Endothelin-1 Induced Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model for Ischemic Stroke with Laser Doppler Flowmetry Guidance in Rat
1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, 3Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, 4Department of Neurology, University of Florida
Several animal models of cerebral ischemia have been developed to simulate the human condition of stroke. This protocol describes the endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model for ischemic stroke in rats. In addition, important considerations, advantages, and shortcomings of this model are discussed.
Optimized System for Cerebral Perfusion Monitoring in the Rat Stroke Model of Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion
Cerebral perfusion monitoring has been demonstrated to improve accuracy in ischemic stroke models. Technical difficulties often limit the use of this essential tool for cerebrovascular research. In this video, an optimized system is shown to obtain a single or multi-site hemodynamic monitoring during intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.
A way to study the integration of newborn dentate granule cells in adult animals is described. This technique uses an engineered retrovirus to label newborn neurons, followed by electrophysiological recordings to determine in vivo functional integration.
1Department of Neurology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hartford Hospital, 4Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
The autologous blood injection model of intracerebral hemorrhage in mice described in this protocol uses the double injection technique to minimize risk of blood reflux up the needle track, no anticoagulants in the pumping system, and eliminates all dead space and expandable tubing in the system.
1Center for Neural Science , Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Science and Technology, 3Fab Service Department, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center
In this article, we described the surgery procedure and handling tips for implantation of ultra-thin polyimide-based microelectrode array (PBM-array) on the mouse skull for acquisition of high-density encephalography (EEG) in a mouse model.
1Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, 2Office of Laboratory Animal Care, University of California Berkeley, 3McGovern Institute for Brain Research & The Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Integrative Biology Department, University of California Berkeley
Targeted ablation of specific brain region(s) by infusion of an excitotoxin using stereotaxic coordinates is described. This technique could also be adapted for infusion of other chemicals into the rat brain.
The monitoring of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in distinct brain regions of freely moving animals offers insights on the link between neurotransmitter release and behavior. In vivo microdialysis coupled with electrochemical detection provides excellent anatomical and chemical resolution; and information on how basal neurotransmission is altered by pharmacological or physiological manipulations.
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 2College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Clinically relevant animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are needed to extend our knowledge of hemorrhagic stroke and to examine novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, we describe and evaluate two ICH models that implement unilateral injections of either autologous whole blood or bacterial collagenase into the basal ganglia (corpus striatum) of mice.
A novel technique to record the pressures within the skull is described. The minimally invasive method uses a fibre-optic pressure sensing system to accurately measure intracranial pressure (ICP) in anaesthetized rats without causing significant brain trauma. The technique may be used in a wide range of experimental models.
Photothrombotic Ischemia: A Minimally Invasive and Reproducible Photochemical Cortical Lesion Model for Mouse Stroke Studies
1Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, 2Neuroscience Institute of Turin (NIT), University of Turin, 3Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri-Ottolenghi (NICO), University of Turin, 4Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, University of Turin
Photothrombosis is a quick, minimally-invasive technique for inducing small and well-delimited infarction in areas of interest in highly reproducible manner. It is particularly suitable for studying cellular and molecular responses underlying brain plasticity in transgenic mice.
1Neuro-Oncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute of St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, 2Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute of St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center
Intracranial implantation of GL261 cells into C57BL/6 mice produces malignant gliomas that recapitulate many of the hallmarks of human glioblastoma multiforme. We used GL261 cells stably expressing luciferase to allow us to use in vivo imaging to follow tumor progression. The surgery and 3D in vivo imaging are demonstrated.
We present a method of creating a thinned-skull cortical window (TSCW) in a mouse model for in vivo OCT imaging of the cerebral cortex.
Stereotactic Intracranial Implantation and In vivo Bioluminescent Imaging of Tumor Xenografts in a Mouse Model System of Glioblastoma Multiforme
We describe an integrated method for the precise, stereotactic implantation of human glioblastoma multiforme cells into the brains of nude mice and subsequent serial in vivo imaging to monitor growth and response to treatment of the resultant xenografts.
Parkinson disease is caused by loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum, which can be experimentally induced by 6-OH-dopamine. We describe how to perform a stereotaxic lesion and to monitor apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in mice. This model is useful and reliable for testing new therapies for Parkinson disease.
The purpose of this article is to describe the use of an orthotopic glioblastoma model for chemoradiation studies. This article will go though cell processing, implanting, and radiotherapy of the mouse using an intracranial model.
Stereotactic Injection of MicroRNA-expressing Lentiviruses to the Mouse Hippocampus CA1 Region and Assessment of the Behavioral Outcome
MicroRNAs have significant roles in brain structure and function. Here we describe a method to enforce hippocampal miRNA over-expression using stereotactic injection of an engineered miRNA-expressing lentivirus. This approach can serve as a relatively rapid way to assess the in vivo effects of over-expressed miRNAs in specific brain regions.
1Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 2Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, 4Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, Johns Hopkins University
Electrophysiological characterization of neuronal responses is important for understanding brain function and for guiding the placement of dyes for pathway tracing. However, many studies are performed in anesthetized animals. To understand brain function without anesthetics, we developed a method to record neuronal response properties and inject dyes in awake mouse.
Stem Cell Transplantation Strategies for the Restoration of Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Cranial Radiotherapy
Brain tumor patients routinely undergo cranial radiotherapy, and while beneficial, this treatment often results in debilitating cognitive dysfunction. This serious unresolved problem has at present, no clinical recourse, and has driven our efforts to devise stem cell based therapies for the recovery of radiation-induced cognitive decrements.
We describe a method to target drugs to the central nervous system by either implanting a catheter or performing a bolus injection into the right lateral ventricle in mice. We focus specifically on the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. This technique is readily adaptable to other drugs and to rats.
Stereotaxic surgery on rodents allows for targeted administration of drugs or electrical stimulation and recordings in awake, behaving animals. In this video presentation we will demonstrate recent procedural refinements to this long-standing procedure that successfully improved survival rate and reduced post-surgical weight loss.
Retinal ganglion cells transmit visual information from the eye to the brain with sequences of action potentials. Here, we demonstrate how to record the action potentials of single ganglion cells in vivo from anesthetized rats.
Right-angle microprisms inserted into the mouse neocortex allows for deep imaging of multiple cortical layers with a viewpoint typically found in slice. One-millimeter microprisms offer a wide field-of-view (~900 μm) and spatial resolutions sufficient to resolve dendritic spines. We demonstrate layer V neuronal imaging and neocortical vascular imaging using microprisms.
This protocol shows how to retrogradely label retinal ganglion cells, and how to subsequently make an optic nerve crush injury in order to analyze retinal ganglion cell survival and apoptosis. It is an experimental disease model for different types of optic neuropathy, including glaucoma.
In order to evaluate novel therapeutic paradigms for the treatment of glioma, physiological relevant models are essential. We utilize an implantable guide screw procedure for establishment of intracranial xenograft models that is more rapid and safer than stereotactic approaches.
A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain
1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research
This video presentation shows a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis.
Selective Viral Transduction of Adult-born Olfactory Neurons for Chronic in vivo Optogenetic Stimulation
Adult-born neurons of the olfactory bulb can be optogenetically controlled using Channelrhodopsin2-expressing lentiviral injection in the rostral migratory stream and chronic photostimulation with an implanted miniature LED.
Controlling and analyzing neural circuits in vivo would be facilitated by a technology for delivery of viruses and other reagents to desired 3-dimensional sets of brain regions. We demonstrate customized fluidic injector array fabrication, and delivery of virally-encoded optical sensitizers, enabling optical manipulation of complex brain circuits.
Systemic and Local Drug Delivery for Treating Diseases of the Central Nervous System in Rodent Models
Thorough preclinical testing of drugs that act in the central nervous system often involves assessing and comparing drug biodistribution in association with specific routes of administration. Here, three commonly used methods of systemic delivery (intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral) as well as a method for local delivery (convection-enhanced delivery) are demonstrated in mice.
The postnatal rat model for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a well-established model of human neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this article, we describe the model of HIE in post-natal rat pups.
A protocol for performing unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in mice is described. This method has a low mortality rate (13.3 %) with 89% of the surviving animals showing >95% loss of striatal dopamine and 90.63±-4.02 % ipsiversive rotational bias towards the side of the lesion.
A rapid method to obtain infiltrating leukocytes from the murine brain is described. This method utilizes a continuous Percoll gradient and discontinuous Ficoll gradient to select and purify the leukocyte-enriched layer. Isolated leukocytes may then be characterized by flow cytometric measurements.
Surgical Implantation of Chronic Neural Electrodes for Recording Single Unit Activity and Electrocorticographic Signals
We provide useful information for surgeons who are learning the process of implanting chronic neural recording electrodes. Techniques for both penetrating and surface electrode systems are described in a rodent animal model.
Expansion of Embryonic and Adult Neural Stem Cells by In Utero Electroporation or Viral Stereotaxic Injection
Controlling the expansion of somatic stem cells is a major factor hampering their study and use in therapy. Here we describe a system to temporally control neural stem cells expansion during development and adulthood, which can be used to increase the number of neurons generated in the mouse brain.
This article describes an optimized sequence of events for multimodal imaging of cellular grafts in rodent brain using: (i) in vivo bioluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging, and (ii) post mortem histological analysis. Combining these imaging modalities on a single animal allows cellular graft evaluation with high resolution, sensitivity and specificity.
A method of tracing synaptically connected neurons is described. We use TVA specificity of an upstream cell to probe whether a cell population of interest receives synaptic input from genetically defined cell types.
Targeting of Deep Brain Structures with Microinjections for Delivery of Drugs, Viral Vectors, or Cell Transplants
In this article, we show a method to make glass capillary needles with a 50-μm lumen. This technique significantly reduces the brain damage, minimizes passive diffusion of drugs and allows a precise targeting into the rodent brain.
Establishing Intracranial Brain Tumor Xenografts With Subsequent Analysis of Tumor Growth and Response to Therapy using Bioluminescence Imaging
Luciferase-modified human brain tumor xenografts can be established intracranially in athymic mice, with subsequent monitoring of tumor growth and response to therapy using bioluminescence imaging. In combination with survival analysis, bioluminescence monitoring is an essential research tool for pre-clinical testing of therapies being considered for treating brain tumors.
Simultaneous Electroencephalography, Real-time Measurement of Lactate Concentration and Optogenetic Manipulation of Neuronal Activity in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex
A procedure is described for manipulating the activity of cerebral cortical pyramidal neurons optogenetically while the electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and cerebral lactate concentration are monitored. Experimental recordings are performed on cable-tethered mice while they undergo spontaneous sleep/wake cycles. Optogenetic equipment is assembled in our laboratory; recording equipment is commercially available.
Computed Tomography-guided Time-domain Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography in Small Animals for Localization of Cancer Biomarkers
1Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 3Darmouth Medical School, Dartmouth College, 4School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham
Diffuse fluorescence tomography offers a relatively low-cost and potentially high-throughout approach to preclinical in vivo tumor imaging. The methodology of optical data collection, calibration, and image reconstruction is presented for a computed tomography-guided non-contact time-domain system using fluorescent targeting of the tumor biomarker epidermal growth factor receptor in a mouse glioma model.
1Departments of Neurology, Columbia University, 2Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Columbia University, 3Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 4eMolecules, Inc., 5Departments of Neurology and Physiology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, 6Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York Psychiatric Institute
A new means to measure neurotransmission optically using fluorescent dopamine analogs.
We have developed a method for simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recording in the rodent brain, providing a platform for the investigation of the relationship between neural activity and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI signal.
This protocol describes a non-viral method of delivery of genetic constructs to a certain area of living rodent brain. The method consists of plasmid preparation, micropipette fabrication, neonatal rat pup surgery, microinjection of the construct, and in vivo electroporation.
Here we present the intracranial injection of AAV vectors for fluorescent labeling of neurons and glia in the visual cortex.
Slice Preparation, Organotypic Tissue Culturing and Luciferase Recording of Clock Gene Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
The procedure of preparing slices containing the adult mouse hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and a rapid way to culture the SCN tissue in organotypic culture condition, are reported. Further, the measurement of oscillatory clock gene protein expression using dynamic luciferase reporter technology is described.
Construction and Implantation of a Microinfusion System for Sustained Delivery of Neuroactive Agents.
As neuroscience inquiry becomes more sophisticated, investigation of brain structures and circuitry requires improved levels of accuracy and higher resolution. We have developed a method for the preparation and implantation of a chronic infusion system within the brain utilizing a borosilicate microcannula with a tip diameter of 50 microns.
Modulation of hippocampally-dependent spatial working memory by direct intrahippocampal microinjection, accompanied and followed by in vivo microdialysis for metabolites in conscious, behaving animals.
Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) Model for Ischemic Stroke with Laser Doppler Flowmetry Guidance in Mice
The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is the most frequent used model among experimental ischemic stroke models. Here we will demonstrate the entire model in detail with the guide of Laser Doppler flowmetry, and its representative results.
Multiphoton microscopy of whole mouse organs is possible by optically clearing the organ before imaging, but not all protocols preserve the fluorescent signal of fluorescent proteins. Using an optical clearing method with ethanol-based dehydration and benzyl alcohol:benzyl benzoate clearing, we show high-resolution multiphoton images of whole mouse brain expressing YFP.
1Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 3Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital
The development of optogenetics now provides the means to precisely stimulate genetically defined neurons and circuits, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe the assembly and implantation of a fiber optic for chronic photostimulation of brain tissue.
A Novel High-resolution In vivo Imaging Technique to Study the Dynamic Response of Intracranial Structures to Tumor Growth and Therapeutics
1Brain Tumor Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, 2Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital
We describe a novel in vivo imaging technique that couples fluorescent chimeric mice with intracranial windows and high-resolution 2-photon microscopy. This imaging platform aids studies of dynamic changes in brain tissue and microvasculature, at a single-cell level, following pathological insults and is adaptable to assess intracranial drug delivery and distribution.