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Articles by Toru Kariu in JoVE
שיטות העברה מהירים לוקליזציה של פתוגנים מחלת ליים בתוך גוט טיק
Toru Kariu1, Adam S. Coleman1, John F. Anderson2, Utpal Pal1
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, 2Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
ליים מחלות מחקר מחקרים לעיתים קרובות דורשים דור של קרציות נגוע הפתוגן Borrelia burgdorferi, תהליך זה לוקח בדרך כלל מספר שבועות. כאן אנו מדגימים microinjection מבוססי זיהום סמן הליך זה יכול להתבצע תוך שעות ספורות. אנחנו גם להדגים שיטה immunofluorescence עבור בלוקליזציה באתרו של B. burgdorferi בתוך קרציות.
Other articles by Toru Kariu on PubMed
Island Specific Expression of a Novel [Lys(49)]phospholipase A(2) (BPIII) in Protobothrops Flavoviridis Venom in Amami-Oshima, Japan
Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19463843
In search of the transcripts expressed in Protobothrops flavoviridis venom gland, 466 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from the venom gland cDNA library of P. flavoviridis in Amami-Oshima, Japan. The sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones followed by identification in similarity search against existing databases led to the finding of a novel lysine-49-phospholipase A(2) ([Lys(49)]PLA(2)) clone. It coded for one amino acid-substituted BPII homologue or two amino acids-substituted BPI homologue in which BPII and BPI are [Lys(49)]PLA(2)s contained in Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima P. flavoviridis venoms. This isozyme, named BPIII, was isolated from Amami-Oshima P. flavoviridis venom. BPIII gave a specific [M+2H](2+) peak of m/z 736.3 on mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after S-carboxamidomethylation and trypsin digestion when compared with BPII. It became evident from MS analysis after S-carboxamidomethylation and trypsin digestion of the mixed protein peaks ranging from BPI to BPII obtained by fractionation on a carboxymethyl cellulose column of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima P. flavoviridis venoms that BPIII protein is contained in Amami-Oshima P. flavoviridis venom but not in Tokunoshima P. flavoviridis venom. It is for the first time that a protein present in Amami-Oshima P. flavoviridis venom is not found in Tokunoshima P. flavoviridis venom.
Molecular Microbiology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19889086
Summary Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochaete, encodes a potential ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologue, BosR (BB0647). Thus far, a role for BosR in Bb metabolism, gene regulation or pathogenesis has not been determined, largely due to the heretofore inability to inactivate bosR in low-passage, infectious Bb isolates. Herein, we report the generation of the first bosR-deficient mutant in a virulent strain of Bb. Whereas the bosR mutant persisted normally in ticks, the mutant was unable to infect mice, indicating that BosR is essential for Bb infection of a mammalian host. Moreover, transcriptional profiling of the bosR mutant showed that a number of genes were either positively or negatively influenced by BosR deficiency, suggesting that BosR may function both as a global repressor and activator in Bb. Strikingly, our study showed that BosR controls the expression of two major virulence-associated Bb lipoproteins, OspC and DbpA, likely via an influence on the alternative sigma factor, RpoS. This study thus not only has elucidated another key virulence gene of Bb, but also provides new insights into a previously unknown layer of gene regulation governing RpoS in Bb.
Infection and Immunity. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20696833
The pathogen of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a putative surface protein termed "surface-located membrane protein 1" (Lmp1). Lmp1 has been shown previously to assist the microbe in evasion of host-acquired immune defenses and in the establishment of persistent infection of mammals. Here, we show that Lmp1 is an integral membrane protein with surface-exposed N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions. During murine infection, antibodies recognizing these three protein regions were produced. Separate immunization of mice with each of the discrete regions exerted differential effects on spirochete survival during infection. Notably, antibodies against the C-terminal region primarily interfered with B. burgdorferi persistence in the joints, while antibodies specific to the N-terminal region predominantly affected pathogen levels in the heart, including the development of carditis. Genetic reconstitution of lmp1 deletion mutants with the lmp1 N-terminal region significantly enhanced its ability to resist the bactericidal effects of immune sera and also was observed to increase pathogen survival in vivo. Taken together, the combined data suggest that the N-terminal region of Lmp1 plays a distinct role in spirochete survival and other parts of the protein are related to specific functions corresponding to pathogen persistence and tropism during infection that is displayed in an organ-specific manner. The findings reported here underscore the fact that surface-exposed regions of Lmp1 could potentially serve as vaccine targets or antigenic regions that could alter the course of natural Lyme disease.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21775514
Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is common in horses and ponies from the New England and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Here, we evaluated luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) for profiling antibody responses against three different antigenic targets for the diagnosis of equine B. burgdorferi infection. LIPS testing of horse serum samples suspected of Lyme infection revealed that approximately 75% of the horse samples (114/159) were seropositive against the synthetic VOVO antigen, comprising repeated immunodominant C6 epitopes as well as OspC immunodominant epitopes. A comparison of VOVO and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that 51% of the samples were positive in both assays (VOVO(+)/IFA(+)), 13% were VOVO(-)/IFA(+), 21% were VOVO(+)/IFA(-), and 15% were negative in both. To further understand humoral responses to B. burgdorferi and reconcile the diagnostic differences between IFA and VOVO, two additional B. burgdorferi LIPS tests were performed with DbpA and DbpB. Robust seropositive antibody responses against DbpA and/or DbpB were detected in 98% (79/81) of the VOVO(+)/IFA(+) and 93% (50/54) of the discrepant samples. Additionally, some of the samples negative by both VOVO and IFA showed immunoreactivity against DbpA and/or DbpB. Overall, 94% of the suspected horse samples were seropositive by LIPS, and heat map analysis revealed that seropositive samples often were immunoreactive with at least two of the three antigens. These results suggest that LIPS tests employing multiple recombinant antigens offer a promising approach for the evaluation of antibody responses in Lyme disease.
Journal of Proteome Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21875077
Among bacterial cell envelopes, the Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane (OM) is structurally unique in that the identities of many protein complexes remain unknown; however, their characterization is the first step toward our understanding of membrane protein interactions and potential functions. Here, we used two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE/mass spectrometric analysis for a global characterization of protein-protein interactions as well as to identify protein complexes in OM vesicles isolated from multiple infectious sensu stricto isolates of B. burgdorferi. Although we uncovered the existence of at least 10 distinct OM complexes harboring several unique subunits, the complexome is dominated by the frequent occurrence of a limited diversity of membrane proteins, most notably P13, outer surface protein (Osp) A, -B, -C, and -D and Lp6.6. The occurrence of these complexes and specificity of subunit interaction were further supported by independent two-dimensional immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation assays as well as by mutagenesis studies, where targeted depletion of a subunit member (P66) selectively abolished a specific complex. Although a comparable profile of the OM complexome was detected in two major infectious isolates, such as B31 and 297, certain complexes are likely to occur in an isolate-specific manner. Further assessment of protein complexes in multiple Osp-deficient isolates showed loss of several protein complexes but revealed the existence of additional complex/subunits that are undetectable in wild-type cells. Together, these observations uncovered borrelial antigens involved in membrane protein interactions. The study also suggests that the assembly process of OM complexes is specific and that the core or stabilizing subunits vary between complexes. Further characterization of these protein complexes including elucidation of their biological significance may shed new light on the mechanism of pathogen persistence and the development of preventative measures against the infection.
The Coenzyme A Disulphide Reductase of Borrelia Burgdorferi is Important for Rapid Growth Throughout the Enzootic Cycle and Essential for Infection of the Mammalian Host
Molecular Microbiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21923763
In a microarray analysis of the RpoS regulon in mammalian host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi, bb0728 (cdr) was found to be dually transcribed by the sigma factors σ(70) and RpoS. The cdr gene encodes a coenzyme A disulphide reductase (CoADR) that reduces CoA-disulphides to CoA in an NADH-dependent manner. Based on the abundance of CoA in B. burgdorferi and the biochemistry of the enzyme, CoADR has been proposed to play a role in the spirochaete's response to reactive oxygen species. To better understand the physiologic function(s) of BbCoADR, we generated a B. burgdorferi mutant in which the cdr gene was disrupted. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE analysis revealed that cdr and bb0729 are co-transcribed from a single transcriptional start site upstream of the bb0729 coding sequence; a shuttle vector containing the bb0729-cdr operon and upstream promoter element was used to complement the cdr mutant. Although the mutant was no more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than its parent, it did exhibit increased sensitivity to high concentrations of t-butyl-hydroperoxide, an oxidizing compound that damages spirochetal membranes. Characterization of the mutant during standard (15% oxygen, 6% CO(2)) and anaerobic (< 1% O(2) , 9-13% CO(2)) cultivation at 37°C revealed a growth defect under both conditions that was particularly striking during anaerobiosis. The mutant was avirulent by needle inoculation and showed decreased survival in feeding nymphs, but displayed no survival defect in unfed flat nymphs. Based on these results, we propose that BbCoADR is necessary to maintain optimal redox ratios for CoA/CoA-disulphide and NAD(+) /NADH during periods of rapid replication throughout the enzootic cycle, to support thiol-disulphide homeostasis, and to indirectly protect the spirochaete against peroxide-mediated membrane damage; one or more of these functions are essential for infection of the mammalian host by B. burgdorferi.
Vaccine. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21945261
The surface-exposed antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi represent important targets for induction of protective host immune responses. BBA52 is preferentially expressed by B. burgdorferi in the feeding tick, and a targeted deletion of bba52 interferes with vector-host transitions in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that BBA52 is an outer membrane surface-exposed protein and that disulfide bridges take part in the homo-oligomeric assembly of native protein. BBA52 antibodies lack detectable borreliacidal activities in vitro. However, active immunization studies demonstrated that BBA52 vaccinated mice were significantly less susceptible to subsequent tick-borne challenge infection. Similarly, passive transfer of BBA52 antibodies in ticks completely blocked B. burgdorferi transmission from feeding ticks to naïve mice. Taken together, these studies highlight the role of BBA52 in spirochete dissemination from ticks to mice and demonstrate the potential of BBA52 antibody-mediated strategy to complement the ongoing efforts to develop vaccines for blocking the transmission of B. burgdorferi.