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  JoVE Biology

  
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  JoVE Neuroscience

  
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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Applied Physics

  
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JoVE Science Education

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
 JoVE Biology

Optimized Staining and Proliferation Modeling Methods for Cell Division Monitoring using Cell Tracking Dyes

1Department of Flow and Image Cytometry, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2Flow Cytometry & Cell Sorting Resource Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 3SciGro, Inc., 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 4287

Successful use of cell tracking dyes to monitor immune cell function and proliferation involves several critical steps. We describe methods for: 1) obtaining bright, uniform, reproducible label-ing with membrane dyes; 2) selecting fluorochromes and data acquisition conditions; and 3) choosing a model to quantify cell proliferation based on dye dilution.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

In vivo 19F MRI for Cell Tracking

1Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 2In-Vivo-NMR Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, 3German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)


JoVE 50802

We describe a general protocol for in vivo cell tracking using MRI in a mouse model with ex vivo labeled cells. A typical protocol for cell labeling, image acquisition processing and quantification is included.

 JoVE Biology

Cell Tracking Using Photoconvertible Proteins During Zebrafish Development

1Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine


JoVE 4350

Here, we present a method for the photoactivated switch of photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (PCFPs) in the living zebrafish embryo and further tracking of photoconverted protein at specific time points during development. This methodology allows monitoring of cell biological events underlying different developmental processes in a live vertebrate organism.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix

1Institute of Immunology & Experimental Oncology, Center for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University


JoVE 51963

Cell migration is a biological phenomenon that is involved in a plethora of physiological, such as wound healing and immune responses, and pathophysiological processes, like cancer. The 3D-collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile tool to analyze the migratory properties of different cell types within in a 3D physiological-like environment.

 JoVE Biology

Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50456

We present a simple protocol to obtain fluorescence microscopy movies of growing yeast cells, and a GUI-based software package to extract single-cell time series data. The analysis includes automated lineage and division time assignment integrated with visual inspection and manual curation of tracked data.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Monitoring Dendritic Cell Migration using 19F / 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Experimental and Clinical Research Center, A joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 2Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine


JoVE 50251

Tracking of cells using MRI has gained remarkable attention in the past years. This protocol describes the labeling of dendritic cells with fluorine (19F)-rich particles, the in vivo application of these cells, and monitoring the extent of their migration to the draining lymph node with 19F/1H MRI and 19F MRS.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Time-lapse Imaging of Primary Preneoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells Derived from Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, 2Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3Stem Cell Dynamics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 4Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University


JoVE 50198

Time-lapse imaging is used to assess behavior of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer risk to determine if there are correlations between specific behavioral parameters and distinct genetic lesions.

 JoVE Biology

In vivo Clonal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Marked by Five Fluorescent Proteins using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy

1Light Microscopy Core Facility, NHLBI/NIH, 2Hematology Branch, NHLBI/NIH


JoVE 51669

Combinatorial 5 fluorescent proteins marking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells allows in vivo clonal tracking via confocal and two-photon microscopy, providing insights into bone marrow hematopoietic architecture during regeneration. This method allows non-invasive fate mapping of spectrally-coded HSPCs-derived cells in intact tissues for extensive periods of time following transplantation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Postnatal Electroporation and Time-lapse Imaging of Neuroblast Migration in Mouse Acute Brain Slices

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, 2David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50905

Neuroblast migration is a fundamental event in postnatal neurogenesis. We describe a protocol for efficient labeling of neuroblasts by in vivo postnatal electroporation and subsequent visualization of their migration using time-lapse imaging of acute brain slices. We include a description for the quantitative analysis of neuroblast dynamics by video tracking.

 JoVE Biology

Utilizing Custom-designed Galvanotaxis Chambers to Study Directional Migration of Prostate Cells

1Department of Dermatology, Scool of Medicine, University of California, Davis


JoVE 51973

We present a method to apply a physiological electric field to migrating, immortalized prostate cells in a custom-made galvanotaxis chamber. Using this method, we demonstrate that 2 lines of non-tumorigenic prostate cells demonstrate different degrees of migration directionality in the field.

 JoVE Biology

In Vivo 4-Dimensional Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Calvarial Bone Marrow

1Department of Life Science and Facility for Imaging by Light Microscopy, Imperial College London, 2Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London


JoVE 51683

The nature of the interactions between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and bone marrow niches is poorly understood. Custom hardware modifications and a multi-step acquisition protocol allow the use of two-photon and confocal microscopy to image ex vivo labeled HSPCs homed within bone marrow areas, tracking interactions and movement.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments


JoVE 51333

Protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling human embryonic stem cells with second harmonic generating nanoparticles. Methodologies for hESC investigation by multi-photon microscopy and their differentiation into cardiac clusters are also presented.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Creating Adhesive and Soluble Gradients for Imaging Cell Migration with Fluorescence Microscopy

1Centre for Vascular Research and Australian Centre for Nanomedicine, The University of New South Wales, 2School of Chemistry and Australian Centre for Nanomedicine, The University of New South Wales


JoVE 50310

A method for the assembly of adhesive and soluble gradients in a microscopy chamber for live cell migration studies is described. The engineered environment combines antifouling surfaces and adhesive tracks with solution gradients and therefore allows one to determine the relative importance of guidance cues.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Tracking Neutrophil Intraluminal Crawling, Transendothelial Migration and Chemotaxis in Tissue by Intravital Video Microscopy

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan


JoVE 3296

We describe a protocol of brightfield intravital microscopy for measuring dynamic neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions during neutrophil recruitment in response to the source of a neutrophil chemoattractant in vivo. Neutrophil intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration and chemotaxis in mouse cremaster muscle tissue are visualized with time-lapsed video photography and tracked with ImageJ.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Study of Cell Migration in Microfabricated Channels

1Immunité et Cancer, Institut Curie, 2Compartimentation et Dynamique Cellulaires, Institut Curie


JoVE 51099

A quantitative method to study spontaneous migration of cells in a one-dimensional confined microenvironment is described. This method takes advantage of microfabricated channels and can be used to study migration of large number of cells under different conditions in single experiments.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Labeling Stem Cells with Ferumoxytol, an FDA-Approved Iron Oxide Nanoparticle

1Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), 2Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University


JoVE 3482

We describe a technique for labeling and tracking stem cells with FDA-approved, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), ferumoxytol (Feraheme). This cellular imaging technique that utilizes magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for visualization, is readily accessible for long-term monitoring and diagnosis of successful or unsuccessful stem cell engraftments in patients.

 JoVE Biology

Ex vivo Culture of Mouse Embryonic Skin and Live-imaging of Melanoblast Migration

1MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh


JoVE 51352

We describe the dissection and ex vivo culture of mouse embryonic skin. The culture system maintains an air-liquid interface across the tissue surface and allows imaging on an inverted microscope. Melanoblasts, a component of the developing skin, are fluorescently labeled allowing their behavior to be observed using confocal microscopy.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Universal Hand-held Three-dimensional Optoacoustic Imaging Probe for Deep Tissue Human Angiography and Functional Preclinical Studies in Real Time

1Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 2Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München


JoVE 51864

We provide herein a detailed description of the experimental protocol for imaging with a newly developed hand-held optoacoustic (photoacoustic) system for three-dimensional functional and molecular imaging in real time. The demonstrated powerful performance and versatility may define new application areas of the optoacoustic technology in preclinical research and clinical practice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types

1Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, 2Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3School of Life Sciences, Keele University, 4Center for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg


JoVE 52241

We provide a detailed description of a protocol for flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens and/or intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Critical aspects of experimental planning, step-by-step methodological procedures, and fundamental principles of flow cytometry are explained in order to enable neurobiologists to exploit this powerful technology.

 JoVE Biology

In vitro and in vivo Bioluminescence Reporter Gene Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

1Departments of Radiology and Medicine (Cardiology), Stanford University School of Medicine


JoVE 740

With the growing interest in stem cell therapies, molecular imaging techniques are ideal for monitoring stem cell behavior after transplantation. Luciferase reporter genes have enabled non-invasive, repetitive assessment of cell survival, location, and proliferation in vivo. This video will demonstrate how to track hESC proliferation in a living mouse.

 JoVE Biology

Labeling Stem Cells with Fluorescent Dyes for non-invasive Detection with Optical Imaging

1Contrast Agent Research Group at the Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco


JoVE 686

This video shows techniques for labeling of human embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells with fluorescent dyes. This technique can be used for an in vivo tracking of transplanted stem cells with optical imaging and for histopathological correlations with fluorescence microscopy.

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Dispersed Presomitic Mesoderm Cell Cultures for Imaging of the Zebrafish Segmentation Clock in Single Cells

1Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics


JoVE 50307

Somitogenesis is a rhythmic developmental process that spatially patterns the body axis of vertebrate embryos. Previously, we developed transgenic zebrafish lines that use fluorescent reporters to observe the cyclic genes that drive this process. Here, we culture dispersed cells from these lines and image their oscillations over time in vitro.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Generation and Labeling of Murine Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells with Qdot Nanocrystals for Tracking Studies

1Molecular and Cell Biology Program, Ohio University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University


JoVE 2785

Dendritic cells uptake antigens and migrate towards immune organs to present processed antigens to T cells. Qdot nanocrystal labeling provides a long-lasting and stable fluorescent signal. This allows tracking of dendritic cells to different organs by fluorescent microscopy.

 JoVE Biology

Single Cell Fate Mapping in Zebrafish

1Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center


JoVE 3172

A method is described to photoactivate single cells containing a caged fluorescent protein using two-photon absorption from a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator. To fate map the photoactivated cell, immunohistochemistry is used. This technique can be applied to any cell type.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Visualizing Cell-to-cell Transfer of HIV using Fluorescent Clones of HIV and Live Confocal Microscopy

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 2NSF Center for Biophotonics, University of California, Davis, 3Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory


JoVE 2061

This visualized experiment is a guide for utilizing a fluorescent molecular clone of HIV for live confocal imaging experiments.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Systemic Injection of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice with Chronic EAE

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, UK, 2NIHR Biomedical Research Center, University of Cambridge, UK


JoVE 51154

The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) holds great promises in regenerative neurology. The systemic delivery of NPCs has turned into effective, low invasive, and therapeutically very efficacious protocol to deliver stem cells in the brain and spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates affected by experimental chronic inflammatory damage of the central nervous system.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Migratory Behavior of Cells Generated in Ganglionic Eminence Cultures

1Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, 2Neuroscience Program, Uniformed Services University


JoVE 2583

Time lapse imaging of 3D tissue culture allows studying migratory behavior of individual cells originating from ganglionic eminence in reaction to fractionated protein extract from cerebral cortex.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Multimodal Imaging of Stem Cell Implantation in the Central Nervous System of Mice

1Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, 2Bio Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp


JoVE 3906

This article describes an optimized sequence of events for multimodal imaging of cellular grafts in rodent brain using: (i) in vivo bioluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging, and (ii) post mortem histological analysis. Combining these imaging modalities on a single animal allows cellular graft evaluation with high resolution, sensitivity and specificity.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat

1Department of Nephrology & Hypertension, University Medical Center Utrecht


JoVE 50398

A two-stage method to establish chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Lewis rat by surgically removing 5/6th of renal mass is described. Combination of the surgical procedure, NOS-inhibition and a high-salt diet leads to a model resembling human CKD, allowing study of causal mechanisms and development of novel therapeutic interventions.

 JoVE Biology

Labeling hESCs and hMSCs with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Non-Invasive in vivo Tracking with MR Imaging

1Contrast Agent Research Group at the Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco


JoVE 685

For the evaluation of new stem cell therapies it is important to non-invasively track the injected cells in vivo. This video will show you how to label human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells with iron oxide based contrast agents in vivo for subsequent MR imaging in vivo.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Intravital Microscopy of the Mouse Brain Microcirculation using a Closed Cranial Window

1Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, 2La Jolla Bioengineering Institute


JoVE 2184

Intravital microscopy to follow temporal and spatial hemodynamic and inflammatory events in the pial microcirculation.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Sample Drift Correction Following 4D Confocal Time-lapse Imaging

1School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, 2Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute


JoVE 51086

Time-lapse microscopy allows the visualization of developmental processes. Growth or drift of samples during image acquisition reduces the ability to accurately follow and measure cell movements during development. We describe the use of open source image processing software to correct for three dimensional sample drift over time.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Human T Lymphocyte Isolation, Culture and Analysis of Migration In Vitro

1Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, University of Rochester


JoVE 2017

T lymphocyte migration occurs during homing to lymphoid organs, exit from the vasculature, and entering into peripheral tissues. Here, we describe a protocol that can be used to analyze T lymphocyte migration in vitro.

 JoVE Biology

A Gradient-generating Microfluidic Device for Cell Biology

1Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital


JoVE 271

We describe a protocol for the microfabrication of the gradient-generating microfluidic device that can generate spatial and temporal gradients in well-defined microenvironment. In this approach, the gradient-generating microfluidic device can be used to study directed cell migration, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Live Imaging of Mitosis in the Developing Mouse Embryonic Cortex

1Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Departments of Neurobiology and Cell Biology, Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University Medical Center


JoVE 51298

Neural progenitor mitosis is a critical parameter of neurogenesis. Much of our understanding of neural progenitor mitosis is based on analysis of fixed tissue. Live imaging in embryonic brain slices is a versatile technique to assess mitosis with high temporal and spatial resolution in a controlled environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury

1Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 52228

Two-photon intravital imaging can be used to investigate interactions among different cell types in the spinal cord in their native tissue environment in a bone marrow chimeric animal with a dorsal column traumatic spinal cord crush injury.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue

1Department of Biology, College of William and Mary


JoVE 4377

Xenopus laevis provides an ideal model system for studying cell fate specification and physiological function of individual retinal cells in primary cell culture. Here we present a technique for dissecting retinal tissues and generating primary cell cultures that are imaged for calcium activity and analyzed by in situ hybridization.

 JoVE Biology

Chick ex ovo Culture and ex ovo CAM Assay: How it Really Works

1Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Department of Biochemical Endocrinology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2Institute for Anatomy, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Duisburg-Essen, 3Morphoplant GmbH, 4ARCONS Institute for Applied Research and Didactics


JoVE 1620

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a unique, naturally immunodeficient supportive culture environment to study angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. This video article demonstrates the different steps in chick ex ovo culture, application of potentially angiogenic substances and successful inoculation of tumor cells and tissues on the surface of the CAM.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression

1Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University


JoVE 3661

We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.

 JoVE Biology

Visualization of Craniofacial Development in the sox10: kaede Transgenic Zebrafish Line Using Time-lapse Confocal Microscopy

1Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 50525

Visualization of experimental data has become a key element in presenting results to the scientific community. Generation of live time-lapse recording of growing embryos contributes to better presentation and understanding of complex developmental processes. This protocol is a step-by-step guide to cell labeling via photoconversion of kaede protein in zebrafish.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Intravital Imaging of the Mouse Thymus using 2-Photon Microscopy

1Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência


JoVE 3504

We have developed novel laboratory tools and protocols for intravital imaging acquisition of the thymus. Our technique should help in the identification of “niches” within the thymus where T cell development occurs.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Intravital Microscopy of the Inguinal Lymph Node

1Interdisciplinary Science, University of Northern British Columbia, 2Northern Medical Program, University of Northern British Columbia


JoVE 2551

A technique for performing intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) is outlined. Such technique allows for real-time, in vivo study of the lymph node microvasculature and structure both during homeostasis and infection. This technique can be adapted to cell trafficking studies and to other lymph node sites.

 JoVE Biology

Two-Photon-Based Photoactivation in Live Zebrafish Embryos

1Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science


JoVE 1902

Multiphoton microscopy allows control of low energy photons with deep optical penetration and reduced phototoxicity. We describe the use of this technology for live cell labeling in zebrafish embryos. This protocol can be readily adapted for photo-induction of various light-responsive molecules.

 JoVE Biology

Live Imaging of GFP-labeled Proteins in Drosophila Oocytes

1Department of Biology, Vassar College


JoVE 50044

A protocol for live imaging of GFP-tagged proteins or autofluorescent structures in individual Drosophila oocytes is described.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Non-invasive Imaging of Leukocyte Homing and Migration in vivo

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS, NIH - National Institute of Health


JoVE 2062

Here, we describe a non-invasive two-photon (2P) microscopy approach to study leukocyte homing in the mouse footpad. We discuss the technical aspects of our tissue imaging preparation and walk the reader through a typical experiment from initial set up to execution and data collection.

 JoVE Editorial

September 2012: This Month in JoVE

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 5022

This September in JoVE, researchers from the School of Medicine at the Free University of Berlin demonstrate a novel method for studying how stroke patients compensate for visual field defects. To do this, our authors make use of a driving simulator complete with brakes, a steering wheel, and turn signals. Using driving simulation software and sophisticated eye tracking, researchers can compare the gaze behavior of stroke patients as they navigate through virtual driving courses with varying degrees of complexity. Though posterior cerebral artery infarction can lead to similar visual deficits in patients, some are able to navigate through the driving courses by developing compensatory eye movements, while others crash into dangerous obstacles, like wild boars. Through the analysis of compensatory gaze behavior employed by patients, our authors see great potential for using driving simulation as a tool to rehabilitate stroke patients trying to overcome the blind spots in their visual fields.

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