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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Michele J. Karolak in JoVE
Isolation and Culture of Cells from the Nephrogenic Zone of the Embryonic Mouse Kidney
Aaron C. Brown1, Ulrika Blank2, Derek C. Adams1, Michele J. Karolak1, Jennifer L. Fetting1, Beth L. Hill1, Leif Oxburgh1
1Department of Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 2Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund University Hospital
In this report we describe a method for the isolation and culture of the progenitor cell niche from the embryonic mouse kidney that can be used to study signaling pathways regulating stem/progenitor cells of the developing kidney. These cultured cells are highly accessible to small molecule and recombinant protein treatment, and importantly also to viral transduction, which allows efficient manipulation of candidate pathways.
Other articles by Michele J. Karolak on PubMed
BMC Developmental Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18801194
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate essential processes during organogenesis, and a functional understanding of these secreted proteins depends on identification of their target cells. In this study, we generate a transgenic reporter for organogenesis studies that we use to define BMP pathway activation in the developing kidney.
Kinetics of Transmission, Infectivity, and Genome Stability of Two Novel Mouse Norovirus Isolates in Breeding Mice
Comparative Medicine. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19295052
Murine noroviruses are a recently discovered group of viruses found within mouse research colonies in many animal facilities worldwide. In this study, we used 2 novel mouse norovirus (MNV) wildtype isolates to examine the kinetics of transmission and tissue distribution in breeding units of NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J and backcrossed NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J x NOD/ShiLtJ (N1) mice. Viral shedding in feces and dissemination to tissues of infected offspring mice were monitored by RT-PCR over a 6-wk period postpartum. Histologic sections of tissues from mice exposed to MNV were examined for lesions and their sera monitored for the presence of antibodies to MNV. Viruses shed in feces of parental and offspring mice were compared for sequence homology of the Orf2 gene. Studies showed that the wildtype viruses MNV5 and MNV6 behaved differently in terms of the kinetics of transmission and distribution to tissues of offspring mice. For MNV5, virus transmission from parents to offspring was not seen before 3 wk after birth, and neither isolate was transmitted between cages of infected and control mice. Susceptibility to infection was statistically different between the 2 mouse strains used in the study. Both immunodeficient NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J mice and NOD. CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J x NOD/ShiLtJ offspring capable of mounting an immune response shed virus in their feces throughout the 6-wk study period, but no gross or histologic lesions were present in infected tissues. Progeny viruses isolated from the feces of infected offspring showed numerous mutations in the Orf2 gene for MNV5 but not MNV6. These results confirm previous studies demonstrating that the biology of MNV in mice varies substantially with each virus isolate and mouse strain infected.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19357253
Stimulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway protects the kidney from acute and chronic injury. Numerous regulators in the kidney control BMP signaling, offering many targets for therapeutic manipulation. Here, we screened for modulators of BMP signaling in the ischemia-sensitive S3 segment and found that Chordin-like 1 is expressed in this segment of both the mouse and human nephron. Chordin-like 1 specifically antagonizes BMP7, which is expressed in the neighboring distal nephron, and this depends on the presence of the protein Twisted gastrulation. Upon ischemia-induced degeneration of the S3 segment, we observed a reduction in Chordin-like 1 expression coincident with intense BMP signaling in tubules of the recovering kidney. Restored expression accompanied proximal tubule epithelia redifferentiation, again coincident with decreased BMP signaling. We propose that Chordin-like 1 reduces BMP7 signaling in healthy proximal tubules, and the loss of this activity upon sloughing of injured epithelia promotes BMP7 signaling in repopulating, dedifferentiated epithelia. As regenerating epithelia differentiate, Chordin-like 1 is again expressed, antagonizing BMP7. These data suggest a mechanism for dynamic regulation of renoprotective BMP7 signaling in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule.
Development (Cambridge, England). Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19793891
The iterative formation of nephrons during embryonic development relies on continual replenishment of progenitor cells throughout nephrogenesis. Defining molecular mechanisms that maintain and regulate this progenitor pool is essential to understanding nephrogenesis in developmental and regenerative contexts. Maintenance of nephron progenitors is absolutely dependent on BMP7 signaling, and Bmp7-null mice exhibit rapid loss of progenitors. However, the signal transduction machinery operating downstream of BMP7 as well as the precise target cell remain undefined. Using a novel primary progenitor isolation system, we have investigated signal transduction and biological outcomes elicited by BMP7. We find that BMP7 directly and rapidly activates JNK signaling in nephron progenitors resulting in phosphorylation of Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. This signaling results in the accumulation of cyclin D3 and subsequent proliferation of PAX2(+) progenitors, inversely correlating with the loss of nephron progenitors seen in the Bmp7-null kidney. Activation of Jun and ATF2 is severely diminished in Bmp7-null kidneys, providing an important in vivo correlate. BMP7 thus promotes proliferation directly in nephron progenitors by activating the JNK signaling circuitry.
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20861081
Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted protein with homology to both Follistatin and the SPARC/BM40 family of matricellular proteins. In this study, we sought to determine the expression patterns of Fstl1 and its cognate receptor Dip2a in the adult, and to assess the consequences of Fstl1 inactivation on development and homeostasis of the kidney. We find that FSTL1 circulates at high levels in both the human and the mouse and that it is also locally expressed in the loop of Henle in the kidney. To begin to understand the in vivo functions of Fstl1, we generated a mouse mutant using a genetrap approach. The hypomorphic Fstl1 genetrap strain displays a strong reduction in FSTL1 expression at the protein level, but it does not show overt developmental defects. FSTL1 has previously been implicated in diverse disease processes as a regulator of inflammatory cytokine expression, and we therefore evaluated the response of the genetrap strain to cisplatin-mediated acute kidney injury, a disease model with highly cytokine-dependent pathology. We find that although TNF-α and Il6 levels are unchanged relative to wild-type, renal Il-1β expression is increased in genetrap mice following cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, histopatological analysis, expression of the tissue injury marker Havcr1, and measurement of serum creatinine demonstrate that reduction of Fstl1 expression sensitizes the kidney to acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity, suggesting a role for FSTL1-mediated Il-1β suppression in protection of the kidney from acute nephrotoxic injury.
Distinct Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Activate Indistinguishable Transcriptional Responses in Nephron Epithelia Including Notch Target Genes
Cellular Signalling. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21945409
Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling plays a significant role in the kidney's recovery from acute injury and exogenous administration of BMP7 has therapeutic potential in numerous rodent models of renal injury and disease. However, in the healthy kidney endogenous BMP7 ligand is vigorously counteracted by extracellular antagonists such as USAG1 and CHRDL1. Little is known about the degree of BMP signaling and the ligands driving it in the healthy adult kidney. In this study we characterize basal BMP signaling in the healthy tubular nephron, and show that BMP2 is expressed in proximal nephron epithelial cells. Comparative gene profiling of proximal tubule cell responses to BMP2 and BMP7 does not reveal any qualitative difference, suggesting that identical BMP gene targets may be activated in healthy and injured organs. Interestingly, our gene profiling analysis shows that BMP signaling activates a number of Notch regulated transcription factors, including HEY1. As in other biological systems, HEY1 functions as a negative feedback regulator of BMP2 expression in the proximal tubule. In summary, this work reveals endogenous BMP signaling patterns in the healthy human and mouse kidneys, and identifies novel gene targets, some of which are involved in the complex regulation of BMP signaling in the adult kidney.