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In JoVE (1)
- Парные Nanoinjection и электрофизиологии Анализ для выявления биологической активности соединений с использованием DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Гигантские системы волоконно
Other Publications (3)
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Articles by Monica Mejia in JoVE
Парные Nanoinjection и электрофизиологии Анализ для выявления биологической активности соединений с использованием DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Гигантские системы волоконно
Monica Mejia1, Mari D. Heghinian2, Alexandra Busch1, Frank Marí2, Tanja A. Godenschwege1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, 2Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University
Other articles by Monica Mejia on PubMed
Oecologia. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12647177
Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated with the predicted sapwood k(s) and with tree height normalized by the relative diurnal water storage capacity. Residence times for the disappearance of the D(2)O tracer in transpired water ranged from 2 days in C. alliodora to 22 days in A. excelsum and were positively correlated with a normalized index of diurnal water storage capacity. Capacitive exchange of water between stem storage compartments and the transpiration stream thus had a profound influence on apparent rates of axial water transport, the magnitude of radial water movement, and the retention time in the tree of water taken up by the roots. The inverse relationship between internal water exchange capacity and k(s) was consistent with a trade-off contributing to stability of leaf water status through highly efficient water transport at one extreme and release of stored water at the other extreme.
Dominant Mutations in the Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene Recapitulate in Drosophila Features of Human Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561293
Dominant-intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (DI-CMT) is characterized by axonal degeneration and demyelination of peripheral motor and sensory neurons. Three dominant mutations in the YARS gene, encoding tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), have so far been associated with DI-CMT type C. The molecular mechanisms through which mutations in YARS lead to peripheral neuropathy are currently unknown, and animal models for DI-CMTC are not yet available. Here, we report the generation of a Drosophila model of DI-CMTC: expression of the 3 mutant--but not wild type--TyrRS in Drosophila recapitulates several hallmarks of the human disease, including a progressive deficit in motor performance, electrophysiological evidence of neuronal dysfunction and morphological signs of axonal degeneration. Not only ubiquitous, but also neuron-specific expression of mutant TyrRS, induces these phenotypes, indicating that the mutant enzyme has cell-autonomous effects in neurons. Furthermore, biochemical and genetic complementation experiments revealed that loss of enzymatic activity is not a common feature of DI-CMTC-associated mutations. Thus, the DI-CMTC phenotype is not due to haploinsufficiency of aminoacylation activity, but most likely to a gain-of-function alteration of the mutant TyrRS or interference with an unknown function of the WT protein. Our results also suggest that the molecular pathways leading to mutant TyrRS-associated neurodegeneration are conserved from flies to humans.
Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20723555
Finding compounds that affect neuronal or muscular function is of great interest as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological disorders. Alternative applications for these compounds include their use as molecular probes as well as insecticides. We have developed a bioassay that requires small amounts of compounds and allows for unbiased screening of biological activity in vivo. For this, we paired administering compounds in a non-invasive manner with simultaneous electrophysiological recordings from a well-characterized neuronal circuit, the Giant Fiber System of Drosophila melanogaster, which mediates the escape response of the fly. The circuit encompasses a variety of neurons with cholinergic, glutamatergic, and electrical synapses as well as neuromuscular junctions. Electrophysiological recordings from this system allow for the detection of compound-related effects against any molecular target on these components. Here, we provide evidence that this novel bioassay works with small molecules such as the cholinergic receptor blocker mecamylamine hydrochloride and the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium hydroxide, as well as with venom from Conus brunneus and isolated conopeptides. Conopeptides have been developed into powerful drugs, such as the painkillers Prialt™ and Xen2174. However, most conopeptides have yet to be characterized, revealing the need for a rapid and straightforward screening method. Our findings show that mecamylamine hydrochloride, as well as the α-conotoxin ImI, which is known to be an antagonist of the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, efficiently disrupted the synaptic transmission of a Drosophila α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent pathway in our circuit but did not affect the function of neurons with other types of synapses. This demonstrates that our bioassay is a valid tool for screening for compounds relevant to human health.