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In JoVE (1)
- Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Migration Using Compartmentalizing Microfluidic Devices and Live Cell Imaging
Other Publications (17)
- European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- Tissue Engineering
- Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
- Tissue Engineering
- Nano Letters
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- PloS One
- Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
- World Neurosurgery
- Journal of Virology
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology
Articles by Paul A. Clark in JoVE
Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Migration Using Compartmentalizing Microfluidic Devices and Live Cell Imaging
Yu Huang*1,2, Basheal Agrawal*3, Paul A. Clark3, Justin C. Williams1,2,3, John S. Kuo3,4
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison
A compartmentalizing microfluidic device for investigating cancer stem cell migration is described. This novel platform creates a viable cellular microenvironment and enables microscopic visualization of live cell locomotion. Highly motile cancer cells are isolated to study molecular mechanisms of aggressive infiltration, potentially leading to more effective future therapies.
Other articles by Paul A. Clark on PubMed
Nature. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11948350
The complexity of ecosystems can cause subtle and chaotic responses to changes in external forcing. Although ecosystems may not normally behave chaotically, sensitivity to external influences associated with nonlinearity can lead to amplification of climatic signals. Strong correlations between an El Niño index and rainfall and maize yield in Zimbabwe have been demonstrated; the correlation with maize yield was stronger than that with rainfall. A second example is the 100,000-year ice-age cycle, which may arise from a weak cycle in radiation through its influence on the concentration of atmospheric CO2 (ref. 5). Such integration of a weak climatic signal has yet to be demonstrated in a realistic theoretical system. Here we use a particular climatic phenomenon-the observed association between plankton populations around the UK and the position of the Gulf Stream-as a probe to demonstrate how a detailed marine ecosystem model extracts a weak signal that is spread across different meteorological variables. Biological systems may therefore respond to climatic signals other than those that dominate the driving variables.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12483408
Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 ( r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts (rho=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight (rho=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with weight. Counts in heavy patients were as low as one-fourth those in light patients. Adjusting injected FDG dose in each patient on the basis of body weight may be more appropriate to achieve consistent PET image quality than giving a fixed injected FDG dose.
Modulation of Bone Ingrowth of Rabbit Femur Titanium Implants by in Vivo Axial Micromechanical Loading
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15640386
Titanium implants commonly used in orthopedics and dentistry integrate into host bone by a complex and coordinated process. Despite increasingly well illustrated molecular healing processes, mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth is poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether micromechanical forces applied axially to titanium implants modulate bone ingrowth surrounding intraosseous titanium implants. We hypothesized that small doses of micromechanical forces delivered daily to the bone-implant interface enhance implant bone ingrowth. Small titanium implants were placed transcortically in the lateral aspect of the proximal femur in 15 New Zealand White rabbits under general anesthesia and allowed to integrate with the surrounding bone for 6 wk. Micromechanical forces at 200 mN and 1 Hz were delivered axially to the right femur implants for 10 min/day over 12 consecutive days, whereas the left femur implants served as controls. The average bone volume 1 mm from mechanically loaded implants (n = 15) was 73 +/- 12%, which was significantly greater than the average bone volume (52 +/- 21%) of the contralateral controls (n = 15) (P < 0.01). The average number of osteoblast-like cells per endocortical bone surface was 55 +/- 8 cells/mm(2) for mechanically loaded implants, which was significantly greater than the contralateral controls (35 +/- 6 cells/mm(2)) (P < 0.01). Dynamic histomorphometry showed a significant increase in mineral apposition rate and bone-formation rate of mechanically stressed implants (3.8 +/- 1.2 microm/day and 2.4 +/- 1.0 microm(3).microm(-2).day(-1), respectively) than contralateral controls (2.2 +/- 0.92 microm/day and 1.2 +/- 0.60 microm(3).microm(-2).day(-1), respectively; P < 0.01). Collectively, these data suggest that micromechanical forces delivered axially on intraosseous titanium implants may have anabolic effects on implant bone ingrowth.
Sustained Release of TGFbeta3 from PLGA Microspheres and Its Effect on Early Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Tissue Engineering. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16579687
Despite the widespread role of transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGFbeta3) in wound healing and tissue regeneration, its long-term controlled release has not been demonstrated. Here, we report microencapsulation of TGFbeta3 in poly-d-l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres and determine its bioactivity. The release profiles of PLGA-encapsulated TGFbeta3 with 50:50 and 75:25 PLA:PGA ratios differed throughout the experimental period. To compare sterilization modalities of microspheres, bFGF was encapsulated in 50:50 PLGA microspheres and subjected to ethylene oxide (EO) gas, radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD), or ultraviolet (UV) light. The release of bFGF was significantly attenuated by UV light, but not significantly altered by either EO or RFGD. To verify its bioactivity, TGFbeta3 (1.35 ng/mL) was control-released to the culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) under induced osteogenic differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase staining intensity was markedly reduced 1 week after exposing hMSC-derived osteogenic cells to TGFbeta3. This was confirmed by lower alkaline phosphatase activity (2.25 +/- 0.57 mU/mL/ng DNA) than controls (TGFbeta3- free) at 5.8 +/- 0.9 mU/mL/ng DNA (p < 0.05). Control-released TGFbeta3 bioactivity was further confirmed by lack of significant differences in alkaline phosphatase upon direct addition of 1.35 ng/mL TGFbeta3 to cell culture (p > 0.05). These findings provide baseline data for potential uses of microencapsulated TGFbeta3 in wound healing and tissue-engineering applications.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17499385
Current treatments for diseases and trauma of dental, oral and craniofacial (DOC) structures rely on durable materials such as amalgam and synthetic materials, or autologous tissue grafts. A paradigm shift has taken place to utilize tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches towards the regeneration of these structures. Several prototypes of DOC structures have been regenerated such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle, cranial sutures, tooth structures and periodontium components. However, many challenges remain when taking in consideration the high demand for esthetics of DOC structures, the complex environment and yet minimal scar formation in the oral cavity, and the need for accommodating multiple tissue phenotypes. This review highlights recent advances in the regeneration of DOC structures, including the tooth, periodontium, TMJ, cranial sutures and implant dentistry, with specific emphasis on controlled release of signaling cues for stem cells, biomaterial matrices and scaffolds, and integrated tissue engineering approaches.
Vascularized Adipose Tissue Grafts from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Bioactive Cues and Microchannel Conduits
Tissue Engineering. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17824832
Vascularization is critical to the survival of engineered tissues. This study combined biophysical and bioactive approaches to induce neovascularization in vivo. Further, we tested the effects of engineered vascularization on adipose tissue grafts. Hydrogel cylinders were fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG) in four configurations: PEG alone, PEG with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), microchanneled PEG, or both bFGF-adsorbed and microchanneled PEG. In vivo implantation revealed no neovascularization in PEG, but substantial angiogenesis in bFGF-adsorbed and/or microchanneled PEG. The infiltrating host tissue consisted of erythrocyte-filled blood vessels lined by endothelial cells, and immunolocalized to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Human mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into adipogenic cells, and encapsulated in PEG with both microchanneled and adsorbed bFGF. Upon in vivo implantation subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice, oil red O positive adipose tissue was present and interspersed with interstitial fibrous (IF) capsules. VEGF was immunolocalized in the IF capsules surrounding the engineered adipose tissue. These findings suggest that bioactive cues and/or microchannels promote the genesis of vascularized tissue phenotypes such as the tested adipose tissue grafts. Especially, engineered microchannels may provide a generic approach for modifying existing biomaterials by providing conduits for vascularization and/or diffusion.
Nano Letters. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17887799
Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18000980
Recently, a subpopulation of cells highly efficient in tumor initiation and growth has been isolated from brain tumors. Of interest, these brain tumor initiating cells exhibit many stem-like properties, including self-renewal, extended proliferation, and multipotency, and are both phenotypically and genetically similar to normal neural stem cells (NSCs). Aberrant expression of developmental pathways, such as WNT, Hedgehog, Notch, and transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, have been demonstrated in brain tumors, and extrinsic regulation of these pathways may be used to target brain tumor stem-like cells (BTSCs) and form the basis of novel biological therapies. Because of regulatory redundancy during normal development, future therapeutic strategies to inhibit BTSC-mediated tumor growth and minimize NSC-related deleterious effects may require detailed understanding and regulation of multiple cellular mechanisms. This review analyzes the role developmental pathways play in brain tumors, focusing on the potential effects of pathway regulation on BTSC-driven tumorigenesis.
Bone. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18023269
Craniosynostosis occurs in one of 2500 live human births and may manifest as craniofacial disfiguration, seizure, and blindness. Craniotomy is performed to reshape skull bones and resect synostosed cranial sutures. We demonstrate for the first time that autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and controlled-released TGFbeta3 reduced surgical trauma to localized osteotomy and minimized osteogenesis in a rat craniosynostosis model. Approximately 0.5 mL tibial marrow content was aspirated to isolate mononucleated and adherent cells that were characterized as MSCs. Upon resecting the synostosed suture, autologous MSCs in collagen carriers with microencapsulated TGFbeta3 (1 ng/mL) generated cranial suture analogs characterized as bone-soft tissue-bone interface by quantitative histomorphometric and microCT analyses. Thus, surgical trauma in craniosynostosis can be minimized by a biologically viable implant. We speculate that proportionally larger amounts of human marrow aspirates participate in the healing of craniosynostosis defects in patients. The engineered soft tissue-bone interface may have implications in the repair of tendons, ligaments, periosteum and periodontal ligament.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18198217
The common premise of synthetic implants in the restoration of diseased tissues and organs is to use inert and solid materials. Here, a porous titanium implant was fabricated for the delivery of microencapsulated bioactive cues. Control-released transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) promoted the proliferation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells into porous implants in vitro. At 4 wk of implantation in the rabbit humerus, control-released TGF-beta1 from porous implants significantly increased bone-to-implant contact (BIC) by 96% and bone ingrowth by 50% over placebos. Control-released 100 ng TGF-beta1 induced equivalent BIC and bone ingrowth to adsorbed 1 microg TGF-beta1, suggesting that controlled release is effective at 10-fold less drug dose than adsorption. Histomorphometry, scanning electron microscopy, and microcomputed tomography showed that control-released TGF-beta1 enhanced bone ingrowth in the implant's pores and surface. These findings suggest that solid prostheses can be transformed into porous implants to serve as drug delivery carriers, from which control-released bioactive cues augment host tissue integration.
Synergistic Actions of Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem/progenitor Cells in Vascularizing Bioengineered Tissues
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19081793
Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP) scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+) hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+) HSCs and CD34(-) MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+) and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+) cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+) cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+) cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+) and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+) cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone, adipose, muscle and dermal grafts, and may have implications in the regeneration of internal organs.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20426697
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and therefore remains a central focus of modern medical research. Accumulating evidence supports a 'cancer stem cell' (CSC) model - where cancer growth and/or recurrence is driven by a small subset of tumor cells that exhibit properties similar to stem cells. This model may provide a conceptual framework for developing more effective cancer therapies that target cells propelling cancer growth.
World Neurosurgery. Sep-Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21986423
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has enormous potential to advance medical therapy by personalizing regenerative medicine and creating novel human disease models for research and therapeutic testing. Before this technology is broadly used in the clinic, we must realistically evaluate its disease modeling and therapeutic potential. Recent advances including the use of iPS cells to successfully model spinal muscular atrophy in vitro, as well as new techniques in generating iPS cells with recombinant proteins have accelerated the prospects of iPS cells for clinical use in regenerative therapy. This review explores the development and limitations of iPS cell technology, presents a critical comparison of iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, and discusses potential clinical applications and future research directions.
Significant Association of Multiple Human Cytomegalovirus Genomic Loci with Glioblastoma Multiforme Samples
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22090104
Viruses are appreciated as etiological agents of certain human tumors, but the number of different cancer types induced or exacerbated by viral infections is unknown. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)/astrocytoma grade IV is a malignant and lethal brain cancer of unknown origin. Over the past decade, several studies have searched for the presence of a prominent herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in GBM samples. While some have detected HCMV DNA, RNA, and proteins in GBM tissues, others have not. Therefore, any purported association of HCMV with GBM remains controversial. In most of the previous studies, only one or a select few viral targets were analyzed. Thus, it remains unclear the extent to which the entire viral genome was present when detected. Here we report the results of a survey of GBM specimens for as many as 20 different regions of the HCMV genome. Our findings indicate that multiple HCMV loci are statistically more likely to be found in GBM samples than in other brain tumors or epileptic brain specimens and that the viral genome was more often detected in frozen samples than in paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples. Finally, our experimental results indicate that cellular genomes substantially outnumber viral genomes in HCMV-positive GBM specimens, likely indicating that only a minority of the cells found in such samples harbor viral DNA. These data argue for the association of HCMV with GBM, defining the virus as oncoaccessory. Furthermore, they imply that, were HCMV to enhance the growth or survival of a tumor (i.e., if it is oncomodulatory), it would likely do so through mechanisms distinct from classic tumor viruses that express transforming viral oncoproteins in the overwhelming majority of tumor cells.
Differential Expression of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and Neural Lineage Markers Correlate with Glioblastoma Xenograft Infiltration and Patient Survival
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22589395
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a poorly treated human brain cancer with few established clinically useful molecular prognostic markers. We characterized glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) according to developmental neural lineage markers and correlated their expression with patient survival.
Activation of Multiple ERBB Family Receptors Mediates Glioblastoma Cancer Stem-like Cell Resistance to EGFR-targeted Inhibition
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22745588
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is strongly implicated in glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenesis. However, molecular agents targeting EGFR have demonstrated minimal efficacy in clinical trials, suggesting the existence of GBM resistance mechanisms. GBM cells with stem-like properties (CSCs) are highly efficient at tumor initiation and exhibit therapeutic resistance. In this study, GBMCSC lines showed sphere-forming and tumor initiation capacity after EGF withdrawal from cell culture media, compared with normal neural stem cells that rapidly perished after EGF withdrawal. Compensatory activation of related ERBB family receptors (ERBB2 and ERBB3) was observed in GBM CSCs deprived of EGFR signal (EGF deprivation or cetuximab inhibition), suggesting an intrinsic GBM resistance mechanism for EGFR-targeted therapy. Dual inhibition of EGFR and ERBB2 with lapatinib significantly reduced GBM proliferation in colony formation assays compared to cetuximab-mediated EGFR-specific inhibition. Phosphorylation of downstream ERBB signaling components (AKT, ERK1/2) and GBM CSC proliferation were inhibited by lapatinib. Collectively, these findings show that GBM therapeutic resistance to EGFR inhibitors may be explained by compensatory activation of EGFR-related family members (ERBB2, ERBB3) enabling GBM CSC proliferation, and therefore simultaneous blockade of multiple ERBB family members may be required for more efficacious GBM therapy.
Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) Cotransporter Isoform 1 Accelerates Temozolomide-mediated Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Cancer Cells
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22759954
The hallmark of apoptosis is a significant reduction in cell volume (AVD) resulting from loss of K(+)(i) and Cl(-)(i). Loss of cell volume and lowering of ionic strength of intracellular K(+) and Cl(-) occur before any other detectable characteristics of apoptosis. In the present study, temozolomide (TMZ) triggered loss of K(+)(i) and Cl(-)(i) and AVD in primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells (GC) and GC cancer stem cells (GSC). We hypothesize that Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) counteracts AVD during apoptosis in GBM cancer cells by regulating cell volume and Cl(-) homeostasis. NKCC1 protein was expressed in both GC and GSC and played an essential role in regulatory volume increase (RVI) in response to hypertonic cell shrinkage and isotonic cell shrinkage. Blocking NKCC1 activity with its potent inhibitor bumetanide abolished RVI. These cells maintained a basal [Cl(-)](i) (~ 68 mM) above the electrochemical equilibrium for Cl(-)(i). NKCC1 also functioned to replenish Cl(-)(i) levels following the loss of Cl(-)(i). TMZ-treated cells exhibited increased phosphorylation of NKCC1 and its up-stream novel Cl(-)/volume-sensitive regulatory kinase WNK1. Inhibition of NKCC1 activity with bumetanide accelerated AVD, early apoptosis, as well as activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Taken together, this study strongly suggests that NKCC1 is an essential mechanism in GBM cells to maintain K(+), Cl(-), and volume homeostasis to counteract TMZ-induced loss of K(+), Cl(-) and AVD. Therefore, blocking NKCC1 function augments TMZ-induced apoptosis in glioma cells.