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In JoVE (2)
- تصور المتماثل الحمض النووي في خلايا فردية عن طريق تضخيم الإشارات EDU
- التصوير ثلاثي الأبعاد من مسبب الألياف العصبية داخل البشرة في خزعات الجلد البشري
Other Publications (9)
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Current Drug Targets
- The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
- American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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Articles by Stephen I. Lentz in JoVE
تصور المتماثل الحمض النووي في خلايا فردية عن طريق تضخيم الإشارات EDU
Kristine M. Haines1, Eva L. Feldman2, Stephen I. Lentz3
1Michigan Research Community, Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program, University of Michigan, 2Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, University of Michigan
طورنا تقنية حساسة لتسمية الحمض النووي توليف حديثا (و mtDNA) في الخلايا الفردية ، من أجل دراسة و mtDNA نشوء حيوي. أسلوب يجمع بين إدماج ايدو مع بروتوكول إشارة tyramide (TSA) التضخيم لتصور و mtDNA تكرارها داخل المقصورات التحت خلوية من الخلايا العصبية.
التصوير ثلاثي الأبعاد من مسبب الألياف العصبية داخل البشرة في خزعات الجلد البشري
Jacqueline R. Dauch1, Chelsea N. Lindblad1, John M. Hayes1, Stephen I. Lentz2, Hsinlin T. Cheng1
1Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan
من أجل دراسة التغيرات من الألياف العصبية داخل البشرة مسبب (IENFs) في اعتلال الأعصاب المؤلم (PN)، قمنا بتطوير البروتوكولات التي يمكن أن تفحص مباشرة التغيرات المورفولوجية ثلاثي الأبعاد لوحظ في IENFs مسبب. تحليل ثلاثي الأبعاد للIENFs لديه القدرة على تقييم التغيرات المورفولوجية للIENF في PN.
Other articles by Stephen I. Lentz on PubMed
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt Effectors Mediate Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Neuroprotection in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15319368
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protects neurons of the peripheral nervous system from apoptosis, but the underlying signaling pathways are not well understood. We studied IGF-I mediated signaling in embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons express IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR), and IGF-I activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. High glucose exposure induces apoptosis, which is inhibited by IGF-I through the PI3K/Akt pathway. IGF-I stimulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylates three known Akt effectors: the survival transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the pro-apoptotic effector proteins glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and forkhead (FKHR). IGF-I regulates survival at the nuclear level through accumulation of phospho-Akt in DRG neuronal nuclei, increased CREB-mediated transcription, and nuclear exclusion of FKHR. High glucose increases expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl protein Bim (a transcriptional target of FKHR). However, IGF-I does not regulate Bim or anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein expression levels, which suggests that IGF-I neuroprotection is not through regulation of their expression. High glucose also induces loss of the initiator caspase-9 and increases caspase-3 cleavage, effects blocked by IGF-I. These data suggest that IGF-I prevents apoptosis in DRG neurons by regulating PI3K/Akt pathway effectors, including GSK-3beta, CREB, and FKHR, and by blocking caspase activation.
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reports Properties of Syntaxin1a Interaction with Munc18-1 in Vivo
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15489225
Syntaxin1A, a neural-specific N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein essential to neurotransmitter release, in isolation forms a closed conformation with an N-terminal alpha-helix bundle folded upon the SNARE motif (H3 domain), thereby limiting interaction of the H3 domain with cognate SNAREs. Munc18-1, a neural-specific member of the Sec1/Munc18 protein family, binds to syntaxin1A, stabilizing this closed conformation. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to characterize the Munc18-1/syntaxin1A interaction in intact cells. Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein-Munc18-1 and a citrine variant of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-syntaxin1A, or mutants of these proteins, were expressed as donor and acceptor pairs in human embryonic kidney HEK293-S3 and adrenal chromaffin cells. Apparent FRET efficiency was measured using two independent approaches with complementary results that unambiguously verified FRET and provided a spatial map of FRET efficiency. In addition, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein-Munc18-1 and a citrine variant of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-syntaxin1A colocalized with a Golgi marker and exhibited FRET at early expression times, whereas a strong plasma membrane colocalization, with similar FRET values, was apparent at later times. Trafficking of syntaxin1A to the plasma membrane was dependent on the presence of Munc18-1. Both syntaxin1A(L165A/E166A), a constitutively open conformation mutant, and syntaxin1A(I233A), an H3 domain point mutant, demonstrated apparent FRET efficiency that was reduced approximately 70% from control. In contrast, the H3 domain mutant syntaxin1A(I209A) had no effect. By using phosphomimetic mutants of Munc18-1, we also established that Ser-313, a Munc18-1 protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and Thr-574, a cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation site, regulate Munc18-1/syntaxin1A interaction in HEK293-S3 and chromaffin cells. We conclude that FRET imaging in living cells may allow correlated regulation of Munc18-1/syntaxin1A interactions to Ca(2+)-regulated secretory events.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17545156
Tomosyn, a soluble R-SNARE protein identified as a binding partner of the Q-SNARE syntaxin 1A, is thought to be critical in setting the level of fusion-competent SNARE complexes for neurosecretion. To date, there has been no direct evaluation of the dynamics in which tomosyn transits through tomosyn-SNARE complexes or of the extent to which tomosyn-SNARE complexes are regulated by secretory demand. Here, we employed biochemical and optical approaches to characterize the dynamic properties of tomosyn-syntaxin 1A complexes in live adrenal chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that secretagogue stimulation results in the rapid translocation of tomosyn from the cytosol to plasma membrane regions and that this translocation is associated with an increase in the tomosyn-syntaxin 1A interaction, including increased cycling of tomosyn into tomosyn-SNARE complexes. The secretagogue-induced interaction was strongly reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase, a result consistent with findings demonstrating secretagogue-induced activation of RhoA. Stimulation of chromaffin cells with lysophosphatidic acid, a nonsecretory stimulus that strongly activates RhoA, resulted in effects on tomosyn similar to that of application of the secretagogue. In PC-12 cells overexpressing tomosyn, secretagogue stimulation in the presence of lysophosphatidic acid resulted in reduced evoked secretory responses, an effect that was eliminated upon inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase. Moreover, this effect required an intact interaction between tomosyn and syntaxin 1A. Thus, modulation of the tomosyn-syntaxin 1A interaction in response to secretagogue activation is an important mechanism allowing for dynamic regulation of the secretory response.
Neurobiology of Disease. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804249
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a debilitating complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rodent models of DN do not fully replicate the pathology observed in human patients. We examined DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced [B6] and spontaneous type 1 diabetes [B6Ins2(Akita)] and spontaneous type 2 diabetes [B6-db/db, BKS-db/db]. Despite persistent hyperglycemia, the STZ-treated B6 and B6Ins2(Akita) mice were resistant to the development of DN. In contrast, DN developed in both type 2 diabetes models: the B6-db/db and BKS-db/db mice. The persistence of hyperglycemia and development of DN in the B6-db/db mice required an increased fat diet while the BKS-db/db mice developed severe DN and remained hyperglycemic on standard mouse chow. Our data support the hypothesis that genetic background and diet influence the development of DN and should be considered when developing new models of DN.
Current Drug Targets. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18220709
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a serious and debilitating complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Despite intense research efforts into multiple aspects of this complication, including both vascular and neuronal metabolic derangements, the only treatment remains maintenance of euglycemia. Basic research into the mechanisms responsible for DN relies on using the most appropriate animal model. The advent of genetic manipulation has moved mouse models of human disease to the forefront. The ability to insert or delete genes affected in human patients offers unique insight into disease processes; however, mice are still not humans and difficulties remain in interpreting data derived from these animals. A number of studies have investigated and described DN in mice but it is difficult to compare these studies with each other or with human DN due to experimental differences including background strain, type of diabetes, method of induction and duration of diabetes, animal age and gender. This review describes currently used DN animal models. We followed a standardized diabetes induction protocol and designed and implemented a set of phenotyping parameters to classify the development and severity of DN. By applying standard protocols, we hope to facilitate the comparison and characterization of DN across different background strains in the hope of discovering the most human like model in which to test potential therapies.
Biochimie. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19278624
Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are involved in many cellular processes that positively and negatively regulate cell fate. H(2)O(2), acting as an intracellular messenger, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target Akt, and promotes cell survival. The aim of the current study was to understand the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt signaling promotes survival in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt mediates phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax. This phosphorylation suppresses apoptosis and promotes cell survival. Increased survival in the presence of H(2)O(2) was blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K activation. LY294002 prevented Bax phosphorylation and resulted in Bax translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism by which H(2)O(2)-induced activation of PI3K/Akt influences post-translational modification of Bax and inactivates a key component of the cell death machinery.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Biogenesis: Visualization and Duel Incorporation of BrdU and EdU Into Newly Synthesized MtDNA In Vitro
The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19875847
Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach for monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells in order to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of BrdU and/or EdU into mtDNA together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers because it does not require harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20798356
Dietary protein can stimulate pancreatic growth in the absence of CCK release, but there is little data on the regulation of CCK-independent growth. To identify mechanisms whereby protein stimulates pancreatic growth in the absence of CCK release, C57BL/6 control and CCK-null male mice were fed normal-protein (14% casein) or high-protein (75% casein) chow for 7 days. The weight of the pancreas increased by 32% in C57BL/6 mice and 26% in CCK-null mice fed high-protein chow. Changes in pancreatic weight in control mice were due to both cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia since there was an increase in protein-to-DNA ratio, total DNA content, and DNA synthesis. In CCK-null mice pancreatic growth was almost entirely due to hypertrophy with both protein-to-DNA ratio and cell size increasing without significant increases in DNA content or DNA synthesis. ERK, calcineurin, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are activated in models of CCK-induced growth, but there were no differences in ERK or calcineurin activation between fasted and fed CCK-null mice. In contrast, mTORC1 activation was increased after feeding and the duration of activation was prolonged in mice fed high-protein chow compared with normal-protein chow. Changes in pancreatic weight and RNA content were completely inhibited, and changes in protein content were partially abated, when the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin was administered during high-protein chow feeding. Prolonged mTORC1 activation is thus required for dietary protein-induced pancreatic growth in the absence of CCK.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22345512
Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of important vascular disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, it remains unclear why the retinal microvasculature is particularly vulnerable to this pathophysiological condition. We postulated that redox-sensitive ion channels may play a role. Using H(2)O(2) to cause oxidative stress in microvascular complexes freshly isolated from the adult rat retina, we assessed ionic currents, cell viability, intracellular oxidants, and cell calcium by using perforated-patch recordings, trypan blue dye exclusion, and fura-2 fluorescence, respectively. Supporting a role for the oxidant-sensitive ATP-sensitive K (K(ATP)) channels, we found that these channels are activated during exposure of retinal microvessels to H(2)O(2). Furthermore, their inhibition by glibenclamide significantly lessened H(2)O(2)-induced microvascular cell death. Additional experiments established that by increasing the influx of calcium into microvascular cells, the K(ATP) channel-mediated hyperpolarization boosted the vulnerability of these cells to oxidative stress. In addition to the K(ATP) channel-dependent mechanism for increasing the lethality of oxidative stress, we also found that the vulnerability of cells in the capillaries, but not in the arterioles, was further boosted by a K(ATP) channel-independent mechanism, which our experiments indicated involves the oxidant-induced activation of calcium-permeable nonspecific cation channels. Taken together, our findings support a working model in which both K(ATP) channel-independent and K(ATP) channel-dependent mechanisms render the capillaries of the retina particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Identification of these previously unappreciated mechanisms for boosting the lethality of oxidants may provide new targets for pharmacologically limiting damage to the retinal microvasculature during periods of oxidative stress.