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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
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Articles by Paul B. Cook in JoVE
Whole-cell Opnames van Licht prikkelende synaptische Stromingen opgeroepen in het netvlies Slice
Birgit Werner1, Paul B. Cook1,2, Christopher L. Passaglia1,3
1Program in Neuroscience, Boston University, 2Department of Biology, Boston University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University
Deze video toont het proces van het whole-cell voltage clamp opnamen in de retinale deel van de in het water levende tijger salamander. Tonen we de voorbereiding van het stuk, alsook hoe de patch clamp opnames uit te voeren tijdens visuele stimulatie van het netvlies.
Other articles by Paul B. Cook on PubMed
Narrow and Wide Field Amacrine Cells Fire Action Potentials in Response to Depolarization and Light Stimulation
Visual Neuroscience. Mar-Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17640411
Action potentials in amacrine cells are important for lateral propagation of signals across the inner retina, but it is unclear how many subclasses of amacrine cells contain voltage-gated sodium channels or can fire action potentials. This study investigated the ability of amacrine cells with narrow ( <200 microm) and wide (>200 microm) dendritic fields to fire action potentials in response to depolarizing current injections and light stimulation. The pattern of action potentials evoked by current injections revealed two distinct classes of amacrine cells; those that responded with a single action potential (single-spiking cells) and those that responded with repetitive action potentials (repetitive-spiking cells). Repetitive-spiking cells differed from single-spiking cells in several regards: Repetitive-spiking cells were more often wide field cells, while single-spiking cells were more often narrow field cells. Repetitive-spiking cells had larger action potential amplitudes, larger peak voltage-gated NaV currents lower action potential thresholds, and needed less current to induce action potentials. However, there was no difference in the input resistance, holding current or time constant of these two classes of cells. The intrinsic capacity to fire action potentials was mirrored in responses to light stimulation; single-spiking amacrine cells infrequently fired action potentials to light steps, while repetitive-spiking amacrine cells frequently fired numerous action potentials. These results indicate that there are two physiologically distinct classes of amacrine cells based on the intrinsic capacity to fire action potentials.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18579656
The retina can respond to a wide array of features in the visual input. It was recently reported that the retina can even recognize complicated temporal input patterns and signal violations in the patterns. When a sequence of flashes was presented, ganglion cells exhibited a variety of firing profiles and many cells showed an "omitted stimulus response" (OSR), in which they fired strongly if a flash in the sequence was omitted. We examined the synaptic origins of the OSR by recording excitatory synaptic currents from ganglion cells in the salamander retina in response to periodic flash sequences. Consistent with previous spike recordings, ganglion cells exhibited an OSR in their current response and the OSR shifted in time with a change in flash frequency such that it could predict when the next flash should have occurred. Although the behavior may seem sophisticated, we show that a simple linear-nonlinear model with a spike threshold can account for the OSR in on ganglion cells and that the variety of complex firing profiles seen in other ganglion cells can be explained by adding contributions from the off pathway. We discuss the physiological and simulation results and their implications for understanding retinal mechanisms of visual information processing.