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  JoVE Biology

  
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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Applied Physics

  
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  JoVE Behavior

  
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  JoVE Environment

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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Model Organisms II

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Essentials of
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Biology
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 JoVE Environment

Transient Gene Expression in Tobacco using Gibson Assembly and the Gene Gun

1Synthetic Biology Platform, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 2Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology


JoVE 51234

This work describes a novel method for selectively targeting subcellular organelles in plants, assayed using the BioRad Gene Gun.

 JoVE Chemistry

Formation of Ordered Biomolecular Structures by the Self-assembly of Short Peptides

1Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


JoVE 50946

This paper describes the formation of highly ordered peptide-based structures by the spontaneous process of self-assembly. The method utilizes commercially available peptides and common lab equipment. This technique can be applied to a large variety of peptides and may lead to the discovery of new peptide-based assemblies.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Bioengineering

ECM Protein Nanofibers and Nanostructures Engineered Using Surface-initiated Assembly

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University


JoVE 51176

A method to obtain nanofibers and complex nanostructures from single or multiple extracellular matrix proteins is described. This method uses protein-surface interactions to create free-standing protein-based materials with tunable composition and architecture for use in a variety of tissue engineering and biotechnology applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis, Assembly, and Characterization of Monolayer Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry

1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond


JoVE 3441

Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Monitoring the Assembly of a Secreted Bacterial Virulence Factor Using Site-specific Crosslinking

1Genetics and Biochemistry Branch of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health


JoVE 51217

This article illustrates the use of pulse-chase radio labeling in combination with site-specific photocrosslinking to monitor interactions between a protein of interest and other factors in E. coli. Unlike traditional chemical cross-linking methods, this approach generates high resolution “snapshots” of an ordered assembly pathway in a living cell.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine


JoVE 51501

Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly of Nucleosomal Arrays from Recombinant Core Histones and Nucleosome Positioning DNA

1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University


JoVE 50354

A method is presented for the reconstitution of model nucleosomal arrays from recombinant core histones and tandemly repeated nucleosome positioning DNA. We also describe how sedimentation velocity experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to monitor the extent of nucleosomal array saturation after reconstitution.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design and Assembly of an Ultra-light Motorized Microdrive for Chronic Neural Recordings in Small Animals

1Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, 2Program in Neuroscience, Harvard University, 3Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University


JoVE 4314

The design, fabrication and assembly of an ultra-light motorized microdrive is described. The device provides a cost-effective and easy-to-use solution for chronic recordings of single units in small behaving animals.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Simple and Robust in vivo and in vitro Approach for Studying Virus Assembly

1Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside


JoVE 3645

A simple, efficient and robust way to synchronize the delivery of multiple viral components to plant cells via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression is described. This approach is amenable for studying replication, encapsidation followed by in vitro reassembly of non-viral components into genome depleted optical viral ghosts suitable for biomedical applications.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly, Loading, and Alignment of an Analytical Ultracentrifuge Sample Cell

1National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Dynamics of Macromolecular Assembly, Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science


JoVE 1530

The analytical ultracentrifuge (AUC) sample cell holds sample and reference buffer and during experiments and is exposed to high vacuum and rotor speeds up to 60,000 rpm. This video will demonstrate the rigorous attention to detail necessary for assembly, loading and alignment of this very important component of an AUC experiment.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Directed Cellular Self-Assembly to Fabricate Cell-Derived Tissue Rings for Biomechanical Analysis and Tissue Engineering

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute


JoVE 3366

This article outlines a versatile method to create cell-derived tissue rings by cellular self-assembly. Smooth muscle cells seeded into ring-shaped agarose wells aggregate and contract to form robust three-dimensional (3D) tissues within 7 days. Millimeter-scale tissue rings are conducive to mechanical testing and serve as building blocks for tissue assembly.

 JoVE Biology

Combining QD-FRET and Microfluidics to Monitor DNA Nanocomplex Self-Assembly in Real-Time

1Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 2Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 3Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 1432

We present a novel and powerful integration of nanophotonics (QD-FRET) and microfluidics to investigate the formation of polyelectrolyte polyplexes, which is expected to provide better control and synthesis of uniform and customizable polyplexes for future nucleic acid-based therapeutics.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Solid-phase Submonomer Synthesis of Peptoid Polymers and their Self-Assembly into Highly-Ordered Nanosheets

1Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 3373

A simple and general manual peptoid synthesis method involving basic equipment and commercially available reagents is outlined, enabling peptoids to be easily synthesized in most laboratories. The synthesis, purification and characterization of an amphiphilic peptoid 36mer is described, as well as its self-assembly into highly-ordered nanosheets.

 JoVE Bioengineering

In vitro Assembly of Semi-artificial Molecular Machine and its Use for Detection of DNA Damage

1Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 3628

We demonstrate the assembly and application of a molecular-scale device powered by a topoisomerase protein. The construct is a bio-molecular sensor which labels two major types of DNA breaks in tissue sections by attaching two different fluorophores to their ends.

 JoVE Biology

Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Tetrode Assembly

1Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 1098

In this protocol we demonstrate how to fabricate and condition tetrodes for use with a micro-drive array, which was designed for chronic electrophysiological recordings in rats. In addition, we illustrate the final stages of micro-drive array construction, which includes installing ground wires and a protective cone.

 JoVE Biology

Dissection of Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from Xenopus laevis Embryos and Assembly of a Cell Adhesion Assay

1Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 187

This video demonstrates the technique used for preparation of organizer and animal pole explants from Xenopus laevis embryos, including the use of the eyebrow knife - a specialized dissection tool made of one's eyebrow. The protocol for assembling an adhesion assay is also given, which probes for the presence of key adhesion molecules present on the surface organizer or animal pole cells that are critical for proper development.

 JoVE Biology

In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts

1Department of Cell Biology, Emory University


JoVE 908

Nuclear membrane assembly is an essential step in the cell division cycle; this process can be replicated in the test tube by combining Xenopus sperm chromatin, cytosol, and light membrane fractions. Complete nuclei are formed, including nuclear membranes with pore complexes, and these reconstituted nuclei are capable of normal nuclear processes.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly, Tuning and Use of an Apertureless Near Field Infrared Microscope for Protein Imaging

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, 3Department of Chemistry, Duke University


JoVE 1581

The assembly of a nearfield infrared microscope for imaging protein aggregates is described.

 JoVE Biology

FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations

1Department of Molecular Microbiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen


JoVE 50844

Polymerization of FtsZ is essential for bacterial cell division. In this report, we detail simple protocols to monitor FtsZ polymerization activity and discuss the influence of buffer composition. The protocols can be used to study the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or antibacterial drugs that affect FtsZ polymerization.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Insertion of Flexible Neural Probes Using Rigid Stiffeners Attached with Biodissolvable Adhesive

1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 50609

Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Measuring Material Microstructure Under Flow Using 1-2 Plane Flow-Small Angle Neutron Scattering

1Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, 2NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Institut Laue-Langevin


JoVE 51068

A shear cell is developed for small-angle neutron scattering measurements in the velocity-velocity gradient plane of shear and is used to characterize complex fluids. Spatially resolved measurements in the velocity gradient direction are possible for studying shear-banding materials. Applications include investigations of colloidal dispersions, polymer solutions, and self-assembled structures.

 JoVE Biology

Mouse Genome Engineering Using Designer Nucleases

1Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, 2Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development and Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota


JoVE 50930

Designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) can be used to modify the genome of mouse preimplantation embryos by triggering both the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways. These advances enable the rapid generation of mice with precise genetic modifications.

 JoVE Environment

Experimental Protocol for Manipulating Plant-induced Soil Heterogeneity

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 51580

Understanding the role of environmental heterogeneity in species coexistence has typically focused on types of heterogeneity that are extrinsic to the community’s species composition. We provide novel detailed methods for creating soil heterogeneity treatments using soils subject to plant-soil feedback conditioning, or heterogeneity intrinsic to the community composition.

 JoVE Biology

Infinium Assay for Large-scale SNP Genotyping Applications

1Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation


JoVE 50683

A protocol is described that uses Illumina's Infinium assays to perform large-scale genotyping. These assays can reliably genotype millions of SNPs across hundreds of individual DNA samples in three days. Once generated, these genotypes can be used to check for associations with a variety of different diseases or phenotypes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech


JoVE 51257

The objective of this research was to form synthetic plant cell wall tissue using layer-by-layer assembly of nanocellulose fibrils and isolated lignin assembled from dilute aqueous suspensions.  Surface measurement techniques of quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy were used to monitor the formation of the polymer-polymer nanocomposite material.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 51745

We have devised a method for low-cost and rapid prototyping of liquid elastomer rubber injection molded devices by using fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as a liquid injection system.

 JoVE Biology

Visualization of G3BP Stress Granules Dynamics in Live Primary Cells

1Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535


JoVE 51197

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA granules containing stalled ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), and important in cellular response to various stresses. Dynamics of SGs can be followed in live cells by visualizing the localization of a tagged component of SGs in transfected primary cells after stress.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland


JoVE 4231

This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.

 JoVE Applied Physics

High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan


JoVE 50559

A procedure for studying transient flows near boundaries using high-resolution, high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is described here. PIV is a non-intrusive measurement technique applicable to any optically accessible flow by optimizing several parameter constraints such as the image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and analysis algorithms.

 JoVE Biology

A Protocol for Computer-Based Protein Structure and Function Prediction

1Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 2Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Molecular Bioscience, University of Kansas


JoVE 3259

Guidelines for computer based structural and functional characterization of protein using the I-TASSER pipeline is described. Starting from query protein sequence, 3D models are generated using multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. Functional inferences are thereafter drawn based on matches to proteins with known structure and functions.

 JoVE Chemistry

A Technique to Functionalize and Self-assemble Macroscopic Nanoparticle-ligand Monolayer Films onto Template-free Substrates

1Naval Research Laboratory


JoVE 51282

A simple, robust and scalable technique to functionalize and self-assemble macroscopic nanoparticle-ligand monolayer films onto template-free substrates is described in this protocol.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Fabricating Metamaterials Using the Fiber Drawing Method

1Institute of Photonics and Optical Sciences (IPOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney


JoVE 4299

Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Controlling the Size, Shape and Stability of Supramolecular Polymers in Water

1Organic Chemistry Institute and CeNTech, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 2Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 3Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry and Soft Matter Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology


JoVE 3975

The goal of this experiment is to determine and control the size, shape and stability of self-assembled discotic amphiphiles in water. For aqueous based supramolecular polymers such level of control is very difficult. We apply a strategy using both repulsive and attractive interactions. The experimental techniques applied to characterize this system are broadly applicable.

 JoVE Biology

An Experimental and Bioinformatics Protocol for RNA-seq Analyses of Photoperiodic Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

1Department of Biology, Georgetown University, 2Insect Physiology Lab, EEOB, The Ohio State University


JoVE 51961

RNA-Seq analyses are becoming increasingly important for identifying the molecular underpinnings of adaptive traits in non-model organisms. Here, a protocol to identify differentially expressed genes between diapause and non-diapause Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is described, from mosquito rearing, to RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of RNA-Seq data.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Planar and Three-Dimensional Printing of Conductive Inks

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 3Presently at the Interdisciplinary Center for Wide Band-gap Semiconductors, University Of California Santa Barbara


JoVE 3189

Planar and three-dimensional printing of conductive metallic inks is described. Our approach provides new avenues for fabricating printed electronic, optoelectronic, and biomedical devices in unusual layouts at the microscale.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design and Fabrication of Ultralight Weight, Adjustable Multi-electrode Probes for Electrophysiological Recordings in Mice

1The Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 51675

Understanding the neural substrates of behavior requires brain circuit ensemble recording. Because of its genetic tractability, the mouse offers a model for circuit dissection and disease mimicry. Here, a method of designing and fabricating miniaturized probes is described that is suitable for targeting deep brain structure in the mouse.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves

1Tissue Engineered Mechanics, Imaging and Materials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


JoVE 50335

There has been renewed interest in developing polymer valves. Here, the objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of modifying a commercial pulse duplicator to accommodate tri-leaflet geometries and to define a protocol to present polymer valve hydrodynamic data in comparison to native and prosthetic valve data collected under near-identical conditions.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Two Methods of Heterokaryon Formation to Discover HCV Restriction Factors

1Division of Experimental Virology, Twincore, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, 2Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, NY


JoVE 4029

We describe two methods for conditional trans-complementation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and the completion of the full viral life cycle, which rely on heterokaryon formation. These techniques are suitable to screen for cell lines that express dominant restriction factors, which preclude production of infectious HCV progeny.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Seeding Technology and Biocompatibility Testing For Cardiovascular Devices in Large Animal Model

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2School of Medicine, Duke University, 3Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 4School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 3197

A method for seeding titanium blood-contacting biomaterials with autologous cells and testing biocompatibility is described. This method uses endothelial progenitor cells and titanium tubes, seeded within minutes of surgical implantation into porcine venae cavae. This technique is adaptable to many other implantable biomedical devices.

 JoVE Behavior

Construction of Microdrive Arrays for Chronic Neural Recordings in Awake Behaving Mice

1Lab of Immune and Neural Networks, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Hofstra North Shore LIJ School of Medicine


JoVE 50470

The design and assembly of microdrives for in vivo electrophysiological recordings of brain signals from the mouse is described. By attaching microelectrode bundles to sturdy driveable carriers, these techniques allow for long-term and stable neural recordings. The lightweight design allows for unrestricted behavioral performance by the animal following drive implantation.

 JoVE Biology

Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends

1Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2Federal Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia, 3Physiology Department, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51150

Microtubules are inherently unstable polymers, and their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. Here we describe protocols using segmented microtubules with photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting analysis of motions with the disassembling microtubule ends.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microfluidic Fabrication of Polymeric and Biohybrid Fibers with Predesigned Size and Shape

1Center for Bio/Molecular Science & Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, 2Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


JoVE 50958

Two adjacent fluids passing through a grooved microfluidic channel can be directed to form a sheath around a prepolymer core; thereby determining both shape and cross-section. Photoinitiated polymerization, such as thiol click chemistry, is well suited for rapidly solidifying the core fluid into a microfiber with predetermined size and shape.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Construction and Characterization of a Novel Vocal Fold Bioreactor

1Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Delaware, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware


JoVE 51594

A novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of delivering physiologically relevant, vibratory stimulation to cultured cells is constructed and characterized. This dynamic culture device, when combined with a fibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, creates a vocal fold-mimetic environment that modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells.

 JoVE Biology

Protocols for Implementing an Escherichia coli Based TX-TL Cell-Free Expression System for Synthetic Biology

1Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 3Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota


JoVE 50762

This five-day protocol outlines all steps, equipment, and supplemental software necessary for creating and running an efficient endogenous Escherichia coli based TX-TL cell-free expression system from scratch. With reagents, the protocol takes 8 hours or less to setup a reaction, collect, and process data.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

1Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 3School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center


JoVE 3349

We are describing a method to subject adherent cells to laminar flow shear stress in a sterile continuous flow circuit. The cells' adhesion, morphology can be studied through the transparent chamber, samples obtained from the circuit for metabolite analysis and cells harvested after shear exposure for future experiments or culture.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Generation Using Microfluidic Jetting

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 51510

Microfluidic jetting against a droplet interface lipid bilayer provides a reliable way to generate vesicles with control over membrane asymmetry, incorporation of transmembrane proteins, and encapsulation of material. This technique can be applied to study a variety of biological systems where compartmentalized biomolecules are desired.

 JoVE Biology

Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition and Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine


JoVE 51425

A method is described for analyzing protein degradation using radiolabeled and luciferase-fusion proteins in Xenopus egg extract and its adaptation for high-throughput screening for small molecule modulators of protein degradation.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Immunotargeted Magneto-plasmonic Nanoclusters

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 52090

Here, we describe a protocol for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a strong magnetic moment and a strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The protocol also includes antibody conjugation to the nanoparticles through the Fc moiety for various biomedical applications which require molecular specific targeting.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Lightweight, Headphones-based System for Manipulating Auditory Feedback in Songbirds

1Department of Biology, Emory University, 2Neuroscience Graduate Program, Emory University, 3Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology, Emory University


JoVE 50027

We describe the design and assembly of miniaturized headphones suitable for replacing a songbird’s natural auditory feedback with a manipulated acoustic signal. Online sound processing hardware is used to manipulate song output, introduce real-time errors in auditory feedback via the headphones, and drive vocal motor learning.

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