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  JoVE Medicine

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  JoVE Engineering

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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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 JoVE Biology

Generation of Plasmid Vectors Expressing FLAG-tagged Proteins Under the Regulation of Human Elongation Factor-1α Promoter Using Gibson Assembly

1Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 52235

Synthesis of custom plasmids is labor and time consuming. This protocol describes the use of Gibson assembly cloning to reduce the work and duration of custom DNA cloning procedure. The protocol described also produces reliable tagged protein constructs for mammalian expression at similar cost to the traditional cut-and-paste DNA cloning.

 JoVE Environment

Transient Gene Expression in Tobacco using Gibson Assembly and the Gene Gun

1Synthetic Biology Platform, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 2Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology

JoVE 51234

This work describes a novel method for selectively targeting subcellular organelles in plants, assayed using the BioRad Gene Gun.

 JoVE Chemistry

Self-assembly of Complex Two-dimensional Shapes from Single-stranded DNA Tiles

1Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 52486

DNA tiling is an effective approach to make programmable nanostructures. We describe the protocols to construct complex two-dimensional shapes by the self-assembly of single-stranded DNA tiles.

 JoVE Chemistry

Formation of Ordered Biomolecular Structures by the Self-assembly of Short Peptides

1Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

JoVE 50946

This paper describes the formation of highly ordered peptide-based structures by the spontaneous process of self-assembly. The method utilizes commercially available peptides and common lab equipment. This technique can be applied to a large variety of peptides and may lead to the discovery of new peptide-based assemblies.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Bioengineering

ECM Protein Nanofibers and Nanostructures Engineered Using Surface-initiated Assembly

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University

JoVE 51176

A method to obtain nanofibers and complex nanostructures from single or multiple extracellular matrix proteins is described. This method uses protein-surface interactions to create free-standing protein-based materials with tunable composition and architecture for use in a variety of tissue engineering and biotechnology applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis, Assembly, and Characterization of Monolayer Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry

1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond

JoVE 3441

Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Monitoring the Assembly of a Secreted Bacterial Virulence Factor Using Site-specific Crosslinking

1Genetics and Biochemistry Branch of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 51217

This article illustrates the use of pulse-chase radio labeling in combination with site-specific photocrosslinking to monitor interactions between a protein of interest and other factors in E. coli. Unlike traditional chemical cross-linking methods, this approach generates high resolution “snapshots” of an ordered assembly pathway in a living cell.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 3Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

JoVE 51501

Supported lipid bilayers and natural membrane particles are convenient systems that can approximate the properties of cell membranes and be incorporated in a variety of analytical strategies. Here we demonstrate a method for preparing microarrays composed of supported lipid bilayer-coated SiO2 beads, phospholipid vesicles or natural membrane particles.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly of Nucleosomal Arrays from Recombinant Core Histones and Nucleosome Positioning DNA

1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University

JoVE 50354

A method is presented for the reconstitution of model nucleosomal arrays from recombinant core histones and tandemly repeated nucleosome positioning DNA. We also describe how sedimentation velocity experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to monitor the extent of nucleosomal array saturation after reconstitution.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design and Assembly of an Ultra-light Motorized Microdrive for Chronic Neural Recordings in Small Animals

1Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, 2Program in Neuroscience, Harvard University, 3Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University

JoVE 4314

The design, fabrication and assembly of an ultra-light motorized microdrive is described. The device provides a cost-effective and easy-to-use solution for chronic recordings of single units in small behaving animals.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Simple and Robust in vivo and in vitro Approach for Studying Virus Assembly

1Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside

JoVE 3645

A simple, efficient and robust way to synchronize the delivery of multiple viral components to plant cells via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression is described. This approach is amenable for studying replication, encapsidation followed by in vitro reassembly of non-viral components into genome depleted optical viral ghosts suitable for biomedical applications.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly, Loading, and Alignment of an Analytical Ultracentrifuge Sample Cell

1National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Dynamics of Macromolecular Assembly, Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science

JoVE 1530

The analytical ultracentrifuge (AUC) sample cell holds sample and reference buffer and during experiments and is exposed to high vacuum and rotor speeds up to 60,000 rpm. This video will demonstrate the rigorous attention to detail necessary for assembly, loading and alignment of this very important component of an AUC experiment.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Directed Cellular Self-Assembly to Fabricate Cell-Derived Tissue Rings for Biomechanical Analysis and Tissue Engineering

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 3366

This article outlines a versatile method to create cell-derived tissue rings by cellular self-assembly. Smooth muscle cells seeded into ring-shaped agarose wells aggregate and contract to form robust three-dimensional (3D) tissues within 7 days. Millimeter-scale tissue rings are conducive to mechanical testing and serve as building blocks for tissue assembly.

 JoVE Biology

Combining QD-FRET and Microfluidics to Monitor DNA Nanocomplex Self-Assembly in Real-Time

1Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 2Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 3Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 1432

We present a novel and powerful integration of nanophotonics (QD-FRET) and microfluidics to investigate the formation of polyelectrolyte polyplexes, which is expected to provide better control and synthesis of uniform and customizable polyplexes for future nucleic acid-based therapeutics.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Solid-phase Submonomer Synthesis of Peptoid Polymers and their Self-Assembly into Highly-Ordered Nanosheets

1Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 3373

A simple and general manual peptoid synthesis method involving basic equipment and commercially available reagents is outlined, enabling peptoids to be easily synthesized in most laboratories. The synthesis, purification and characterization of an amphiphilic peptoid 36mer is described, as well as its self-assembly into highly-ordered nanosheets.

 JoVE Bioengineering

In vitro Assembly of Semi-artificial Molecular Machine and its Use for Detection of DNA Damage

1Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 3628

We demonstrate the assembly and application of a molecular-scale device powered by a topoisomerase protein. The construct is a bio-molecular sensor which labels two major types of DNA breaks in tissue sections by attaching two different fluorophores to their ends.

 JoVE Biology

Micro-drive Array for Chronic in vivo Recording: Tetrode Assembly

1Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 1098

In this protocol we demonstrate how to fabricate and condition tetrodes for use with a micro-drive array, which was designed for chronic electrophysiological recordings in rats. In addition, we illustrate the final stages of micro-drive array construction, which includes installing ground wires and a protective cone.

 JoVE Biology

Dissection of Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from Xenopus laevis Embryos and Assembly of a Cell Adhesion Assay

1Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine (UCI)

JoVE 187

This video demonstrates the technique used for preparation of organizer and animal pole explants from Xenopus laevis embryos, including the use of the eyebrow knife - a specialized dissection tool made of one's eyebrow. The protocol for assembling an adhesion assay is also given, which probes for the presence of key adhesion molecules present on the surface organizer or animal pole cells that are critical for proper development.

 JoVE Biology

In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts

1Department of Cell Biology, Emory University

JoVE 908

Nuclear membrane assembly is an essential step in the cell division cycle; this process can be replicated in the test tube by combining Xenopus sperm chromatin, cytosol, and light membrane fractions. Complete nuclei are formed, including nuclear membranes with pore complexes, and these reconstituted nuclei are capable of normal nuclear processes.

 JoVE Biology

Assembly, Tuning and Use of an Apertureless Near Field Infrared Microscope for Protein Imaging

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, 3Department of Chemistry, Duke University

JoVE 1581

The assembly of a nearfield infrared microscope for imaging protein aggregates is described.

 JoVE Biology

FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations

1Department of Molecular Microbiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen

JoVE 50844

Polymerization of FtsZ is essential for bacterial cell division. In this report, we detail simple protocols to monitor FtsZ polymerization activity and discuss the influence of buffer composition. The protocols can be used to study the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or antibacterial drugs that affect FtsZ polymerization.

 JoVE Chemistry

Metal-silicate Partitioning at High Pressure and Temperature: Experimental Methods and a Protocol to Suppress Highly Siderophile Element Inclusions

1Department of Earth Science, University of Toronto, 2Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington

JoVE 52725

We present a procedure to determine the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements, emphasizing techniques that suppress the formation of metal inclusions in experiments for the noble metals. The results of these experiments are used to demonstrate the effect of core-formation on the highly siderophile element composition of the mantle.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Insertion of Flexible Neural Probes Using Rigid Stiffeners Attached with Biodissolvable Adhesive

1Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and the Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 50609

Insertion of flexible neural microelectrode probes is enabled by attaching probes to rigid stiffeners with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A unique assembly process ensures uniform and repeatable attachment. After insertion into tissue, the PEG dissolves and the stiffener is extracted. An in vitro test method evaluates the technique in agarose gel.

 JoVE Engineering

Measuring Material Microstructure Under Flow Using 1-2 Plane Flow-Small Angle Neutron Scattering

1Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, 2NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Institut Laue-Langevin

JoVE 51068

A shear cell is developed for small-angle neutron scattering measurements in the velocity-velocity gradient plane of shear and is used to characterize complex fluids. Spatially resolved measurements in the velocity gradient direction are possible for studying shear-banding materials. Applications include investigations of colloidal dispersions, polymer solutions, and self-assembled structures.

 JoVE Engineering

How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters

1Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart

JoVE 52816

This movie shows how an atmospheric plasma torch can be ignited by microwaves with no additional igniters and provides a stable and continuous plasma operation suitable for plenty of applications.

 JoVE Biology

Mouse Genome Engineering Using Designer Nucleases

1Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, 2Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development and Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota

JoVE 50930

Designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) can be used to modify the genome of mouse preimplantation embryos by triggering both the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways. These advances enable the rapid generation of mice with precise genetic modifications.

 JoVE Environment

Experimental Protocol for Manipulating Plant-induced Soil Heterogeneity

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 51580

Understanding the role of environmental heterogeneity in species coexistence has typically focused on types of heterogeneity that are extrinsic to the community’s species composition. We provide novel detailed methods for creating soil heterogeneity treatments using soils subject to plant-soil feedback conditioning, or heterogeneity intrinsic to the community composition.

 JoVE Biology

Infinium Assay for Large-scale SNP Genotyping Applications

1Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation

JoVE 50683

A protocol is described that uses Illumina's Infinium assays to perform large-scale genotyping. These assays can reliably genotype millions of SNPs across hundreds of individual DNA samples in three days. Once generated, these genotypes can be used to check for associations with a variety of different diseases or phenotypes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Using Polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid)-coated Metal Nanoparticles as Monomers for Their Homo- and Co-polymerization

1Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 52954

We report protocols for “polymerizing” various types of polymer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles into long chains of “homo-“ and “co-polymers”.

 JoVE Chemistry

Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech

JoVE 51257

The objective of this research was to form synthetic plant cell wall tissue using layer-by-layer assembly of nanocellulose fibrils and isolated lignin assembled from dilute aqueous suspensions.  Surface measurement techniques of quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy were used to monitor the formation of the polymer-polymer nanocomposite material.

 JoVE Biology

Quantitative Immunofluorescence Assay to Measure the Variation in Protein Levels at Centrosomes

1Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University

JoVE 52030

Here, a novel quantitative fluorescence assay is developed to measure changes in the level of a protein specifically at centrosomes by normalizing that protein’s fluorescence intensity to that of an appropriate internal standard.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California

JoVE 51745

We have devised a method for low-cost and rapid prototyping of liquid elastomer rubber injection molded devices by using fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as a liquid injection system.

 JoVE Biology

Visualization of G3BP Stress Granules Dynamics in Live Primary Cells

1Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535

JoVE 51197

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA granules containing stalled ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), and important in cellular response to various stresses. Dynamics of SGs can be followed in live cells by visualizing the localization of a tagged component of SGs in transfected primary cells after stress.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland

JoVE 4231

This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.

 JoVE Engineering

High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50559

A procedure for studying transient flows near boundaries using high-resolution, high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is described here. PIV is a non-intrusive measurement technique applicable to any optically accessible flow by optimizing several parameter constraints such as the image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and analysis algorithms.

 JoVE Biology

A Protocol for Computer-Based Protein Structure and Function Prediction

1Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 2Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Molecular Bioscience, University of Kansas

JoVE 3259

Guidelines for computer based structural and functional characterization of protein using the I-TASSER pipeline is described. Starting from query protein sequence, 3D models are generated using multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. Functional inferences are thereafter drawn based on matches to proteins with known structure and functions.

 JoVE Chemistry

A Technique to Functionalize and Self-assemble Macroscopic Nanoparticle-ligand Monolayer Films onto Template-free Substrates

1Naval Research Laboratory

JoVE 51282

A simple, robust and scalable technique to functionalize and self-assemble macroscopic nanoparticle-ligand monolayer films onto template-free substrates is described in this protocol.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabricating Metamaterials Using the Fiber Drawing Method

1Institute of Photonics and Optical Sciences (IPOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney

JoVE 4299

Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.

 JoVE Engineering

Controlling the Size, Shape and Stability of Supramolecular Polymers in Water

1Organic Chemistry Institute and CeNTech, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 2Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 3Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry and Soft Matter Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology

JoVE 3975

The goal of this experiment is to determine and control the size, shape and stability of self-assembled discotic amphiphiles in water. For aqueous based supramolecular polymers such level of control is very difficult. We apply a strategy using both repulsive and attractive interactions. The experimental techniques applied to characterize this system are broadly applicable.

 JoVE Biology

An Experimental and Bioinformatics Protocol for RNA-seq Analyses of Photoperiodic Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

1Department of Biology, Georgetown University, 2Insect Physiology Lab, EEOB, The Ohio State University

JoVE 51961

RNA-Seq analyses are becoming increasingly important for identifying the molecular underpinnings of adaptive traits in non-model organisms. Here, a protocol to identify differentially expressed genes between diapause and non-diapause Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is described, from mosquito rearing, to RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of RNA-Seq data.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Planar and Three-Dimensional Printing of Conductive Inks

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 3Presently at the Interdisciplinary Center for Wide Band-gap Semiconductors, University Of California Santa Barbara

JoVE 3189

Planar and three-dimensional printing of conductive metallic inks is described. Our approach provides new avenues for fabricating printed electronic, optoelectronic, and biomedical devices in unusual layouts at the microscale.

 JoVE Chemistry

Sedimentation Equilibrium of a Small Oligomer-forming Membrane Protein: Effect of Histidine Protonation on Pentameric Stability

1School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 52404

Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) can be used to study protein-protein interactions in a physiological environment. This manuscript describes the use of this technique to determine the effect of pH on the stability of a homo-pentamer formed by the small hydrophobic (SH) protein encoded by the human syncytial respiratory virus (hRSV).

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Optogenetic Stimulation of the Rodent Central Nervous System

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University

JoVE 51483

Optogenetics has become a powerful tool for use in behavioral neuroscience experiments. This protocol offers a step-by-step guide to the design and set-up of laser systems, and provides a full protocol for carrying out multiple and simultaneous in vivo optogenetic stimulations compatible with most rodent behavioral testing paradigms.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Design and Fabrication of Ultralight Weight, Adjustable Multi-electrode Probes for Electrophysiological Recordings in Mice

1The Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 51675

Understanding the neural substrates of behavior requires brain circuit ensemble recording. Because of its genetic tractability, the mouse offers a model for circuit dissection and disease mimicry. Here, a method of designing and fabricating miniaturized probes is described that is suitable for targeting deep brain structure in the mouse.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves

1Tissue Engineered Mechanics, Imaging and Materials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

JoVE 50335

There has been renewed interest in developing polymer valves. Here, the objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of modifying a commercial pulse duplicator to accommodate tri-leaflet geometries and to define a protocol to present polymer valve hydrodynamic data in comparison to native and prosthetic valve data collected under near-identical conditions.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Two Methods of Heterokaryon Formation to Discover HCV Restriction Factors

1Division of Experimental Virology, Twincore, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, 2Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, NY

JoVE 4029

We describe two methods for conditional trans-complementation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and the completion of the full viral life cycle, which rely on heterokaryon formation. These techniques are suitable to screen for cell lines that express dominant restriction factors, which preclude production of infectious HCV progeny.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Analysis of Cardiomyocyte Development using Immunofluorescence in Embryonic Mouse Heart

1Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University, 2Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 52644

Mutations that lead to congenital heart defects benefit from in vivo investigation of cardiac structure during development, but high-resolution structural studies in the mouse embryonic heart are technically challenging. Here we present a robust immunofluorescence and image analysis method to assess cardiomyocyte-specific structures in the developing mouse heart.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Seeding Technology and Biocompatibility Testing For Cardiovascular Devices in Large Animal Model

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2School of Medicine, Duke University, 3Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 4School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 3197

A method for seeding titanium blood-contacting biomaterials with autologous cells and testing biocompatibility is described. This method uses endothelial progenitor cells and titanium tubes, seeded within minutes of surgical implantation into porcine venae cavae. This technique is adaptable to many other implantable biomedical devices.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Custom-made Microdialysis Probe Design

1Department of Pharmacology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University of Frankfurt

JoVE 53048

Microdialysis is a commonly used technique in neuroscience research. Therefore commercial probes are in great demand.In this work a probe assembly is explained in detail to build a reliable, concentric, custom-made microdialysis probe for less than $10.

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