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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Shambhu Bhat in JoVE
The Tail Suspension Test
Adem Can*1, David T. Dao*1,2, Chantelle E. Terrillion3, Sean C. Piantadosi1, Shambhu Bhat1, Todd D. Gould1,3,4
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Tulane University School of Medicine, 3The Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, 4Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine
The tail-suspension test is validated as an experimental procedure to assess antidepressant efficacy of drug treatments in mice. Mice are suspended by their tails for six minutes and escape-related behaviors are assessed. We describe procedures used in conducting the tail suspension test.
Other articles by Shambhu Bhat on PubMed
A Novel In-frame Deletion in ARX is Associated with Lissencephaly with Absent Corpus Callosum and Hypoplastic Genitalia
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16097002
Mutations in UPF3B, a Member of the Nonsense-mediated MRNA Decay Complex, Cause Syndromic and Nonsyndromic Mental Retardation
Nature Genetics. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17704778
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is of universal biological significance. It has emerged as an important global RNA, DNA and translation regulatory pathway. By systematically sequencing 737 genes (annotated in the Vertebrate Genome Annotation database) on the human X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation, we identified mutations in the UPF3 regulator of nonsense transcripts homolog B (yeast) (UPF3B) leading to protein truncations in three families: two with the Lujan-Fryns phenotype and one with the FG phenotype. We also identified a missense mutation in another family with nonsyndromic mental retardation. Three mutations lead to the introduction of a premature termination codon and subsequent NMD of mutant UPF3B mRNA. Protein blot analysis using lymphoblastoid cell lines from affected individuals showed an absence of the UPF3B protein in two families. The UPF3B protein is an important component of the NMD surveillance machinery. Our results directly implicate abnormalities of NMD in human disease and suggest at least partial redundancy of NMD pathways.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18798319
An estimated 1-3% of individuals within the United States are diagnosed with mental retardation (MR), yet the cause is unknown in nearly 50% of the patients. While several environmental, genetic and combined teratogenetic etiologies have been identified, many causative genes remain to be identified. Furthermore, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying MR are known for very few of these genes. Males have a much higher incidence of MR implicating genes on the X-chromosome. We have recently identified a novel gene, SIZN1, on the X-chromosome and showed that it functions in modulating the BMP signaling pathway. Furthermore, we have shown this gene is necessary for basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) specific gene expression. Given that cognitive function is impaired when BFCNs are lost or functionally disrupted, we undertook a screen of cognitively impaired males for SIZN1 mutations. We report on four different sequence variants in SIZN1 in 11 individuals with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Our data implicate SIZN1 as a candidate gene for XLMR and/or as a neurocognitive functional modifier.
Intellectual Disability, Midface Hypoplasia, Facial Hypotonia, and Alport Syndrome Are Associated with a Deletion in Xq22.3
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20186809
Alport syndrome with intellectual disability (ID) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving several genes on Xq22.3 including COL4A5 and ACSL4. We report on a family with two males with this disorder and a Xq22.3 deletion. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and genomic analyses mapped the deletion region to between exon 1 of COL4A5 and exon 12 of ACSL4. The patients' mother has microscopic hematuria and was found to be heterozygous for the Xq22.3 deletion. Analysis using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of lymphoblastoid cell line RNA from an affected male in the family revealed a stable chimeric transcript with the ACSL4 exons 13-17 replaced by a cryptic exon from intron 1 of the COL4A5 gene. A truncated 54 kDa protein was predicted from this transcript but Western blot analysis and ACSL4 enzyme assay both showed functional nullisomy of ACSL4. We also compared the clinical features of the family with three previously reported families with the ACSL4 gene deletion and found that ID with absent or severely delayed speech, midface hypoplasia, and facial hypotonia are consistent features observed in the absence of ACSL4 gene.