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In JoVE (2)
- An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival
- A Mouse Model of the Cornea Pocket Assay for Angiogenesis Study
Other Publications (23)
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The EMBO Journal
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Cancer Research
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Adhesion & Migration
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Cell Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Trends in Molecular Medicine
- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Articles by Xuri Li in JoVE
An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival
Zhongshu Tang1, Shuihua Zhang1,2, Chunsik Lee1, Anil Kumar1, Pachiappan Arjunan1, Yang Li1, Fan Zhang1, Xuri Li1
1National Eye Institute, NIH, 2Ophthalmology Department, The Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University
This protocol shows how to retrogradely label retinal ganglion cells, and how to subsequently make an optic nerve crush injury in order to analyze retinal ganglion cell survival and apoptosis. It is an experimental disease model for different types of optic neuropathy, including glaucoma.
A Mouse Model of the Cornea Pocket Assay for Angiogenesis Study
Zhongshu Tang, Fan Zhang, Yang Li, Pachiappan Arjunan, Anil Kumar, Chunsik Lee, Xuri Li
National Eye Institute
The cornea is unique in that it lacks vascular tissues. However, robust blood vessel growth and survival can be induced in the cornea by potent angiogenic factors. Therefore, the cornea can provide with us a valuable tool for angiogenic studies. This protocol demonstrates how to perform the mouse model of cornea pocket assay and how to assess the angiogenesis induced by angiogenic factors using this model.
Other articles by Xuri Li on PubMed
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11912250
Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is a new member of the PDGF family. Its expression in normal and diseased kidney is unknown. Rabbit antisera were generated against human full-length, core domain, and mouse PDGF-C, and their specificity was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Renal PDGF-C expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in normal rats (n = 8), mesangioproliferative anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis (n = 4 each at days 1, 4, 6, and 85), passive Heymann nephritis (PHN, n = 4), puromycin nephrosis (PAN, n = 2), Milan normotensive rats (MN, n = 2), and obese Zucker rats (n = 3). PDGF-C expression was also studied in anti-Thy 1.1 rats treated with PDGF-B aptamer antagonists (n = 5) or irrelevant control aptamers (n = 5). PDGF-C was constitutively expressed in arterial smooth muscle cells and collecting duct epithelial cells. Mesangial PDGF-C was markedly upregulated in anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis in parallel with the peak mesangial cell proliferation. Furthermore, PDGF-CC acted as a potent growth factor for mesangial cells in vitro. Inhibition of PDGF-B via specific aptamers reduced the injury in anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis but did not affect the glomerular PDGF-C overexpression or the mitogenicity of PDGF-CC in vitro. In PHN, PAN, and obese Zucker rats, glomeruli remained negative for PDGF-C despite severe glomerular injury. PDGF-C localized to podocytes at sites of focal and segmental sclerosis in MN. Interstitial PDGF-C expression was increased at sites of fibrosing injury in obese Zucker rats. The use of the different antisera resulted in virtually identical findings. It is concluded that PDGF-C is a novel mesangial cell mitogen that is constitutively expressed in the kidney and specifically upregulated in mesangial, visceral epithelial, and interstitial cells after predominant injury to these cells. PDGF-C may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of renal scarring.
Angiogenesis Stimulated by PDGF-CC, a Novel Member in the PDGF Family, Involves Activation of PDGFR-alphaalpha and -alphabeta Receptors
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12374780
A newly discovered PDGF isoform, PDGF-CC, is expressed in actively angiogenic tissues such as placenta, some embryonic tissues, and tumors. We test the possibility that PDGF-CC promotes angiogenesis in vivo. The core domain (mature form) of human PDGF-CC is sufficiently potent to stimulate neovascularization in the mouse cornea. The corneal angiogenic response induced by PDGF-CC is robust although the area of neovascularization is smaller than those of FGF-2- and VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis. Similarly, PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB induce angiogenic responses virtually indistinguishable from PDGF-CC-stimulated vessels. In contrast, PDGF-AA displays only a weak angiogenic response in the mouse cornea. Although there was no significant difference in incorporation of mural cells to the newly formed blood vessels induced by PDGF-BB and -CC, the percentage of mural cell positive vessels induced by PDGF-AA was greater than those induced by FGF-2, PDGF-BB, and PDGF-CC. In the developing chick embryo, PDGF-CC induced branch sprouts from established blood vessels. In PDGF receptor-transfected endothelial cells, PDGF-CC activated the PDGF receptor alpha subunit (PDGFR-alpha). PDGF-CC, but not PDGF-AA, was able to activate PDGFR-beta receptor in endothelial cells that coexpress both alpha and beta forms of receptors. Thus, the PDGF-CC-mediated angiogenic response is most likely transduced by PDGF-alphaalpha and -alphabeta receptors. These data demonstrate that the PDGF family is a complex and important group of proangiogenic factors.
Oncogene. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12629513
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important for normal tissue growth and maintenance. Overexpression of the classical PDGFs, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, has been linked to several diseases, including cancer, fibrotic disease and atherosclerosis. Recently, two novel PDGFs, PDGF-C and PDGF-D, were discovered. It has not yet been established whether PDGF-C and PDGF-D are linked to disease phenotypes like the classical PDGFs. PDGF-B, the cellular homologue of the viral simian sarcoma oncogene v-sis, is known to potently induce cellular transformation through activation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta. In this work, we have determined the transformation efficacy of PDGF-D in comparison with that of PDGF-C and PDGF-B. PDGF-D is a potent transforming growth factor for NIH/3T3 cells, and the transformed cells displayed stress fibre reorganization, increased proliferation rate, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, ability to induce tumours in nude mice, and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Morphological analyses of the vasculatures from the PDGF-isoform-expressing tumours revealed marked differences suggesting differential signalling through the two PDGF receptors in tumour vessel development and remodelling. In summary, these results suggest that PDGF-D induce cellular transformation and promote tumour growth by accelerating the proliferation rate of the tumour cells, and by stimulation of tumour neovascularization.
Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12651221
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) were discovered almost two decades ago. The classical PDGF polypeptide chains, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, are well studied and they regulate a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes in many types of mesenchymal cells via two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF receptors alpha and beta. Recently, two additional PDGF polypeptide chains were discovered, namely PDGF-C and PDGF-D. The discovery of two additional ligands for the two PDGF receptors suggests that PDGF-mediated signaling is more complex than previously anticipated.
Transgenic Overexpression of Platelet-derived Growth Factor-C in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Fibrosis, Hypertrophy, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy
The American Journal of Pathology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12875986
The platelet-derived growth factors are implicated in development of fibrotic reactions and disease in several organs. We have overexpressed platelet-derived growth factor-C in the heart using the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter and created a transgenic mouse that exhibits cardiac fibrosis followed by hypertrophy with sex-dependent phenotypes. The transgenic mice developed several pathological changes including cardiac fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen, hypertrophy, vascular defects, and the presence of Anitschkow cells in the adult myocardium. Male mice developed a hypertrophic phenotype, whereas female mice were more severely affected and developed dilated cardiomyopathy, leading to heart failure and sudden death. The vascular defects initially included dilation of microvessels and vascular leakage. Subsequently, a marked loss of microvessels, formation of large vascular sac-like structures, and an increased density of smooth muscle-coated vessels were observed in the myocardium. In part, the observed vascular changes may be because of an up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cardiac fibroblasts of the transgenic hearts. This unique animal model reveals that a potent mitogen for cardiac fibroblasts result in an expansion of the interstitium that induce a secondary sex-dependent hypertrophic response in the cardiomyocytes.
The EMBO Journal. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15372073
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in the degradation of blood clots through the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Here we report on the identification of tPA as a specific protease able to activate platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGF-C). The newly identified PDGF-C is secreted as a latent dimeric factor (PDGF-CC) that upon proteolytic removal of the N-terminal CUB domains becomes a PDGF receptor alpha agonist. The CUB domains in PDGF-CC directly interact with tPA, and fibroblasts from tPA-deficient mice fail to activate latent PDGF-CC. We further demonstrate that growth of primary fibroblasts in culture is dependent on a tPA-mediated cleavage of latent PDGF-CC, generating a growth stimulatory loop. Immunohistochemical analysis showed similar expression patterns of PDGF-C and tPA in developing mouse embryos and in tumors, indicating both autocrine and paracrine modes of activation of PDGF receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The identification of tPA as an activator of PDGF signaling establishes a novel role for the protease in normal and pathological tissue growth and maintenance, distinct from its well-known role in plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis.
Revascularization of Ischemic Tissues by PDGF-CC Via Effects on Endothelial Cells and Their Progenitors
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15630451
The angiogenic mechanism and therapeutic potential of PDGF-CC, a recently discovered member of the VEGF/PDGF superfamily, remain incompletely characterized. Here we report that PDGF-CC mobilized endothelial progenitor cells in ischemic conditions; induced differentiation of bone marrow cells into ECs; and stimulated migration of ECs. Furthermore, PDGF-CC induced the differentiation of bone marrow cells into smooth muscle cells and stimulated their growth during vessel sprouting. Moreover, delivery of PDGF-CC enhanced postischemic revascularization of the heart and limb. Modulating the activity of PDGF-CC may provide novel opportunities for treating ischemic diseases.
VEGF-B Inhibits Apoptosis Via VEGFR-1-mediated Suppression of the Expression of BH3-only Protein Genes in Mice and Rats
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18259607
Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological functions of VEGF-B remain poorly understood. We revealed here a novel function for VEGF-B as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. Using gene expression profiling of mouse primary aortic smooth muscle cells, and confirming the results by real-time PCR using mouse and rat cell lines, we showed that VEGF-B inhibited the expression of genes encoding the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins and other apoptosis- and cell death-related proteins, including p53 and members of the caspase family, via activation of VEGFR-1. Consistent with this, VEGF-B treatment rescued neurons from apoptosis in the retina and brain in mouse models of ocular neurodegenerative disorders and stroke, respectively. Interestingly, VEGF-B treatment at the dose effective for neuronal survival did not cause retinal neovascularization, suggesting that VEGF-B is the first member of the VEGF family that has a potent antiapoptotic effect while lacking a general angiogenic activity. These findings indicate that VEGF-B may potentially offer a new therapeutic option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Reevaluation of the Role of VEGF-B Suggests a Restricted Role in the Revascularization of the Ischemic Myocardium
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18511699
The endogenous role of the VEGF family member vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) in pathological angiogenesis remains unclear.
Paracrine Signaling by Platelet-derived Growth Factor-CC Promotes Tumor Growth by Recruitment of Cancer-associated Fibroblasts
Cancer Research. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19118022
Cancer results from the concerted performance of malignant cells and stromal cells. Cell types populating the microenvironment are enlisted by the tumor to secrete a host of growth-promoting cues, thus upholding tumor initiation and progression. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) support the formation of a prominent tumor stromal compartment by as of yet unidentified molecular effectors. Whereas PDGF-CC induces fibroblast reactivity and fibrosis in a range of tissues, little is known about the function of PDGF-CC in shaping the tumor-stroma interplay. Herein, we present evidence for a paracrine signaling network involving PDGF-CC and PDGF receptor-alpha in malignant melanoma. Expression of PDGFC in a mouse model accelerated tumor growth through recruitment and activation of different subsets of cancer-associated fibroblasts. In seeking the molecular identity of the supporting factors provided by cancer-associated fibroblasts, we made use of antibody arrays and an in vivo coinjection model to identify osteopontin as the effector of the augmented tumor growth induced by PDGF-CC. In conclusion, we establish paracrine signaling by PDGF-CC as a potential drug target to reduce stromal support in malignant melanoma.
A Role for a CXCR2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Gamma Signaling Axis in Acute and Chronic Vascular Permeability
Molecular and Cellular Biology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19255141
Most proangiogenic polypeptide growth factors and chemokines enhance vascular permeability, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target for anti-angiogenic-based therapies, and interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent proinflammatory mediator. Here, we show that in endothelial cells IL-8 initiates a signaling route that converges with that deployed by VEGF at the level of the small GTPase Rac1 and that both act through the p21-activated kinase to promote the phosphorylation and internalization of VE-cadherin. However, whereas VEGF activates Rac1 through Src-related kinases, IL-8 specifically signals to Rac1 through its cognate G protein-linked receptor, CXCR2, and the stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) catalytic isoform, thereby providing a specific molecular targeted intervention in vascular permeability. These results prompted us to investigate the potential role of IL-8 signaling in a mouse model for retinal vascular hyperpermeability. Importantly, we observed that IL-8 is upregulated upon laser-induced retinal damage, which recapitulates enhanced vascularization, leakage, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, blockade of CXCR2 and PI3Kgamma was able to limit neovascularization and choroidal edema, as well as macrophage infiltration, therefore contributing to reduce retinal damage. These findings indicate that the CXCR2 and PI3Kgamma signaling pathway may represent a suitable target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for human diseases characterized by vascular leakage.
VEGF-B is Dispensable for Blood Vessel Growth but Critical for Their Survival, and VEGF-B Targeting Inhibits Pathological Angiogenesis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19369214
VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for their survival. Importantly, the survival effect of VEGF-B is not only on vascular endothelial cells, but also on pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular stem/progenitor cells. In vivo, VEGF-B targeting inhibited both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Mechanistically, we found that the vascular survival effect of VEGF-B is achieved by regulating the expression of many vascular prosurvival genes via both NP-1 and VEGFR-1. Our work thus indicates that the function of VEGF-B in the vascular system is to act as a "survival," rather than an "angiogenic" factor and that VEGF-B inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases.
Cell Adhesion & Migration. Oct-Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19684473
Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological function of VEGF-B remained debatable for a long time, and VEGF-B has received little attention from the field thus far. Recently, we and others have found that (1) VEGF-B is a potent survival factor for different types of cells by inhibiting apoptosis via suppressing the expression of BH3-only protein and other apoptotic/cell death-related genes. (2) VEGF-B has a negligible role in inducing blood vessel growth in most organs. Instead, it is critically required for blood vessel survival. VEGF-B targeting inhibited pathological angiogenesis by abolishing blood vessel survival in different animal models. (3) Using different types of neuro-injury and neurodegenerative disease models, VEGF-B treatment protected endangered neurons from apoptosis without inducing undesired blood vessel growth or permeability. Thus, VEGF-B is the first member of the VEGF family that has a potent survival/anti-apoptotic effect, while lacking a general angiogenic activity. Our work thus advocates that the major function of VEGF-B is to act as a "survival", rather than an "angiogenic" factor and implicates a therapeutic potential of VEGF-B in treating different types of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Platelet-derived Growth Factor-DD Targeting Arrests Pathological Angiogenesis by Modulating Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3beta Phosphorylation
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20231273
Platelet-derived growth factor-DD (PDGF-DD) is a recently discovered member of the PDGF family. The role of PDGF-DD in pathological angiogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, using different animal models, we showed that PDGF-DD expression was up-regulated during pathological angiogenesis, and inhibition of PDGF-DD suppressed both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. We also demonstrated a novel mechanism mediating the function of PDGF-DD. PDGF-DD induced glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) Ser(9) phosphorylation and Tyr(216) dephosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, leading to increased cell survival. Consistently, GSK3beta activity was required for the antiangiogenic effect of PDGF-DD targeting. Moreover, PDGF-DD regulated the expression of GSK3beta and many other genes important for angiogenesis and apoptosis. Thus, we identified PDGF-DD as an important target gene for antiangiogenic therapy due to its pleiotropic effects on vascular and non-vascular cells. PDGF-DD inhibition may offer new therapeutic options to treat neovascular diseases.
Survival Effect of PDGF-CC Rescues Neurons from Apoptosis in Both Brain and Retina by Regulating GSK3beta Phosphorylation
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20231377
Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on the original members of the family, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC remains largely to be explored. We report a novel finding that PDGF-CC is a potent neuroprotective factor that acts by modulating glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) activity. In several different animal models of neuronal injury, such as axotomy-induced neuronal death, neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's dopaminergic neuronal death, and ischemia-induced stroke, PDGF-CC protein or gene delivery protected different types of neurons from apoptosis in both the retina and brain. On the other hand, loss-of-function assays using PDGF-C null mice, neutralizing antibody, or short hairpin RNA showed that PDGF-CC deficiency/inhibition exacerbated neuronal death in different neuronal tissues in vivo. Mechanistically, we revealed that the neuroprotective effect of PDGF-CC was achieved by regulating GSK3beta phosphorylation and expression. Our data demonstrate that PDGF-CC is critically required for neuronal survival and may potentially be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of the PDGF-CC-PDGF receptor pathway for different clinical purposes should be conducted with caution to preserve normal neuronal functions.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20385769
Recent studies revealed that a class III semaphorin, semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), acts through a single-pass transmembrane receptor, plexin D1, to provide a repulsive cue for plexin D1-expressing endothelial cells, thus providing a highly conserved and developmentally regulated signaling system guiding the growth of blood vessels. We show here that Sema3E acts as a potent inhibitor of adult and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Activation of plexin D1 by Sema3E causes the rapid disassembly of integrin-mediated adhesive structures, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and causing the retraction of filopodia in endothelial tip cells. Sema3E acts on plexin D1 to initiate a two-pronged mechanism involving R-Ras inactivation and Arf6 stimulation, which affect the status of activation of integrins and their intracellular trafficking, respectively. Ultimately, our present study provides a molecular framework for antiangiogenesis signaling, thus impinging on a myriad of pathological conditions that are characterized by aberrant increase in neovessel formation, including cancer.
PDGF-CC Blockade Inhibits Pathological Angiogenesis by Acting on Multiple Cellular and Molecular Targets
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20566880
The importance of identifying VEGF-independent pathways in pathological angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as a result of the emerging drug resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. PDGF-CC is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, using different animal models, we report that PDGF-CC inhibition by neutralizing antibody, shRNA, or genetic deletion suppressed both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Importantly, we revealed that PDGF-CC targeting acted not only on multiple cell types important for pathological angiogenesis, such as vascular mural and endothelial cells, macrophages, choroidal fibroblasts and retinal pigment epithelial cells, but also on the expression of other important angiogenic genes, such as PDGF-BB and PDGF receptors. At a molecular level, we found that PDGF-CC regulated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation and expression both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of GSK3beta impaired PDGF-CC-induced angiogenesis, and inhibition of GSK3beta abolished the antiangiogenic effect of PDGF-CC blockade. Thus, we identified PDGF-CC as an important candidate target gene for antiangiogenic therapy, and PDGF-CC inhibition may be of therapeutic value in treating neovascular diseases.
Oligo-guanosine Nucleotide Induces Neuropilin-1 Internalization in Endothelial Cells and Inhibits Angiogenesis
Blood. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20606164
Ligand interaction with cognate cell-surface receptor often promotes receptor internalization, protecting cells from prolonged or excessive signaling from extracellular ligands. Compounds that induce internalization of surface receptors prevent ligand binding to cognate cell-surface receptors serving as inhibitors. Here, we show that synthetic polyriboguanosine (poly G) and oligo-deoxyriboguanosine (oligo G) reduce endothelial levels of surface neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a receptor shared by semaphorin 3A and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays critical roles in angiogenesis. Oligo G also reduces levels of cell-surface scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), but not levels of NRP2, gp130, CD31, VEGFR-1, or VEGFR-2. Poly or oligo A, T, and C do not promote NRP1 or SREC-I internalization. We find that oligo G binds to NRP1 with high affinity (Kd:1.3 ± 0.16 nM), bridges the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of SREC-I, and induces coordinate internalization of NRP1 and SREC-I. In vitro, oligo G blocks the binding and function of VEGF(165) in endothelial cells. In vivo, intravitreal administration of oligo G reduces choroidal neovascularization in mice. These results demonstrate that synthetic oligo G is an inhibitor of pathologic angiogenesis that reduces cell-surface levels and function of NRP1 acting as an internalization inducer.
Complement-mediated Inhibition of Neovascularization Reveals a Point of Convergence Between Innate Immunity and Angiogenesis
Blood. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20625009
Beyond its role in immunity, complement mediates a wide range of functions in the context of morphogenetic or tissue remodeling processes. Angiogenesis is crucial during tissue remodeling in multiple pathologies; however, the knowledge about the regulation of neovascularization by the complement components is scarce. Here we studied the involvement of complement in pathological angiogenesis. Strikingly, we found that mice deficient in the central complement component C3 displayed increased neovascularization in the model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and in the in vivo Matrigel plug assay. In addition, antibody-mediated blockade of C5, treatment with C5aR antagonist, or C5aR deficiency in mice resulted in enhanced pathological retina angiogenesis. While complement did not directly affect angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions, we found that macrophages mediated the antiangiogenic activity of complement. In particular, C5a-stimulated macrophages were polarized toward an angiogenesis-inhibitory phenotype, including the up-regulated secretion of the antiangiogenic soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1. Consistently, macrophage depletion in vivo reversed the increased neovascularization associated with C3- or C5aR deficiency. Taken together, complement and in particular the C5a-C5aR axes are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis.
Oncotarget. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20871734
VEGF is believed to be a master regulator in both developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The role of PDGF-C in angiogenesis, however, is only at the beginning of being revealed. We and others have shown that PDGF-C is a critical player in pathological angiogenesis because of its pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular targets. The angiogenic pathways induced by PDGF-C are, to a large extent, VEGF-independent. These pathways may include, but not limited to, the direct effect of PDGF-C on vascular cells, the effect of PDGF-C on tissue stroma fibroblasts, and its effect on macrophages. Taken together, the pleiotropic, versatile and VEGF-independent angiogenic nature of PDGF-C has placed it among the most important target genes for antiangiogenic therapy.
Trends in Molecular Medicine. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22178229
No other member of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family has been as mysterious as VEGF-B. Notwithstanding its name, VEGF-B can hardly be regarded as a growth factor because growth occurs fairly normally in Vegf-b deficient mice. Moreover, VEGF-B is barely angiogenic under most conditions, although it was expected to be an angiogenic factor for a long time. Under certain conditions, VEGF-B has been shown to be involved in blood vessel growth. Under other conditions, however, VEGF-B can act to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. Given these contradictory findings, the biological function of VEGF-B appears enigmatic. In this review, we summarize recent advances in VEGF-B biology and discuss its multifaceted roles, the underlying mechanisms, and the potential therapeutic implications.
Targeting of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) Inhibits Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22323465
Purpose:To identify the expression of junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and evaluate the effect of JAM-C targeting on CNV formation and on cellular functions relevant to CNV in vitro, such as macrophage transmigration, human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cell migration and monolayer RPE permeability.Methods:JAM-C expression in CNV was analyzed by real-time PCR, immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining. CNV area and blood vessel leakage were quantified using isolectin B4 staining and fluorescein angiography, respectively, one week after laser treatment. Macrophage infiltration within the CNV area was measured by immunofluorescence, and transmigration through monolayer RPE was analyzed using a transepithelial migration assay. After JAM-C shRNA transfection, human RPE cell migration was quantified using a transwell assay, and monolayer RPE permeability was determined by measuring the apical-to-basolateral movements of sodium fluorescein.Results:JAM-C expression was upregulated during CNV formation after laser treatment in a time-dependent manner. However, no change in JAM-C expression was found in the retina up to 14 days after laser treatment. JAM-C targeting by intravitreal injection of JAM-C Fc chimera inhibited CNV, blood vessel leakage and macrophage infiltration. JAM-C Fc chimera inhibited basolateral-to-apical transmigration through a monolayer of hRPE of macrophages from wet AMD patients in vitro. In addition, shRNA-mediated JAM-C knockdown inhibited hRPE cell migration and hRPE permeability.Conclusions:JAM-C blockade may prove useful for CNV suppression by inhibiting macrophage transmigration, RPE cell migration and monolayer RPE barrier malfunction.