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Articles by Yu-Jin Won in JoVE
Yetişkin grubuyla Memeli Nöronlar içine DNA intranükleer Mikroenjeksiyon
Van B. Lu, Damian J. Williams, Yu-Jin Won, Stephen R. Ikeda
Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
CDNA Doğrudan intranükleer enjeksiyonu, etkili bir post-mitotik hücrelerin transfeksiyon tekniktir. Bu yöntem, tek veya birden fazla cDNA yapıları heterolog protein ekspresyonu yüksek düzeyde sağlar ve tek bir hücre deneyleri çeşitli fizyolojik ilgili bir ortamda incelenmesi gereken protein fonksiyonu sağlar.
Other articles by Yu-Jin Won on PubMed
IL-4 Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Affecting P53, P21(Waf1), Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E Expression
Molecules and Cells. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14503851
IL-4 is emerging as a candidate cytokine for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have reported that IL-4 has anti-angiogenic activity and inhibits the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Cell cycle analysis of this effect revealed that IL-4 arrests the growth of FGF-2-stimulated HUVEC in G0 + G1 phases. The absence of subdiploid cells showed that it did not induce apoptosis. Growth arrest was dose-dependent, but the percentage of G0 + G1 phase cells never exceeded 85%. An immunoblot analysis demonstrated that expression of p53 and p21(Waf1) was increased and that of cyclin D1 and cyclin E decreased by IL-4. These results show that IL-4 inhibits endothelial cell growth by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules.
Concomitant Distribution Shift of Glial GABA Transporter and S100 Calcium-binding Proteins in the Rat Retina After Kainate-induced Excitotoxic Injury
Neuroscience Letters. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14642427
The goal of this study was to elucidate the involvement of neuronal and glial calcium-binding proteins in the stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport system by kainate-induced excitotoxicity in the rat retina. We used immunohistochemical method to assess the localization of GABA reuptake and calcium-binding proteins. After systemic administration of kainate, the neuronal GABA transporter does not show an association with calbindin D-28K. However, the localization of the GAT-3 transport system in Müller glial cells is closely correlated with the S100 proteins interacting with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in response to kainate injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that kainate-mediated excitotoxicity induced concomitant distribution shift of glial GABA transporter, S100 proteins and GFAP in the distal processes and endfeet of glial cells during the first 48 h.
Nerve Injury Alters Profile of Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Channel Modulation in Vagal Afferent Neurons of Rat Nodose Ganglia
Neuroscience Letters. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15196673
Although nerve injury is known to up- and down-regulate some metabotropic receptors in vagal afferent neurons of the nodose ganglia (NG), the functional significance has not been elucidated. In the present study, thus, we examined whether nerve injury affected receptor-mediated Ca2+ channel modulation in the NG neurons. In this regard, unilateral vagotomy was performed using male Sprague-Dawley rats. One week after vagotomy, Ca2+ currents were recorded using the whole-cell variant of patch-clamp technique in enzymatically dissociated NG neurons. In sham controls, norepinephrine (NE)-induced Ca2+ current inhibition was negligible. Following vagotomy, however, the NE responses were dramatically increased. This phenomenon was in accordance with up-regulation of alpha2A/B-adrenergic receptor mRNAs as quantified using real-time RT-PCR analysis. In addition, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and prostaglandin E2 responses were moderately augmented in vagotomized NG neurons. The altered NPY response appears to be caused by up-regulation of Y2 receptors negatively coupled to Ca2+ channels. In contrast, nerve injury significantly suppressed opioid (tested with DAMGO)-induced Ca2+ current inhibition with down-regulation of micro-receptors. Taken together, these results demonstrated for the first time that the profile of neurotransmitter-induced Ca2+ channel modulation is significantly altered in the NG neurons under pathophysiological state of nerve injury.
Expression Profiles of High Voltage-activated Calcium Channels in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Pelvic Ganglion Neurons Innervating the Urogenital System
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16467454
Among the autonomic ganglia, major pelvic ganglia (MPG) innervating the urogenital system are unique because both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons are colocalized within one ganglion capsule. Sympathetic MPG neurons are discriminated from parasympathetic ones by expression of low voltage-activated Ca2+ channels that primarily arise from T-type alpha1H isoform and contribute to the generation of low-threshold spikes. Until now, however, expression profiles of high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels in these two populations of MPG neurons remain unknown. Thus, in the present study, we dissected out HVA Ca2+ channels using pharmacological and molecular biological tools. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MPG neurons contained transcripts encoding all of the known HVA Ca2+ channel isoforms (alpha1B, alpha1C, alpha1D and alpha1E), with the exception of alpha1A. Western blot analysis and pharmacology with omega-agatoxin IVA (1 microM) confirmed that MPG neurons lack the alpha1A Ca2+ channels. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of HVA Ca2+ channel isoforms was identical in the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons of the MPG. Of the total Ca2+ currents, omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type (alpha1B) currents constituted 57 +/- 5% (n = 9) and 60 +/- 3% (n = 6), respectively; nimodipine-sensitive L-type (alpha1C and alpha1D) currents made up 17 +/- 4% and 14 +/- 2%, respectively; and nimodipine-resistant and omega-conotoxin GVIA-resistant R-type currents were 25 +/- 3% and 22 +/- 2%, respectively. The R-type Ca2+ currents were sensitive to NiCl2 (IC50 = 22 +/- 0.1 microM) but not to SNX-482, which was able to potently (IC50 = 76 +/- 0.4 nM) block the recombinant alpha1E/beta2a/alpha2delta Ca2+ currents expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that sympathetic and parasympathetic MPG neurons share a similar but unique profile of HVA Ca2+ channel isoforms.
Molecular Reconstruction of MGluR5a-mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Cascade in Single Rat Sympathetic Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19864572
Endocannabinoids (eCB) such as 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) are lipid metabolites that are synthesized in a postsynaptic neurons and act upon CB(1) cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R) in presynaptic nerve terminals. This retrograde transmission underlies several forms of short and long term synaptic plasticity within the CNS. Here, we constructed a model system based on isolated rat sympathetic neurons, in which an eCB signaling cascade could be studied in a reduced, spatially compact, and genetically malleable system. We constructed a complete eCB production/mobilization pathway by sequential addition of molecular components. Heterologous expression of four components was required for eCB production and detection: metabotropic glutamate receptor 5a (mGluR5a), Homer 2b, diacylglycerol lipase alpha, and CB(1)R. In these neurons, application of l-glutamate produced voltage-dependent modulation of N-type Ca(2+) channels mediated by activation of CB(1)R. Using both molecular dissection and pharmacological agents, we provide evidence that activation of mGluR5a results in rapid enzymatic production of 2-AG followed by activation of CB(1)R. These experiments define the critical elements required to recapitulate retrograde eCB production and signaling in a single peripheral neuron. Moreover, production/mobilization of eCB can be detected on a physiologically relevant time scale using electrophysiological techniques. The system provides a platform for testing candidate molecules underlying facilitation of eCB transport across the plasma membrane.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20962070
Electrically excitable cells have voltage-dependent ion channels on the plasma membrane that regulate membrane permeability to specific ions. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are especially important as Ca(2+) serves as both a charge carrier and second messenger. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an important model vertebrate for studies of neuronal excitability, circuits, and behavior. However, electrophysiological properties of zebrafish VGCCs remain largely unexplored because a suitable preparation for whole cell voltage-clamp studies is lacking. Rohon-Beard (R-B) sensory neurons represent an attractive candidate for this purpose because of their relatively large somata and functional homology to mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein in R-B neurons, (Isl2b:EGFP)(ZC7), were used to identify dissociated neurons suitable for whole cell patch-clamp experiments. Based on biophysical and pharmacological properties, zebrafish R-B neurons express both high- and low-voltage-gated Ca(2+) current (HVA- and LVA-I(Ca), respectively). Ni(+)-sensitive LVA-I(Ca) occur in the minority of R-B neurons (30%) and ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V)2.2 (N-type) Ca(2+) channels underlie the vast majority (90%) of HVA-I(Ca). To identify G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate HVA-I(Ca), a panel of neurotransmitters was screened. Application of GABA/baclofen or serotonin produced a voltage-dependent inhibition while application of the mu-opioid agonist DAMGO resulted in a voltage-independent inhibition. Unlike in mammalian neurons, GPCR-mediated voltage-dependent modulation of I(Ca) appears to be transduced primarily via a cholera toxin-sensitive Gα subunit. These results provide the basis for using the zebrafish model system to understanding Ca(2+) channel function, and in turn, how Ca(2+) channels contribute to mechanosensory function.
Phenotype-specific Down-regulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pelvic Ganglia of Castrated Rats: Implications for Neurogenic Erectile Dysfunction
Neuroscience Letters. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21782342
Pelvic ganglia (PG) play critical roles in relaying sympathetic and parasympathetic information from the spinal cord to the penile vasculature and, controlling the penile reflex. Animal studies have shown that androgen deprivation by castration causes erectile dysfunction (ED). Until now, however, neural mechanisms underlying castration-induced ED remain unclear. Therefore, we examined whether androgen deprivation down-regulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs), which mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the PG. Toward this end, neurogenic ED was demonstrated by measuring the intracavernous pressure in castrated rats. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcripts encoding nAchR α3/α5/β4 subunits were significantly down-regulated in the PG neurons. In addition, down-regulation of the nAchR subunits was reversed by replacement of testosterone. Patch-clamp experiments showed that the nAchR currents were selectively attenuated in the parasympathetic PG neurons innervating the penile vasculature, activation of which elicits penile erection. Taken together, our data suggest that phenotype-specific down-regulation of nAchRs in the PG neurons may contribute to the neurogenic ED in castrated rats.