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In JoVE (2)
- Prever a eficácia da estratégia de substituição População Usando Modelagem Matemática
- Um protocolo Optimizado para Criação Fopius arisanus, Um parasitóide de Frutas Tephritid Flies
Other Publications (12)
- The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Journal of Medical Entomology
- Molecular Ecology Notes
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Medical Entomology
- Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society
- PloS One
- Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases
- BMC Genomics
- Journal of Proteomics
- PloS One
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
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Articles by Nicholas Manoukis in JoVE
Prever a eficácia da estratégia de substituição População Usando Modelagem Matemática
John Marshall, Koji Morikawa, Nicholas Manoukis, Charles Taylor
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles
Charles Taylor e John Marshall explicar a utilidade de modelos matemáticos para avaliar a eficácia da estratégia de reposição da população. Insight é dada em como modelos computacionais podem fornecer informações sobre a dinâmica populacional de mosquitos ea propagação de elementos transponíveis através da subespécie A. gambiae. As considerações éticas de liberar os mosquitos geneticamente modificados na natureza são discutidos.
Um protocolo Optimizado para Criação Fopius arisanus, Um parasitóide de Frutas Tephritid Flies
Nicholas Manoukis, Scott Geib, Danny Seo, Michael McKenney, Roger Vargas, Eric Jang
Agricultural Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture, US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center
Fopius arisanus é um parasitóide de ovos-larvas de moscas da fruta Tephritid que é utilizado com sucesso no controle biológico dessas pragas importantes tropical. Descrevemos aqui um protocolo otimizado para a criação de F. arisanus em pequena escala, utilizando materiais facilmente disponíveis.
Other articles by Nicholas Manoukis on PubMed
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15964957
Anophelism without malaria has long been recognized. In large irrigation projects, such as that around Niono, Mali, villages in irrigated areas sometimes have more anopheline vectors of malaria than adjacent nonirrigated villages, but overall malaria prevalence is substantially less. One hypothesized explanation for this is high anopheline densities lead to smaller adults, who do not live so long and hence are less efficient at transmitting the disease. We analyzed serial collections from 18 villages in an irrigated area of Mali, measuring correlations between mosquito densities and survival rates, zoophilic rates, and vectorial capacity over the villages and times. Adult density was inversely related to anthropophily and adult survival and its relationship with vectorial capacity was positive at low mosquito densities, flat at intermediate densities, and negative at high densities. This may partly explain why malaria prevalence is low in irrigated villages with high Anopheles density.
Journal of Medical Entomology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17017214
Malaria vectors can reach very high densities in villages near irrigated rice fields in Africa, leading to the expectation that malaria should be especially prevalent there. Surprisingly, this is not always the case. In Niono, Mali, villages from nonirrigated areas have higher malaria prevalence than those within the irrigated regions, which suffer from higher mosquito numbers. One hypothesis explaining this observation is that mosquitoes from irrigated fields with high densities are inefficient vectors. This could occur if higher larval densities lead to smaller mosquitoes that suffer elevated mortality. Three predictions of the hypothesis were studied. First, the effect of larval density on larval body size was measured for both Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles. Second, the relationship between larval and adult body size was tested. Third, evidence of an effect of adult size on survivorship in both irrigated and nonirrigated villages during the wet and dry seasons was sought. There was a modest positive relationship between densities of immatures and larval size, and a strong relationship between larval and adult size. Furthermore, adult survivorship was higher in nonirrigated areas. However, there was no effect of size on survivorship between comparable samples from both the irrigated and nonirrigated zones. Although density may have a causal relationship with reduced transmission in the irrigated areas of Niono, it is unlikely to be because higher density leads to smaller body size and lower survivorship.
FORMATOMATIC: a Program for Converting Diploid Allelic Data Between Common Formats for Population Genetic Analysis
Molecular Ecology Notes. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 19789658
There has been a great increase in both the number of population genetic analysis programs and the size of data sets being studied with them. Since the file formats required by the most popular and useful programs are variable, automated reformatting or conversion between them is desirable. formatomatic is an easy to use program that can read allelic data files in genepop, raw (csv) or convert formats and create data files in nine formats: raw (csv), arlequin, genepop, immanc/bayesass +, migrate, newhybrids, msvar, baps and structure. Use of formatomatic should greatly reduce time spent reformatting data sets and avoid unnecessary errors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18287019
The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with ecotypes that mate assortatively. Here, we consider the potential role of paracentric inversions in promoting speciation in A. gambiae via "ecotypification," a term that refers to differentiation arising from local adaptation. In particular, we focus on the Bamako form, an ecotype characterized by low inversion polymorphism and fixation of an inversion, 2Rj, that is very rare or absent in all other forms of A. gambiae. The Bamako form has a restricted distribution by the upper Niger River and its tributaries that is associated with a distinctive type of larval habitat, laterite rock pools, hypothesized to be its optimal breeding site. We first present computer simulations to investigate whether the population dynamics of A. gambiae are consistent with chromosomal speciation by ecotypification. The models are parameterized using field observations on the various forms of A. gambiae that exist in Mali, West Africa. We then report on the distribution of larvae of this species collected from rock pools and more characteristic breeding sites nearby. Both the simulations and field observations support the thesis that speciation by ecotypification is occurring, or has occurred, prompting consideration of Bamako as an independent species.
Journal of Medical Entomology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19351073
Mosquito swarms are poorly understood mating aggregations. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles, they are known to depend on environmental conditions, such as the presence of a marker on the ground, and they may be highly relevant to reproductive isolation. We present quantitative measurements of individual An. gambiae positions within swarms from Donéguébougou, Mali, estimated by stereoscopic video image analysis. Results indicate that swarms in this species are approximately spherical, with an unexpectedly high density of individuals close to the swarm centroid. This high density may be the result of individual males maximizing their probability of encountering a female or a product of mosquito orientation through cues within the swarm. Our analysis also suggests a difference in swarm organization between putative incipient species of An. gambiae with increasing numbers of males. This may be related to a difference in marker use between these groups, supporting the hypothesis that swarming behavior is a mechanism of mate recognition and ultimately reproductive isolation.
Spatial Swarm Segregation and Reproductive Isolation Between the Molecular Forms of Anopheles Gambiae
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19734189
Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa, can be divided into two subgroups based on genetic and ecological criteria. These two subgroups, termed the M and S molecular forms, are believed to be incipient species. Although they display differences in the ecological niches they occupy in the field, they are often sympatric and readily hybridize in the laboratory to produce viable and fertile offspring. Evidence for assortative mating in the field was recently reported, but the underlying mechanisms awaited discovery. We studied swarming behaviour of the molecular forms and investigated the role of swarm segregation in mediating assortative mating. Molecular identification of 1145 males collected from 68 swarms in Donéguébougou, Mali, over 2 years revealed a strict pattern of spatial segregation, resulting in almost exclusively monotypic swarms with respect to molecular form. We found evidence of clustering of swarms composed of individuals of a single molecular form within the village. Tethered M and S females were introduced into natural swarms of the M form to verify the existence of possible mate recognition operating within-swarm. Both M and S females were inseminated regardless of their form under these conditions, suggesting no within-mate recognition. We argue that our results provide evidence that swarm spatial segregation strongly contributes to reproductive isolation between the molecular forms in Mali. However this does not exclude the possibility of additional mate recognition operating across the range distribution of the forms. We discuss the importance of spatial segregation in the context of possible geographic variation in mechanisms of reproductive isolation.
Population Size and Migration of Anopheles Gambiae in the Bancoumana Region of Mali and Their Significance for Efficient Vector Control
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20422013
We present results of two intensive mark-release-recapture surveys conducted during the wet and dry seasons of 2008 in the villages of Fourda and Kenieroba, Mali. The former is a small fishing village by the Niger River with a moderate to high densities of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout the year, while the latter is a large agricultural community 2 km inland that experiences strong seasonal fluctuation in An. gambiae densities. We estimate the population size of female An. gambiae in Fourda to be in less than 3,000 during the dry season. We found evidence of large population size and migration from Fourda in Kenieroba during the wet season, but very low numbers and no sign of migrants during the dry season. We suggest that malaria vector control measures aimed at adult mosquitoes might be made more efficient in this region and other seasonal riparian habitats by targeting disruption of mosquito populations by the river during the dry season. This would decrease the size of an already small population, and would be likely to delay the explosive growth in vector numbers in the larger inland villages as rainfall increases.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20970526
Microarray technology is widely used for gene expression research targeting the development of new drug treatments. In the case of a two-color microarray, the process starts with labeling DNA samples with fluorescent markers (cyanine 635 or Cy5 and cyanine 532 or Cy3), then mixing and hybridizing them on a chemically treated glass printed with probes, or fragments of genes. The level of hybridization between a strand of labeled DNA and a probe present on the array is measured by scanning the fluorescence of spots in order to quantify the expression based on the quality and number of pixels for each spot. The intensity data generated from these scans are subject to errors due to differences in fluorescence efficiency between Cy5 and Cy3, as well as variation in human handling and quality of the sample. Consequently, data have to be normalized to correct for variations which are not related to the biological phenomena under investigation. Among many existing normalization procedures, we have implemented the quantile adjustment method using the python computer language, and produced a module which can be run via an HTML dynamic form. This module is composed of different functions for data files reading, intensity and ratio computations and visualization. The current version of the HTML form allows the user to visualize the data before and after normalization. It also gives the option to subtract background noise before normalizing the data. The output results of this module are in agreement with the results of other normalization tools.
BMC Genomics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21362191
Ticks--vectors of medical and veterinary importance--are themselves also significant pests. Tick salivary proteins are the result of adaptation to blood feeding and contain inhibitors of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis, as well as vasodilators and immunomodulators. A previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome (from the Greek sialo, saliva) of Amblyomma variegatum is revisited in light of recent advances in tick sialomes and provides a database to perform a proteomic study.
An Insight into the Sialotranscriptome and Proteome of the Coarse Bontlegged Tick, Hyalomma Marginatum Rufipes
Journal of Proteomics. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21851864
Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins.
Seasonal Climate Effects Anemotaxis in Newly Emerged Adult Anopheles Gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22114663
The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.
Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22254411
We describe an automated tracking system that allows us to reconstruct the 3D kinematics of individual mosquitoes in swarms of Anopheles gambiae. The inputs to the tracking system are video streams recorded from a stereo camera system. The tracker uses a two-pass procedure to automatically localize and track mosquitoes within the swarm. A human-in-the-loop step verifies the estimates and connects broken tracks. The tracker performance is illustrated using footage of mating events filmed in Mali in August 2010.