporting a role for Gas6 signaling in oligodendrocyte survival during a period of active myelination in human fetal spinal cord development. PI3-kinase inhibitors blocked the anti-apoptotic effect of rhGas6, whereas a MEK/ERK inhibitor had no effect. Thus Gas6 sustains human fetal oligodendrocyte viability by receptor activation and downstream signaling via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12802071
The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein, thereby promoting cell-cycle progression. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in hematopoetic and epithelial malignancies correlating with poor prognosis and metastasis in several cancer types. Because tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to enhance malignant progression and metastasis, and cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to oncogene-induced malignancies, we investigated the function of cyclin D1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages. Cyclin D1 deficiency increased focal complex formation at the site of substratum contact, and enhanced macrophage adhesion, yielding a flattened, circular morphology with reduced membrane ruffles. Migration in response to wounding, cytokine-mediated chemotaxis, and transendothelial cell migration of cyclin D1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages were all substantially reduced. Thus, apart from proliferative and possible motility defects in the tumor cells themselves, the reduced motility and invasiveness of cyclin D1-/- tumor-associated macrophages may contribute to the tumor resistance of these mice.
Proteasome Inhibitor (MG-132) Treatment of Mdx Mice Rescues the Expression and Membrane Localization of Dystrophin and Dystrophin-associated Proteins
The American Journal of Pathology. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14507673
Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, is absent in the skeletal muscle of DMD patients and mdx mice. At the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibers, dystrophin associates with a multimeric protein complex, termed the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). Protein members of this complex are normally absent or greatly reduced in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle fibers, and are thought to undergo degradation through an unknown pathway. As such, we reasoned that inhibition of the proteasomal degradation pathway might rescue the expression and subcellular localization of dystrophin-associated proteins. To test this hypothesis, we treated mdx mice with the well-characterized proteasomal inhibitor MG-132. First, we locally injected MG-132 into the gastrocnemius muscle, and observed the outcome after 24 hours. Next, we performed systemic treatment using an osmotic pump that allowed us to deliver different concentrations of the proteasomal inhibitor, over an 8-day period. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, we show that administration of the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 effectively rescues the expression levels and plasma membrane localization of dystrophin, beta-dystroglycan, alpha-dystroglycan, and alpha-sarcoglycan in skeletal muscle fibers from mdx mice. Furthermore, we show that systemic treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor 1) reduces muscle membrane damage, as revealed by vital staining (with Evans blue dye) of the diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscle isolated from treated mdx mice, and 2) ameliorates the histopathological signs of muscular dystrophy, as judged by hematoxylin and eosin staining of muscle biopsies taken from treated mdx mice. Thus, the current study opens new and important avenues in our understanding of the pathogenesis of DMD. Most importantly, these new findings may have clinical implications for the pharmacological treatment of patients with DMD.
Cancer Research. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14633718
To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of Taxol and the functionally related molecule epothilone B (EpoB), we have analyzed the gene expression profiles in A549 cells in response to increasing concentrations of these microtubule-stabilizing drugs. An almost identical expression pattern was observed in cells treated with either Taxol or EpoB. Low concentrations of the drugs induced aberrant mitosis including asymmetric and multipolar cell divisions. At drug concentrations that triggered G(2)-M arrest, cells escaped from a prolonged mitotic arrest without cell division, resulting in tetraploid G(1) cells. This mitotic slippage is correlated with diminished expression of cdc2 kinase, topoisomerase IIalpha, BUB3, and BUB2-like protein 1, as well as with an increased expression of 14-3-3-sigma. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, an early indicator of apoptosis, occurred in cells undergoing mitotic slippage and in aneuploid cells resulting from aberrant mitosis. In contrast, cells arrested in mitosis demonstrated no signal for apoptosis but had an increased expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Induction of aneuploid or tetraploid G(1) cells was accompanied by increased expression of CD95, p21, and BTG2 that may contribute to cell death because their expression was diminished in an EpoB-resistant cell line. In contrast, expression of GADD45 and PTGF-beta could promote cell survival. We conclude that abnormal mitotic exit is required for apoptotic cell death induced by microtubule-stabilizing drugs.
Immunity. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15030777
PD-1, a member of the CD28/CTLA-4/ICOS costimulatory receptor family, delivers negative signals that have profound effects on T and B cell immunity. The 2.0 A crystal structure of the extracellular domain of murine PD-1 reveals an Ig V-type topology with overall similarity to the CTLA-4 monomer; however, there are notable differences in regions relevant to function. Our structural and biophysical data show that PD-1 is monomeric both in solution as well as on cell surface, in contrast to CTLA-4 and other family members that are all disulfide-linked homodimers. Furthermore, our structure-based mutagenesis studies identify the ligand binding surface of PD-1, which displays significant differences compared to those present in the other members of the family.
Macrophages Promote the Invasion of Breast Carcinoma Cells Via a Colony-stimulating Factor-1/epidermal Growth Factor Paracrine Loop
Cancer Research. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15958574
Previous studies have shown that macrophages and tumor cells are comigratory in mammary tumors and that these cell types are mutually dependent for invasion. Here we show that macrophages and tumor cells are necessary and sufficient for comigration and invasion into collagen I and that this process involves a paracrine loop. Macrophages express epidermal growth factor (EGF), which promotes the formation of elongated protrusions and cell invasion by carcinoma cells. Colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) produced by carcinoma cells promotes the expression of EGF by macrophages. In addition, EGF promotes the expression of CSF-1 by carcinoma cells thereby generating a positive feedback loop. Disruption of this loop by blockade of either EGF receptor or CSF-1 receptor signaling is sufficient to inhibit both macrophage and tumor cell migration and invasion.
Estrogen and Resveratrol Regulate Rac and Cdc42 Signaling to the Actin Cytoskeleton of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17356711
Estrogen and structurally related molecules play critical roles in breast cancer. We reported that resveratrol (50 microM), an estrogen-like phytosterol from grapes, acts in an antiestrogenic manner in breast cancer cells to reduce cell migration and to induce a global and sustained extension of actin structures called filopodia. Herein, we report that resveratrol-induced filopodia formation is time-dependent and concentration-dependent. In contrast to resveratrol at 50 microM, resveratrol at 5 microM acts in a manner similar to estrogen by increasing lamellipodia, as well as cell migration and invasion. Because Rho GTPases regulate the extension of actin structures, we investigated a role for Rac and Cdc42 in estrogen and resveratrol signaling. Our results demonstrate that 50 microM resveratrol decreases Rac and Cdc42 activity, whereas estrogen and 5 microM resveratrol increase Rac activity in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing dominant-negative Cdc42 or dominant-negative Rac retain filopodia response to 50 microM resveratrol. Lamellipodia response to 5 microM resveratrol, estrogen, or epidermal growth factor is inhibited in cells expressing dominant-negative Rac, indicating that Rac regulates estrogen and resveratrol (5 microM) signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. These results indicate that signaling to the actin cytoskeleton by low and high concentrations of resveratrol may be differentially regulated by Rac and Cdc42.
Journal of Cell Science. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17855387
Cdc42 plays a central role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and maintaining cell polarity. Here, we show that Cdc42 is crucial for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated protrusion in MTLn3 carcinoma cells. When stimulated with EGF, carcinoma cells showed a rapid increase in activated Cdc42 that is primarily localized to the protruding edge of the cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cdc42 expression caused a decrease in EGF-stimulated protrusion and reduced cell motility in time-lapse studies. These changes were correlated with a decrease in barbed-end formation and Arp2/3 localization at the cell edge, and a marked defect in actin filament branching, as revealed by rotary-shadowing scanning electron microscopy. Upstream of Arp2/3, Cdc42 knockdown inhibited EGF-stimulated activation of PI 3-kinase at early (within 1 minute) but not late (within 3 minutes) time points. Membrane targeting of N-WASP, WAVE2 and IRSp53 were also inhibited. Effects on WAVE2 were not owing to Rac1 inhibition, because WAVE2 recruitment is unaffected by Rac1 knockdown. Our data suggest that Cdc42 activation is crucial for the regulation of actin polymerization in carcinoma cells, and required for both EGF-stimulated protrusion and cell motility independently of effects on Rac.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18086920
Lamellipodial protrusion and directional migration of carcinoma cells towards chemoattractants, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), depend upon the spatial and temporal regulation of actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). It is generally hypothesized that the activity of many ABPs are temporally and spatially regulated by PIP(2); however, this is mainly based on in vitro-binding and structural studies, and generally in vivo evidence is lacking. Here, we provide the first in vivo data that directly visualize the spatial and temporal regulation of cofilin by PIP(2) in living cells. We show that EGF induces a rapid loss of PIP(2) through PLC activity, resulting in a release and activation of a membrane-bound pool of cofilin. Upon release, we find that cofilin binds to and severs F-actin, which is coincident with actin polymerization and lamellipod formation. Moreover, our data provide evidence for how PLC is involved in the formation of protrusions in breast carcinoma cells during chemotaxis and metastasis towards EGF.
Growth and Pigment Production on D-tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus Gattii, Cryptococcus Neoformans, and Candida Albicans
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17989195
Given the increasing prevalence of cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) strains, there is a need for rapid and reliable tests that discriminate C. gattii from Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A, D, and AD). Seventy-two C. neoformans strains, sixty-seven C. gattii strains, and five Candida albicans strains were analyzed for their ability to grow and produce pigment on minimal D-tryptophan D-proline (m-DTDP) medium, on yeast carbon base D-tryptophan D-proline (YCB-DTDP) medium, and on fructose D-tryptophan glycine (m-FDTG) medium. Of the C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates, 94% and 0% grew on m-DTDP agar, respectively, and 98% and 0% grew in YCB-DTDP medium, respectively. C. gattii produced large amounts of brown intracellular pigment(s) on m-DTDP agar and smaller amounts of yellow-brown (amber) extracellular pigment(s). C. albicans grew on both media and produced a pink photoactivated pigment on m-DTDP agar. C. gattii produced large amounts of brown intracellular pigments on the differential medium m-FDTG, whereas C. neoformans produced smaller amounts of the brown pigments and C. albicans produced a pink pigment. The pigments produced by C. gattii from D-tryptophan were distinct and were not related to melanin formation from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Thin-layer chromatography of the methanol-extracted C. gattii cells detected four different pigments, including brown (two types), yellow, and pink-purple compounds. We conclude that tryptophan-derived pigments are not melanins and that growth on m-DTDP or YCB-DTDP agar can be used to rapidly differentiate C. gattii from C. neoformans.
Transcellular Migration of Neutrophils is a Quantitatively Significant Pathway Across Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Experimental Dermatology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19040450
Neutrophil extravasation is central to inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In vivo, neutrophils have been shown to migrate through cell-to-cell junctions (paracellular pathway) or directly through the body of the endothelial cell (transcellular pathway). In vitro, however, neutrophil migration is a largely paracellular process where cells preferentially cross at tricellular corners devoid of tight junctions. To approximate the type of cells encountered by extravasating neutrophils in vivo, we developed a neutrophil-migration assay using primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. We show here that a large proportion of migrating neutrophils traverse a monolayer of microvascular endothelium using a purely transcellular pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that F-actin is rearranged similarly in neutrophils undergoing diapedesis along either route. This in vitro model closely simulates the physiological process of neutrophil extravasation in vivo and can be further utilized to evaluate the relative contribution of distinct migratory pathways to the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin disease.
The Mechanism of CSF-1-induced Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Activation in Vivo: a Role for Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Cdc42
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561083
A role for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) in chemotaxis to various agents has been demonstrated in monocyte-derived cell types. Although WASP has been shown to be activated by multiple mechanisms in vitro, it is unclear how WASP is regulated in vivo. A WASP biosensor (WASPbs), which uses intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer to report WASP activation in vivo, was constructed, and following transfection of macrophages, activation of WASPbs upon treatment with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) was detected globally as early as 30 s and remained localized to protrusive regions at later time points. Similar results were obtained when endogenous WASP activation was determined using conformation-sensitive antibodies. In vivo CSF-1-induced WASP activation was fully Cdc42-dependent. Activation of WASP in response to treatment with CSF-1 was also shown to be phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent. However, treatment with the Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 or SU6656 or disruption of the major tyrosine phosphorylation site of WASPbs (Y291F mutation) did not reduce the level of CSF-1-induced WASP activation. Our results indicate that WASP activation downstream of CSF-1R is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and Cdc42-dependent consistent with an involvement of these molecules in macrophage migration. However, although tyrosine phosphorylation of WASP has been proposed to stimulate WASP activity, we found no evidence to indicate that this occurs in vivo.
Caveolin-1 Expression Determines the Route of Neutrophil Extravasation Through Skin Microvasculature
The American Journal of Pathology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19164603
Interleukin-8 plays a key role in the acute inflammatory response by mediating recruitment of neutrophils through vessel walls into affected tissues. During this process, molecular signals guide circulating blood neutrophils to target specific vessels for extravasation and to migrate through such vessels via particular routes. Our results show that levels of endothelial caveolin-1, the protein responsible for the induction of the membrane domains known as caveolae, are critical to each of these processes. We demonstrate that, in response to the intradermal injection of interleukin-8, neutrophils are preferentially recruited to a unique subset of venules that express high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and low levels of caveolin-1. Our results show that neutrophils traverse human dermal microvascular endothelial cells using one of two pathways: a transcellular route directly through the cell or a paracellular route through cellular junctions. Caveolin-1 expression appears to favor the transcellular path while down-regulation of caveolin-1 promotes the paracellular route.
Directional Cell Migration and Chemotaxis in Wound Healing Response to PDGF-AA Are Coordinated by the Primary Cilium in Fibroblasts
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20110689
Cell motility and migration play pivotal roles in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes including development and tissue repair. Cell migration is regulated through external stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), a key regulator in directional cell migration during embryonic development and a chemoattractant during postnatal migratory responses including wound healing. We previously showed that PDGFRalpha signaling is coordinated by the primary cilium in quiescent cells. However, little is known about the function of the primary cilium in cell migration. Here we used micropipette analysis to show that a normal chemosensory response to PDGF-AA in fibroblasts requires the primary cilium. In vitro and in vivo wound healing assays revealed that in ORPK mouse (IFT88(Tg737Rpw)) fibroblasts, where ciliary assembly is defective, chemotaxis towards PDGF-AA is absent, leading to unregulated high speed and uncontrolled directional cell displacement during wound closure, with subsequent defects in wound healing. These data suggest that in coordination with cytoskeletal reorganization, the fibroblast primary cilium functions via ciliary PDGFRalpha signaling to monitor directional movement during wound healing.