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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Tom Clandinin in JoVE

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of Escape Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University


JoVE 50192

Genetically encoded optogenetic tools enable noninvasive manipulation of specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. Such tools can identify neurons whose activation is sufficient to elicit or suppress particular behaviors. Here we present a method for activating Channelrhodopsin2 that is expressed in targeted neurons in freely walking flies.

Other articles by Tom Clandinin on PubMed

Small Bowel Review: Normal Physiology, Part 1

Small Bowel Review: Normal Physiology, Part 2

Small Bowel Review: Diseases of the Small Intestine

Effect of Steroids on Intestinal Lipid Uptake in Rats is Enhanced by a Saturated Fatty Acid Diet. Cell and Molecular Biology Collaborative Network in Gastrointestinal Physiology

Glucocorticosteroids enhance sugar digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine, but their effect on lipid uptake is unknown. Modifications in dietary lipids alter the nutrient transport properties of the intestine. The influence of 4 weeks' treatment with budesonide (BUD), prednisone (PRED), or control vehicle in weanling rats fed either an isocaloric semisynthetic saturated fatty acid diet (SFA) or a polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (PUFA), on the uptake of lipids was assessed using everted gut rings. PRED and BUD increased the uptake of several fatty acids, and this was higher when the animals were fed SFA rather than PUFA. Changes in expression of the mRNAs for L-FABP (liver fatty acid binding protein) and ILBP (ileal lipid binding protein) did not explain these alterations in lipid uptake. Dietary lipid signalling of this adaptive response may involve proglucagon, c-jun, TNF-alpha and IL-10, whereas steroid signalling may involve proglucagon. In summary, steroids increase the absorption of lipids by a process which can be enhanced by the substitution of saturated for polyunsaturated lipids in the diet, and which is not explained by alterations in the expression of the mRNAs of L-FABP or ILBP.

Dexamethasone Plus Glucagon-like Peptide 2 Given to Lactating Rat Dams Has a Late Effect on Intestinal Lipid Uptake in the Weanling Offspring

Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has a trophic effect on the intestine and enhances intestinal absorption in adult animals, but its effect in young rats is unknown. Glucocorticosteroids accelerate the ontogeny of the intestine, and in adult animals they increase the uptake of sugars and lipids. We hypothesized that GLP-2 and dexamethasone (DEX), when administrated to lactating rat dams, will enhance lipid uptake in the suckling and weanling offspring.

Age-associated Changes in Intestinal Fructose Uptake Are Not Explained by Alterations in the Abundance of GLUT5 or GLUT2

A reduction in nutrient absorption may contribute to malnourishment in the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of aging on the absorption of fructose in rats, as well as the mechanisms of these adaptive changes. Male Fischer 344 rats aged 1, 9, and 24 months were fed standard Purina chow for 2 weeks (PMI #5001, PMI Nutritionals, Brentwood, MO). The uptake of (14)C-labeled D-fructose was determined in vitro using the intestinal sheet method. Intestinal samples were taken for RNA isolation and for brush border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) preparation. Northern blotting, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the effects of age and diet on GLUT5 and GLUT2. When expressed on the basis of intestinal or mucosal weights, aging was associated with a decline in jejunal and ileal fructose uptake, whereas jejunal fructose uptake was increased when expressed on the basis of serosal or mucosal surface area. The alterations in fructose uptake were not paralleled by changes in GLUT5 or GLUT2 abundance. These results indicate that 1) the effect of age on fructose uptake depends on the method used to express results, and 2) the age-associated changes in uptake are not explained by alterations in GLUT5 and GLUT2.

Treatment of Suckling Rats with GLP-2 Plus Dexamethasone Increases the Ileal Uptake of Fatty Acids in Later Life

Glucocorticosteroids such as dexamethasone (Dex) increase sugar and lipid uptake in adult animals and accelerate the development of the immature intestine. The effect of Dex on the ontogeny of lipid absorption is unknown. In adult rats, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) has a trophic effect on the intestine and enhances nutrient absorption. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of GLP-2 and Dex on the intestine uptake of lipids in suckling rats and to determine whether any such effect persists into the postweanling period. Sixty-four suckling rats were randomized into four groups. They were treated from days 11 to 21 with GLP-2 (0.1 microg.g(-1).day(-1) sc), Dex (0.128 microg.g(-1).day(-1) sc), GLP-2 plus Dex (GLP-2 0.1 microg.g(-1).day(-1) sc + Dex 0.128 microg.g(-1).day(-1) sc), or placebo. One-half the pups were killed at days 19-21 ("sucklings"), and one-half were killed 4 wk later ("weanlings"). The rate of intestinal uptake of six fatty acids (12:0, lauric; 16:0, palmitic; 18:0, stearic; 18:1, oleic; 18:2, linoleic; and 18:3, linolenic) and cholesterol was assessed using an in vitro ring technique. GLP-2 had no effect on lipid uptake. Dex increased the uptake of 18:3 in sucklings, and the ileal uptake of 18:0 was increased in weanlings. The combination of GLP-2 plus Dex had no effect in sucklings and increased the ileal uptake of 12:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 in weanlings. The enhanced uptake of fatty acids with GLP-2 plus Dex was not explained by alterations in the animals' body or intestinal weights, intestinal morphology, or intestinal- or liver-fatty acid binding proteins. Unlike adults, GLP-2 does not enhance lipid uptake in sucklings. Dex has a modest enhancing effect on selected fatty acid uptake both in sucklings as well as weanlings. GLP-2 plus Dex has an enhancing effect on the ileal uptake of fatty acids in weanlings 4 wk after their previous injection with GLP-2 plus Dex. It remains to be established what is the nutritional importance of this late effect of prior exposure to Dex or GLP-2 plus Dex on the intestinal uptake of lipids.

Lipid Malabsorption Persists After Weaning in Rats Whose Dams Were Given GLP-2 and Dexamethasone

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances intestinal growth and absorption in mature animals, and glucocorticosteroids (GC) increase the sugar and lipid uptake in adult animals. However, the role of GC and GLP-2 in the ontogeny of lipid absorption is unknown. We hypothesized that GLP-2 and the GC dexamethasone (DEX), when administrated to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation, would enhance lipid uptake in the offspring. Rat dams were treated in the last 10 d of pregnancy and during lactation with GLP-2 [0.1 microg/g/d subcutaneous (sc)], DEX (0.128 microg/g/d sc), GLP-2 + DEX, or a placebo. Sucklings were sacrificed at 19-21 d of age, and weanlings were sacrificed 4 wk later. Lipid uptake was assessed using an in vitro ring uptake method. Although DEX and GLP-2 + DEX increased the jejunal mass, the jejunal lipid uptake was unchanged. In contrast, GLP-2, DEX, and GLP-2 + DEX reduced the ileal lipid uptake in suckling and weanling rats. This reduction was not due to alterations in intestinal morphology or to changes in fatty acid-binding protein abundance, but it was partially explained by an increase in the effective resistance of the intestinal unstirred water layer. In sucklings, DEX dramatically reduced the jejunal lipid uptake to levels similar to those seen in weanlings, such that the normal ontogenic decline in lipid uptake was not observed. Giving dams GLP-2 or DEX during pregnancy and lactation reduced lipid uptake in the offspring, and this persisted for at least 1 mon. The impact this may have on the nutritional well-being of the animal in later life is unknown.

A Combination of Dexamethasone and Glucagon-like Peptide-2 Increase Intestinal Morphology and Glucose Uptake in Suckling Rats

Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 enhances nutrient uptake in adult animals. Glucocorticosteroids accelerate intestinal ontogeny and increase nutrient uptake in adult animals. We hypothesized that administering GLP-2 and dexamethasone (DEX) to suckling rats will enhance sugar uptake and that this effect persists into the postweaning period.

Dietary Gangliosides Enhance in Vitro Lipid Uptake in Weanling Rats

The intestine adapts morphologically or functionally in response to environmental stimuli. Dietary lipids modify brush border membrane (BBM) permeability and nutrient transporter activities. Gangliosides (GANG) are glycolipids in human milk that are present only in low amounts in infant formula. Exogenous GANG are incorporated into cell membranes and increase their permeability. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding a GANG-enriched diet alters in vitro intestinal lipid absorption.

Nutritional Modulation of the Inflammatory Response in Inflammatory Bowel Disease--from the Molecular to the Integrative to the Clinical

Nutrient deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both total parenteral and enteral nutrition provide important supportive therapy for IBD patients, but in adults these are not useful for primary therapy. Dietary intervention with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in fish oil may be useful for the care of IBD patients, and recent studies have stressed the role of PPAR on NFkappaB activity on the potential beneficial effect of dietary lipids on intestinal function.

Dietary Gangliosides Enhance in Vitro Glucose Uptake in Weanling Rats

The intestine adapts to environmental stimuli, such as modifications in dietary lipids. Dietary lipids modify brush border membrane (BBM) permeability and nutrient transporter activities. Gangliosides (GANG) are glycolipids present in human milk, but they are present only in low amounts in infant formula. Exogenous GANG are incorporated into cell membranes and increase their permeability. This study was undertaken to determine if feeding a 0.2% GANG-enriched diet for 2 weeks alters in vitro intestinal sugar absorption in weanling rats compared with an isocaloric control diet or diet enriched with polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids.

Loss of Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein Increases the Susceptibility of Male Mice to High Fat Diet-induced Fatty Liver

Mice lacking I-FABP (encoded by the Fabp2 gene) exhibit a gender dimorphic response to a high fat/cholesterol diet challenge characterized by hepatomegaly in male I-FABP-deficient mice. In this study, we determined if this gender-specific modification of liver mass in mice lacking I-FABP is attributable to the high fat content of the diet alone and whether hepatic Fabp1 gene (encodes L-FABP) expression contributes to this difference. Wild-type and Fabp2-/- mice of both genders were fed a diet enriched with either polyunsaturated or saturated fatty acids (PUFA or SFA, respectively) in the absence of cholesterol. Male Fabp2-/- mice, but not female Fabp2-/- mice, exhibited increased liver mass and hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition as compared to corresponding wild-type mice. In wild-type mice that were fed the standard chow diet, there was no difference in the concentration of hepatic L-FABP protein between males and females although the loss of I-FABP did cause a slight reduction of hepatic L-FABP abundance in both genders. The hepatic L-FABP mRNA abundance in both male and female wild-type and Fabp2-/- mice was higher in the PUFA-fed group than in the SFA-fed group, and was correlated with L-FABP protein abundance. No correlation between hepatic L-FABP protein abundance and hepatic TG concentration was found. The results obtained demonstrate that loss of I-FABP renders male mice sensitive to high fat diet-induced fatty liver, and this effect is independent of hepatic L-FABP.

Dexamethasone and GLP-2 Administered to Rat Dams During Pregnancy and Lactation Have Late Effects on Intestinal Sugar Transport in Their Postweaning Offspring

Intestinal function in young animals is influenced by maternal factors, such as alterations in the maternal diet. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) enhances intestinal growth and absorption in mature animals. Glucocorticosteroids induce intestinal maturation in neonates and increase sugar uptake in adult animals. It is not known if maternally administered GLP-2 or glucocorticosteroids have persistent effects on intestinal transport in the offspring. This study was undertaken to determine (1) the influence of maternal GLP-2, dexamethasone (DEX) and GLP-2+DEX on intestinal sugar uptake in postweaning offspring and (2) if alterations in uptake are due to variations in intestinal morphology, sugar transporter abundance or the abundance of selected signals. Nursing rat dams were treated during pregnancy and lactation with GLP-2 (0.1 mug/g per day sc), DEX (0.128 microg/g per day sc), GLP-2+DEX or placebo. The offspring were sacrificed 4 weeks after weaning, and glucose and fructose uptake was determined using an in vitro intestinal ring uptake technique. sodium-dependent glucose transporter, glucose transporter (GLUT) 5, GLUT2, sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase and selected signals were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The treatments did not affect body weights or intestinal morphology. GLP-2 and GLP-2+DEX increased jejunal fructose uptake, and GLP-2+DEX increased the jejunal and ileal maximal transport rate for glucose uptake. Protein kinase B and mammalian target of rapamycin abundance were also increased, while transporter abundance was unchanged. We speculate that these alterations in sugar uptake may be due to changes in the intrinsic activity of the transporters mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway. These alterations in uptake may have nutritional implications for the offspring of mothers who may be treated with GLP-2 or glucocorticosteroids.

Maternal Dexamethasone and GLP-2 Have Early Effects on Intestinal Sugar Transport in Their Suckling Rat Offspring

Both glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucocorticosteroids enhance intestinal uptake in mature animals. Maternal stimuli may cause intestinal adaptation in the offspring. We hypothesized that administering GLP-2, dexamethasone (DEX) or a combination of GLP-2+DEX to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation would enhance intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. Rat dams were treated with GLP-2 (0.1 microg/g/day), DEX (0.128 microg/g/day), a combination of GLP-2+DEX or placebo. Glucose and fructose uptake was assessed in their suckling offspring using an in vitro intestinal ring uptake technique. The protein abundance of SGLT1, GLUT5, GLUT2, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and selected signals was determined by immunohistochemistry; GLP-2 caused hypertrophy of the jejunal enterocytes and increased ileal villous height. Jejunal fructose uptake was reduced by GLP-2, DEX and GLP-2+DEX. V(max) for jejunal glucose uptake was reduced with DEX and GLP-2+DEX. These declines were not explained by alterations in transporter abundance. Decreases in Akt and mTOR abundance were associated with declines in transporter activity. We speculate that the intrinsic activity of the sugar transporters was modified via the P13K pathway. In conclusion, maternal GLP-2 and DEX reduced intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. This may have nutritional implications for the offspring of mothers treated with GLP-2 or steroids.

Dexamethasone and GLP-2 Given to Lactating Rat Dams Influence Glucose Uptake in Suckling and Postweanling Offspring

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances intestinal absorption in adult animals. Glucocorticosteroids accelerate the ontogeny of the intestine and increase sugar uptake in adult animals. Modifying the maternal diet during lactation alters nutrient uptake in the offspring. The authors hypothesized that GLP-2 and dexamethasone, when administrated to lactating rat dams, enhance sugar uptake in the suckling and postweanling offspring.

Morphological, Kinetic, Membrane Biochemical and Genetic Aspects of Intestinal Enteroplasticity

The process of intestinal adaptation ("enteroplasticity") is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided.

Influence of Dietary Gangliosides on Neonatal Brain Development

Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. Gangliosides are found in human milk; understanding of the potential role of gangliosides in infant development is emerging, with suggested roles in the brain and gut. Ganglioside accretion in the developing brain is highest in utero and in early neonatal life, during the periods of dendritic branching and new synapse formation. Further, brain contains the highest relative ganglioside content in the body, particularly in neuronal cell membranes concentrated in the area of the synaptic membrane. Gangliosides are known to play a role in neuronal growth, migration and maturation, neuritogenesis, synaptogenesis, and myelination. In addition to their roles in development and structure of the brain, gangliosides also play a functional role in nerve cell communication. It is less well known whether dietary gangliosides can influence the development of cognitive function. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role gangliosides play in brain development.

Ontogeny, Growth and Development of the Small Intestine: Understanding Pediatric Gastroenterology

Throughout our lifetime, the intestine changes. Some alterations in its form and function may be genetically determined, and some are the result of adaptation to diet, temperature, or stress. The critical period programming of the intestine can be modified, such as from subtle differences in the types and ratios of n3:m6 fatty acids in the diet of the pregnant mother, or in the diet of the weanlings. This early forced adaptation may persist in later life, such as the unwanted increased intestinal absorption of sugars, fatty acids and cholesterol. Thus, the ontogeny, early growth and development of the intestine is important for the adult gastroenterologist to appreciate, because of the potential for these early life events to affect the responsiveness of the intestine to physiological or pathological challenges in later life.

Moving Beyond "good Fat, Bad Fat": the Complex Roles of Dietary Lipids in Cellular Function and Health: Session Abstracts

The International Life Science Institute North America and the American Society for Nutrition annual Functional Foods for Health Symposium was held 9 April 2011. Evidence that foods and their components offer health benefits beyond basic nutrition continues to captivate the interest of the scientific community, government agencies, and the general public. This paper is comprised of extended abstracts from the session and addresses issues related to emerging lipid nutrition science, including active roles of lipids in modulating physiological pathways. Identified pathways underlie the development of obesity, cognitive development, and inflammation, the latter of which is thought to relate to multiple disease processes. These data point to a new way of thinking about the role of lipids in health and disease.

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